BERKELEY PUBLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PURE & APPLIED SCIENCE (BJPAS) (VOL. 12 NO. 1)
ISSN: 1399-8466 MARCH, 2020
Berkeley Research and Publications International,
Bayero University, Kano, PMB 3011, Kano State, Nigeria.
Nigeria, West-Africa. +234-708-717-3247
MATHEMATICAL STUDY OF THE SPREAD AND TREATMEANT OF LASSA FEVER USING ADOMIAN DECOMPOSITION METHOD
ENAGI, A. I AND MUHAMMED, I
Department of Mathematics, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 65, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.
In this study we carried out a mathematical study of the spread and treatment of lassa fever. The model equations were solved using Adomian Decomposition Method. The results obtained were used for numerical simulations using Matlab software. It was observed that at high treatment rate, the number of recovered individuals increases and the virus can be eradicated completely.
Key words: Lassa Fever, Spread, Treatment, Adomian Decomposition Method, Simulation.
EFFECTS OF SPACING ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF PIGEON PEA (Cajanus Cajan) GROWN IN RAINY SEASON IN MUBI REGION OF ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA
BABALE, D. M1., SUNYASEMENI, E.,1 BIYASA, J1., AMOS, S1. AND SUKAMKARI, B.Y2.
1Department of Animal Production, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria. 2Department of Animal Health and Husbandry, Federal Polytechnic Mubi.
Effects of spacing on growth and yield of Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) grown during rainy season in Mubi, Adamawa State was investigated. Experimental treatments consisting of 20x75cm; 30x75cm; 40x75cm and 50x75cm spacings designated as treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively and replicated three times in a Randomized complete block design (RCBD were studied. Parameters determined were average number of leaves, average plants heights, number of tillers, biomass and dry matter yields. Results of the research revealed significant (p<0.05) differences across treatments on all parameters measured being average plants heights, average number of tillers, biomass dry matter yields and average number of leaves with the exception of plant heights that showed no significant (p>0.05) difference in the first three weeks. With the exception of biomass and dry matter yields, average plants heights and number of tillers increased with increase in plant spacing. The widest level of spacing Treatment (T4) produced best level of performance for plant heights, number of leaves and number of tillers and vice versa. Based on the findings of this research, it is recommended that Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) be given higher spacing such as those of treatments T3 and T4 for higher biomass and dry matter yields when grown during rainy season.
Keywords: Growth rates, Pigeon pea, Spacing, Mubi region.
SIMULATION MODELING OF BIODIVERSITY
P.O. FELIX(1), E. N. EKAKA-A(2), N. E. WOLU(1), D. J. OSAHOGULU(1)
(1) Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education Rumuolumeni, Rivers State. (2) Department of Mathematics, University of Science and Technology, Nkpolu, Rivers State.
In the discipline of entomology, the crop science policy of minimizing plant disease effect in order to obtain improved yield between the interacting plant species is a long standing theoretical and experimental idea. In this present analysis, we have applied the method of ODE 45 numerical simulations to obtain novel results that we have not seen elsewhere which are in tandem with the above policy. We would expect these observations to provide further insight on how to select the disease condition variation that will enhance and sustain biodiversity gain and avoid the introduction of a disease condition variation that will likely predict biodiversity loss. The full results of this study are presented and discussed quantitatively only in the context of two dissimilar carrying capacities scenario.
Keywords: Simulation, Modeling, Biodiversity, Quantitative, Constructive.
MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC CASSON FLUID FLOW OVER AN EXPONENTIAL STRETCHING SHEET WITH EFFECT OF RADIATION
MOHAMMED I. B. S.1, SAIDU YAKUBU VULEGBO2 OLAYIWOLA R.O. 3AND ABUBAKAR. A. D4
1&2Department of Mathematics, Federal Polytechnic Bida, Nigeria. 3Department of Mathematics, Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria. 4Deparment of Mathematics, Federal University Gashu’a Yobe State, Nigeria.
Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) casson fluid flow over an exponentially stretching sheet with effect of radiation is investigated. The governing partial differential equations were reduced to ordinary differential equations using similarity transformation. The reduced non-linear ordinary differential equations were solved using iteration perturbation method and the results obtained were presented graphically. The effects of casson parameter, radiation parameter, magnetic parameter, heat source/sink on the velocity and temperature profiles were discussed. It is revealed that these parameters play crucial role on MHD casson fluid flow.
