CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND EARTH SCIENCE (CJERES)
VOL. 27 NO. 4 – MARCH, 2023 EDITION
Cambridge Research and Publications International,
Africa (Nigeria): CAHDC, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
ASSESSMENT OF DRINKING WATER QUALITY (CASE STUDY OF GURU VILLAGE IN BAUCHI METROPOLIS, BAUCHI STATE)
1 LAGASI, J. E. AND 2 ULOKO, J. O.
1Department of Civil Engineering, University of Jos. Plateau State, Nigeria/ 2Department of Civil Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.
Water for drinking and domestic use is difficult to assess in Guru town, a rocky sub-hurb area of Bauchi metropolis, only in raining season can they get water from hand dug well and flowing streams but dries up during the dry season. A borehole was dug in the community and this study is to examine the water quality. Water collected using sterilized plastic bottles from the drilled borehole. Laboratory analyses of the sample includes parameters such as temperature, taste, odour, colour, pH, turbidity, iron, lead and nitrate. The total bacterial count were carried out in Bauchi State Rural Water Supply & Sanitation Agency (RUWASSA), using standard procedures in line with World Health Organization (WHO) and Nigerian Industrial Standard (NIS, 306:2008) for potable water. The results revealed all of the parameters examined did fall within the permissible limits of W.H.O and NIS. There was no trace of lead in all the samples and the SO4 met the limits required, for turbidity four samples fell within the required limit, the PH values was 7.2, also the total dissolved solid (TDS) was 170 mg/l which meet the WHO and NIS. All the Chemical parameters such as the Magnesium (Mg), Iron (Fe), lead (Pb), total hardness (as CaCO3), and Copper (Cu) of the sample fell within the limits of the standards. The study revealed that the water in the area is portable and fit for drinking, domestic uses and the analysis are within the accepted limit.
KEYWORDS: Borehole, Water sample, Analysis, WHO, and NIS.
APPLICATION OF BIOMIMICRY PRINCIPLE AS A MODEL IN MODIFYING BUILDING SKIN TO ACHIEVE THERMAL ADAPTATION IN BUILDING
HANIF MUSA ALIYU,1 ZAKARI ABDULLAHI TIJJANI,2
Department of Architecture, Kano University of Science and Technology
Architecture is a practice that provides technical and spatial responses to human needs, functions and activities in open and enclosed physical spaces. These needs, functions and activities manifest in a variety of forms according to ages, gender, income and social status among others. They are also expressed in the connecting build environment with nature. Youngsters stress from clinic visits can be additionally compounded by issues of design, colors, textures, materials and so on. Notwithstanding, this postulation targets fostering a structure for the coordination of Biomimicry application and examples in the plan of pediatrics hospital, along these lines making an association between life, nature and the built environment which evolve architecture that can positively contribute to the healing and psychological recovery of patients. In view of existing writing corresponding Biomimicry plan application and building skin, procedures for the joining of Biomimicry configuration designs were created dependent on three expansive examples of Biomimicry plan in particular; Nature in the space, Natural analogs and Nature of the space. The research type is exploratory and encompasses both the qualitative and quantitative tradition in methods of data collection through case studies and interviews, in order to check how these strategies were adopted in the design of pediatrics hospital and apply in the new design of pediatrics hospital katsina, katsina state Nigeria.
Keywords; Biomimicry, building skin, Biomimetic, Complexity/order and Natural Analogues.
MODELLING AND NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF BIOCHEMICAL-OXYGEN DEMAND AND DISSOLVED-OXYGEN INTERACTIONS DUE TO POLLUTION IN RIVER GANGES
1R.E. AKPODEE; 2I.E. NWAFOR
1Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University. 2Institutes of Geoscience and Environmental Management, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University.
In effluents discharge modelling, we have investigated the impact of temperature variation (Increasing Temperature, T=28unit) in the interaction between Biochemical-Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Dissolved Oxygen (DO) on a polluted river Ganges. Here, we have derived first an analytical solution that can predict the relative abundance of both coordinates in their interaction at any time, t. Furthermore, a numerical scheme of Runge-Kutta ODE45 computational approach was used to study the qualitative characteristics of the BOD-DO interaction for the impact of temperature variation (Increasing Temperature @ T=28unit) in the interaction between BOD (IC = 8.0) and DO (IC = 7.1) at an interval of 0(0.1)60 time in hrs, when all model parameter values are fixed ranging from the time interval of 0:0.1:60 in hrs. The BOD and DO initial values here called the IC’s on the base time recorded as BOD0 = 8.0 and DO0 = 7.1 due to the pollution of the stream. Furthermore, from the base time, we observed a severe depletion of the DO downstream from a value of 7.1 units DO to a value of 4.0099 units DO for the uncontrol coordinate and 4.4353unit DO for the control (Modified) coordinate at 1.7hr of our experimental time which further recover with various DO deficit up to full saturation. The detail work and full results are presented and discussed in this study.
Keywords: Biochemical-Oxygen Demand, Dissolved Oxygen, Numerical Simulation, Biological Extinction, Model Parameters.
A REVIEW OF THE IMPACT OF CPTED ON STUDENT SAFETY IN UNIVERSITY HOSTELS
*BEBU, B. J. AND ISAH A. D.
Department of Architecture, School of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.
University hostels are considered secure fortresses, an embodiment of radiant peace and tranquility. This is so as the satisfaction of a comfortable living and learning environment depends largely