Keywords: MHD, Casson fluid, Radiative Heat Flux, Non-Newtonian, Stretching sheet.
EFFECT OF ORGANIC MANURE AND N.P.K FERTILIZER ON GROWTH AND YIELD PERFORMANCE OF ONION (ALLIUM CEPA L.) IN IN SAHELIAN ZONE OF NIGERIA.
J.A. BASSI, & Y. SANI
Department of Crop Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1069, Maiduguri – Nigeria.
Field experiment was conducted during the 2018/2019 dry season at Teaching and Research Farm Faculty of Agriculture University of Maiduguri, to determined the effect of organic manure and NPK fertilizer on growth and yield components of onion (Allium cepa L.). The experiment was laid out in a Randomize Complete Block Design (RCBD) and replicated three times. The treatment consist of cow dung, poultry manure, sheep manure, NPK fertilizer and control. Growth and yield parameter collected are; number of leaves per plant, plant height, bulb diameter, bulb weight per plot, bulb weight per plant and bulb yield. Results showed both the vegetative and reproductive parameters were greater at NPK treatment and the lower parameters were produced at zero fertilizer application than the other treatments.
Keywords: Onion,, Allium, fertilizer,, organic and performance
ALGORITHM TO SIMPLIFY ISSUES IN LINEAR DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS
*EGBON F.O. AND **OLOFINLAE O. O.
*Department of Mathematics, College of Education, Ikere Ekiti **Department of Mathematics, College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti
This paper explains the algorithms of analyzing finite difference equations, for the solution of ordinary difference equations, to reduce the time of computation based on its theory and numerical illustrations were used for clarity.
Keywords: Simplify, Issues, Linear, Difference, Equations.
HEAVY METALS ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION ASSESSMENT AT THE FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC MUBI, NIGERIA
*1ABRAHAM, EA., 2BUBA, M., 3JIBRIN, A.U., 4MODIBBO, U.U., 5OWUAMA, P.M., 6HASSAN, I
1,2,6 The Federal Polytechnic Mubi and 3,4,5Chemistry Department, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria.
Heavy metals environmental pollution has been a serious cause for concern to man worldwide because of their persistency, toxicity and threat to human life and environment. However, the problem is even worse in developing countries due to lack of political will by governments to put in place concrete outfits for environmental monitoring and systematic information collation on pollutants. Available literature on heavy metals environmental pollution as it relates to our area of interest at Federal Polytechnic Mubi furnished no data. Thus, the outcome of this research will in no doubt alleviate the paucity of extant literature on the targeted elements: manganese, copper, chromium, zinc, nickel, iron and cadmium. Soil samples of three soil profiles from four selected sites of major road verges at the Federal Polytechnic Mubi were collected and atomic absorption spectrometer (Buck scientific 210 Model) was used to determine the environmental pollution load of the aforementioned elements. On the whole, the soil profile distribution of Ni, Cu, Pb, Mn, Fe. Zn and Cr showed marked variations within the same site and between different sites. The overall mean values recorded for these elements were 1.64, 1.08, 0.34, 267.27, 35.74 and 1.22 mg/kg, respectively. Cadmium was not detected in any of the soils. The very low concentration values of the metals obtained notwithstanding, these elements do not remain stationary in the soil profile as erosion and other agents can transport them to the farming areas within the campus. Thus with time, these pollutants in the environment may accumulate unnoticed to toxic levels. And via food chain transfers, increases the elemental toxicological load and pose adverse health effects. There is therefore, the need to formulate workable strategies to continuously monitor these pollutant elements in the soils at definite intervals as well as establish a databank of geochemical background values of pollutant elements in agricultural soils, urban road dust, and others; which is a desideratum for comprehensive assessment of contamination status of a given soil medium in Nigeria.
Keywords: Heavy metals, Environmental pollution load, Assessment, Spectrometric method, Major Road, Federal Polytechnic Mubi.
EXCEL SOLUTION TEMPLATES FOR COST MINIMISATION OF GENERATING CAPACITY OF CERTAIN ELECTRIC POWER
ZAHID IBRAHIM SHU’AIBU AND CHUKWUNEYE UKWU, PHD
Department Of Mathematics, University of Jos, Jos-Nigeria
This research work investigated the problem of generating and maintaining electric power from certain power plant and obtained the optimal power generating strategies using backward dynamic programming. In the sequel, the work exploited several works of Ukwu to design solution templates and the corresponding algorithm for the optimal generating policy. The work went further to provide illustrative examples which demonstrate the practicality and practicability of the solution templates. The solution templates are imperative for the undertaking of sensitivity analyses and certainly obviate the need for cumbersome manual computations associated with dynamic programming recursions. The research recommends among others that appropriate measures need to be taken in boosting generating capacity of certain electric power supply. KEYWORDS: Dynamic Programming, Backward Recursion, Excel Solution, Electric Power and Cost Minimization.
THE DEBUT OF 5G WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY
OBOTIVERE A. B., NWAEZEIGWE A. O.
The technology promises to transmit a high volume of data to mobile and IoT devices, like connected traffic lights. By some estimates, 5g wireless networks could deliver data to nearly 10 gigabits per second, several orders of magnitude faster than current 4G networks which peak at 100 megabits per second. Since speed is usually the most discerning factors between the changing generations of wireless cellular technology hence the debut of 5g wireless technology.
Keywords: Iteration, Cellular technology, Latency, Bandwidth, Wireless broadband
ON THE NUMERICAL QUANTIFICATIONS OF BIODIVERSITY INTERVENTION USING THE METHOD OF POPULATION DYNAMICS
ISIBOR L. A.1, EKAKA-A E.N.2
1Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rumuolumeni, Port Harcourt, Nigeria 2Department of Mathematics, Rivers State University, Nkpolu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
To the best of our knowledge, the ecological concept of biodiversity is a challenging environmental problem that requires a sound mathematical reasoning. We have used the method of a numerical simulation that is indexed by ODE 45 numerical method to predict and obtain instances of biodiversity loss and biodiversity gain due to a decreasing and increasing variations of the intrinsic growth rates together. The novel results that we have obtained that we have not seen elsewhere, but do complement other similar numerical predictions of biodiversity are presented and discussed quantitatively.
Keywords – Ecological concept, biodiversity, environmental problem, numerical simulation, intrinsic growth rate.
INFORMATION FUSION SCHEMES FOR RELIABLE BIOMETRIC SYSTEM
Department of Computer Science, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba – Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria
Authentication by biometric system is becoming increasingly more popular in corporate and public security systems for monitoring, identification, investigation, access control and many more due to its performance and basic premise that every person can be accurately identified by his or her intrinsic physiological or behavioral traits. In any biometric system, the choice and sources of evidence used are strongly dependent on the application scenario and the design decisions. Meanwhile, studies have revealed that a biometric system that uses a single biometric source or trait for authentication has this tendency to face with problems related to noise in sensed data, non-universality, susceptibility to spoof attacks and large intra-class variations. Therefore, it is believed that some of the shortcomings of uni-biometric systems can be overcome and much higher accuracy achieved by integrating the evidences presented by multiple biometric sources or traits for establishing identity. Researchers at different levels have proposed and combined the outputs of two or more classifiers in the domain. Yet, the issue of efficient information fusion of these evidences remains an obvious concept that attract research attention. Hence, this work investigated and presents different classifier fusion techniques and design level scenarios that are viable for reliable biometric recognition system. Based on the research investigation, Dempster Shafer’s rule of combination and fusion at the match-score level were considered the preferred information fusion technique and design scheme respectively due to their pragmatic and performance physiognomies.
Keywords: Information fusion, Spoof attacks, Multiple Biometrics, Authentication, Security systems
STABILIZING THE TRIVIAL STEADY STATE SOLUTION: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECT
GODSPOWER C. ABANUM1, ENU-OBARI N EKAKA-A2 & ELEKI A.G3
1Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt, Nigeria 2Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria 3Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic, Rumuola, Port Harcourt, Rivers State.
Due to the inevitability of the characteristics of the Ecosystem in which the deterministic interaction between normal Agricultural assets, auxiliary Agricultural assets, Industrial assets and Ecospheric assets, it is important to test the numerical stability of the trivial steady state solution in which all the dependent variables are vulnerable to the Ecological risk of extinction, we have found that , irrespective of the decreased and increased variations of inter competition coefficient of normal Agriculture, the type of stability remains unstable. This observation can be further be explore by using a sophisticated numerical method in our next investigation.
Keyword: Matlab, ODE, Stabilty, Steady state solution, Normal Agriculture, Ecosystem
MODELING THE EXTENT OF BIODIVERSITY IN THE CONTEXT OF COMPETITION BETWEEN TWO INTERACTING PHYTOPLANKTON SPECIES
EKAKA-A E.N1 AND IGWE P.Y2
1Department of Mathematics, Rivers State University,Port Harcourt, Nigeria 2Consulting Numerical Analyst Anyaiba Informatics (Nig. Ltd)
Modeling the effect of decreasing the inter-competition coefficient between two phytoplankton species from the value of 0.0025 to 0.0125 has clearly shown an evidence of biodiversity gin for the first phytoplankton species and a biodiversity loss for the second phytoplankton species. Therefore, an appropriate ecological policy should be put in place to sustain the biodiversity gain and also to mitigate against the loss of biodiversity. These novel results obtained in this paper has not been seen elsewhere, they are presented and discussed.
Keywords: Extent, Biodiversity, Context, Competition and Phytoplankton Species.
AFRICA AND CLIMATE-RELATED DISASTERS
*PROF. IKECHUKWU ANTHONY KANU & **EMOIT PETER O. IMATARI
*Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, Tansian University, Umunya, Anambra State **College of Biological and Physical Sciences, Institute of Climate Change and Adaptations (ICCA), University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
This paper studied Africa’s ability to handle climate related disasters on its own. To understand Africa’s ability, this paper first of all defined disaster and showed how it is related to climate change. It also looked into the different types of disasters that are caused by climate change. In addition to these, it looked into the gaps and challenges faced by African countries in their bid to adapt and mitigate the climate related disasters. Finally, we have a way forward through which African countries can navigate out of the climate related disasters and a conclusion.
Keywords: Africa, Climate Change, Disaster, Green House Effect, Flood. Erosion, Drought
ON THE DETERMINISTIC DIFFERENTIAL EFFECT OF THE RATE OF FORMATION OF VAPOUR PHASE ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN THE ATMOSPHERE
UDOH, N. A.1, EKAKA-A, E. N.2, OKOKO, E. E.3, EZEORAH, J. N.4
1Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rumuolumeni, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. 2Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Nkpolu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. 3Benue State Polytechnic, Ugbokolo, Nigeria. 4University of Calabar, Nigeria.
The deterministic modeling of the effect of the rate of formation of vapour phase on the distribution of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is one of the challenging problems in the discipline of the environmental science informatics. To tackle this problem numerically, we have utilized the simulation method of ODE 45. From the novel results that we have obtained that we have not seen elsewhere, we have observed that an increase in the rate of formation of vapour phase will lead to a high concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Keywords – ODE 45, Vapour Density, Mathematical Quantification, Interpolation.
TREND ANALYSIS IN RAINFALL VARIABILITY IN PARTS OF NORTH CENTRAL STATES, NIGERIA: A NON PARAMETRIC APPROACH
M.MUSA1, Y. M. SULEIMAN2 AND T. I. YAHAYA2
1Agricultural Research Council of Nigeria 2Federal University of Technology, Minna
Rainfall variability and change, its impacts and the associated vulnerabilities is a growing concern across the globe. It is believed to be one of the greatest impediments for achieving food security and sustainable crop production globally. The study utilized 30 years Climate Prediction Center, Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) data. Non-parametric test, Mann-Kendall test and Theil-Sen slope estimator (β) to investigate the spatio-temporal trend and rate of change in rainfall over the study area. The monthly rainfall charactristics shows signficant downward trend at the onset period in May at 0.05 and 0.1 alpha values in Lokoja and Abuja while at the cessation period in October, signficant upward trend at 0.5 alpha value was detected in Lafia stations. The rate of the significant upward trend in the seasonal rainfall were 4.56 mm yr-1 at Lafia in the month of September, 3.72 mm yr-1 at Lokoja in the month of October and 6.06 mm yr-1 at Lafia in the month of October, respectively. The study revealed that the lowest coefficient of variation in seasonal rainfall occurred in Ilorin at 20.36% while the highest occurred in Lafia station at 37.79%. The result of annual Coefficient of variation also shows that Ilorin station has the lowest variation at 17.82% and the highest was found in Lafia at 37.7%. It is established that changes in rainfall pattern have impact on crop production. The study therefore recommend mainstreaming of farming calendar into the changing climate regime to ensure improved crop yield.
Keywords: Rainfall, Trend, Variability, Non-parametric Approach, North Central States, Nigeria
A REVIEW OF THERMAL BEHAVIOUR AND PROCESSING-MICROSTRUCTURE-PROPERTY OF Ti – 6Al – 4V ALLOYS FABIRICATED BY TWO ADDITIVELY MANUFACTURED TECHNIQUES
IBRAHIM, L.A., WOLI, T. O., OGUNDELE, S. O, SANNI, M. K. AND YAKUBU, O. H.
Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal Polytechnic Offa, P.M.B 420, Kwara State
This study provides a review of two metal additive manufacturing processes, selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM) and some common physical phenomena associated with these additive manufacturing (AM) techniques. It then focuses on the following areas: (a) thermal behaviour of Ti6Al4V parts (b) microstructure process property. The porosity in AM Ti6Al4V components and the influence of this defects on mechanical performances are also discussed. The review is not meant to put a ceiling on the capabilities of SLM and EBM processes but to enable readers have an overview on the material properties achieved by these techniques.
Keywords: Ti6Al4V, Electron beam melting, Selective laser melting, Microstructure, Porosity
IMPACT AND IMPLICATION OF FLUORIDE IN DIFFERENT SOURCES OF DRINKING WATER
L.UMAR, A.O. ADEYEMI, F.C MBAMALU
Federal Polytechnic Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria.
Fluoride is a chemical element that has shown to cause significant effects on human health through drinking water. Different forms of fluoride exposure are of importance and have shown to affect the body’s fluoride content and thus increasing the risks of fluoride-prone diseases. Fluoride has beneficial effects on teeth at low concentration of 1mg/l by preventing and reducing the risk of tooth decay. Concentration lower than 0.5mg/l of fluoride had shown to intensify the risk of tooth decay. Analysis of well water, tap water, rain water and borehole water was carried out using colorimetric method to determine the amount of fluoride in the four different water samples in Muu Road, Offa Local government area of Kwara State, Nigeria. The problem observed was that some people living in the area were suffering from skeletal deformation and dental fluorosis. This necessitates the study of fluoride content in the four samples sources of water. From the result, well water has 0.6mg/l, tap water has 0.6mg/l, rain water has 0.5mg/l and borehole water has 0.6mg/l. It was discovered that the four different samples have a value of fluoride content lower than the safe limit value recommended by the World Health Organization standard for the amount of fluoride that should be present in a given portable water which is 1.0-1.5mg/l. Hence, people in the study area should analyze their drinking water and there should be public enlightenment to this regard.
Keywords: fluoride, concentration, colorimetric, fluorosis, deformation.
ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS CONCENTRATION ON ROADSIDE VEGETABLES AROUND AGBARA AND IJEBU-ODE COMMUNITY OF OGUN STATE, NIGERIA
ADETOYI, HELEN N1, OSUNDE, EDWIN O2. AND 3OLAWALE-SUCCESS, OLAJUMOKE O
1Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Ogun State College of Health Technology, Ilese, Ijebu-Ode, Ogun State, Nigeria 2Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology, Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, P.M.B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria 2Department of Biological Sciences, Crescent University, P.M.B. 2104, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria
Heavy metals contamination of vegetables planted along roadside is one of the major problems in Nigeria cities. Consumption of such vegetables may pose serious threat to human health. This study assessed heavy metals concentration on roadside vegetables around Agbara and Ijebu-Ode community of Ogun State, Nigeria. Top and sub-soil samples within the planted vegetables were collected 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depth using soil auger. Five different vegetables were harvested into a pre-cleaned plastic container. Physical, chemical and heavy metal parameters of the soils and vegetables within the two communities were analyzed using standard methods to ascertain the level of contamination. The average of pH, temperature (0C), electrical conductivity (µS/cm), %sand, %silt and %clay were 6.16±0.48, 29.28±0.46, 1.91±0.90, 77.76±2.23, 11.08±1.21 and 11.16±2.18 for the soil respectively. These values were within the limit set by Standard Organization of Nigeria. The average of three replicates concentration of heavy metals in the vegetable samples showed the distribution patterns of Mn>Fe>Ni>Pb>Zn>Cu>Cd>Cr. Heavy metals concentration (mg/kg) of Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr and Cd were 38.27±2.19, 3.66±0.34, 0.90±0.10, 0.90±0.10, 0.09±0.010.05±0.01, 0.04±0.01, 0.04±0.01and 0.03±0.01 mg/kg respectively. The values of Pb, Cd and Ni detected for African Spinach, Pumpkin Leaf and Jute Leaf were higher than FAO/WHO maximum permissible levels. Vegetables are valuable sources of vitamins, there is a need for more controlled clinical intervention.
Keywords: Heavy Metals, Vegetables, Contamination, Consumption, Human Health.
A COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMIC FLOW ANALYSIS: A SIMULATION OF NATURAL GAS DELIVERY SYSTEM LEADING TO VENT AND GAS FLARE CHAMBER
UMAR MU’AZU TADAMA1, AHMAD ABDURRAZZAQ2, SOLOMON ANNA AMOS3 AND KASIDI SIMON4
1, 2 &3Department of Chemical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, 4Department of Geology Adamawa State University, Mubi. Adamawa State-Nigeria
The study investigate numerical simulations that evaluate and predict the fluid flow dynamics acting on a transmission pipe leading to vent and flare stack gas chamber. This simulation used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) package (Star CCM+). Navier-stokes equations were employed to simulate viscous flow within the S-Bend like structural pipe with inlet velocity of flare stack gas. The numerical S-Bend pipe generating a progressive regular flow was made using the flow maker at the inlet, while the grid was enabled to flare the stack gas at the outlet.
Keywords: Simulation, Fluid, Dynamics, Flow, Analysis, Flare Gas, Pipe, processing.
THE PREVALENCE AND TREND OF MATERNAL MORTALITY RATE IN NIGERIA (2000-2018)
ADEYEMO, S.O1, 3 AND NELSON, M2
1Maths and Statistics Department, Federal Polytechnic, Nekede, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. 2Mathematics Department, Isaac Jasper Boro College of Education, Sagbama, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and trend of maternal mortality rate. The data used was obtained from WHO/UNESCO BULLETIN 2018 and was analysed using prevalence rate and trend analysis. The findings revealed that AIDS was 39% in 2012, hemorrhage 16% in 2012, anemia 47% in 2015, infection 16% in 2015, tuberculosis 16% in 2017, malaria 35% in 2001, hepatitis 15% in 2018, STI 22% in 2018, abortion 21% in 2004, and sepsis 26% in 2018. The trend of maternal mortality have an upward and downward movement, it increased in 2001, 2011, and 2018.
Keywords: Prevalence, Trend, Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR),
MODEL SELECTION IN BIVARIATE REGRESSION MODELS
*ESEMOKUMO PEREWAREBO AKPOS *BEKESUOYEIBO REBECCA & **OPARA JUDE
*Department of Statistics, School of Applied Science, Federal Polytechnic Ekewe, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria **Department of Statistics, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, P.M.B. 7267, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria
This study is on model selection in bivariate regression models. Data for this study were collected in CBN Annual Report (various issues), CBN Statistical bulletin (various issues) from 1990 to 2019, which consists of international oil prices (response variable) and unemployment rate (independent variable). Eight regression models; Linear Regression, Quadratic Regression, Cubic Regression, Power Regression, ab-Exponential Regression, Logarithmic Regression, Hyperbolic Regression and Exponential Regression were examined in this study. Five model selection techniques known as; coefficient of determination, standard error of Regression, Akaike Information Criterion, Schwarz Information Criterion, and Hannan-Quinn Information Criterion were used to select the best model. From the analysis, in the overall goodness of fit assessment, the study concluded that the ab-Exponential regression model with Exponential regression performs far better than the other six bivariate regression models employed in this study. Therefore, future researchers should look at a similar work by incorporating other nonlinear bivariate regression models like compound, growth and inverse Regression models to compare results.
Keywords: Coefficient of Determination, S.E. of Regression, Akaike Information Criterion, Schwarz Information Criterion, Hannan-Quinn Information Criterion, Bivariate Regression models
A NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE FLOW IN WATER JET NOZZLES
SIBEUDU CHIWETALU EMENIKE AND OCHUBA NNAMDI
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Oko
In this study, flow inside the nozzles are investigated by means of finite volume method. Firstly, some analyses are carried out in 2-D in order to compare and validate the results with the experimental ones. Later, 3-D models are created to have different nozzle geometries. 3-D analyses are made and outlet mass flow rates, velocities and reactive forces are calculated in the same inlet pressure level for different nozzle geometries. Two equation k-ω turbulence model is chosen as the turbulence model. At the end of this numerical study, the nozzle geometry with minimum reactive force and maximum mass flow rate is determined thanks to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based on finite volume method (FVM).
Keywords: Investigation, Flow, Water, Jet Nozzles.
WIND SPEED VARIATION FOR A VERTICAL WIND GENERATOR AND ITS EFFECTS IN A TROPICAL CLIMATE WEATHER CONDITION
1HAMISU USMAN 2KASHIM SANNI AND 3ALIYU ABDULLAHI
1&3Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, College of Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna. 2Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom.
Wind energy is one of the promising renewable energy sources in Distributed power Generation. But due to its inconsistency in the variation and fluctuation of the environmental wind velocity, the power generated by the wind turbine is not constant. This variation in the wind speed leads to the power quality problems in its output Voltage/Current wave forms. In this paper, the effect of wind speed variation that resulted in the instability of the wind power output in relation to the power quality is presented. However, a four months wind Speed Data for a 1.5KW permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) wind turbine was measured at Universiti Putra Malaysia in order to ascertain the reliability of site for the installation of the wind turbine. The implemented model of a 1.5KW variable wind turbine (PMSG) is simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK soft ware environment; and the average wind speed Data is analyzed.
Index term- Wind speed, PMSG, and power quality.
ENZYMATIC EVALUATION CHANGES IN SUBLETHAL CYANIDE POISONING ALBINO RATS TREATED WITH CHROMOLAENA ODORATA (LINN.) AND SODIUM THIOSULPHATE
SIKIRU GBENGA.K., OLORUNDARE O.O AND OLADEJO A.O
Department of Pest Management Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria.
Recently, the plant has been employed in the remediation of cyanide from contaminated sites. Cyanide remediation potential of plants is due to their ability to synthesize cyanogenic glucosides. Naturally, cyanogenic plants not only synthesize organic cyanides but are also imbue with efficient degradation potentiality. Example of such plants is Chromolaena odorata which is widely known to be effectively used as a therapy against several ailments. Cyanide intoxication mediate pathologic effects on different tissues that precede alterations in biochemical parameters. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of sublethal cyanide exposure and ameliorative effects of sodium thiosulphate and ethanol Extract of Chromolaena odorata (ECO) administered singly and in combination on some enzyme activities in rats. Thirty five male rats were divided into seven groups. All test groups received potassium cyanide (KCN) at 7 mg/kg body weight; Control group:received distilled water daily for the experimental period. Cyanide group: received KCN at 7.0 mg/kg administered via gavage; KCN+100ECO group:received KCN and 100 mg/kg of ECO; KCN+150ECO group:received KCN and 150 mg/kg of ECO; KCN+200ECO group:received KCN and 200 mg/kg of ECO; KCN+Na2S2O3 group:received KCN and oral administration of sodium thiosulphate at 200 mg/kg; KCN+ECO+Na2S2O3 group:received KCN and oral administration of both sodium thiosulphate and ECO at 200 mg/kg. At the end of the experiment, activities of Rhodanese, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and superoxide dismutase were measured. Potassium cyanide administration caused alteration in the measured enzymes while sodium thiosulphate and Chromolaena odorata ethanol extracts relieved the alterations. Whereas, combination of the two regimen showed a synergistic effect. The altered tissue activities of some enzymes in the present study might reflect the metabolic disturbances due to cyanide intoxication. However, further research should be focused on this issue for better understanding of the fine mechanism of cyanide effects upon metabolic enzyme activities.
Keywords: Cyanide; Chromolaena odorata; Sodium thiosulphate; Rats.
UTAUT AND ITS USAGE IN AN EDUCATIONAL SETTINGS: STATE-OF-THE-ART TECHNOLOGY
AUWAL AHMAD*, ABUBAKAR S. HAMZA**, ABUBAKAR ABDULLAHI HAMANI***, YAKUBU NUHU DANJUMA****
*ICT/MIS Directorate, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi **, ****Computer Science Department Federal Polytechnic Bauchi ***Library and Information Science Department Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.
Information and communication technologies (ICT) have the potential to improve all aspects of our social, economic and cultural life. The introduction of ICT in universities as institutions of higher education is clearly changing the way in which education is conducted. But, as much as important its introduction is, the more important is the acceptance of new technologies. For that purpose, we shall use a unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) which will explain the user’s intention to apply information systems and subsequently to monitor the behavior of their usage. This paper describes the UTAUT model and the factors that affect it, and its modification over time. Furthermore, examples are given for the application of UTAUT in different environments. Lastly, in the conclusion we note why the uptake of ICT is mandatory and what should be undertaken in order to accept a new technology.
Keywords: UTAUT, key factors, technology, ICT, information technology.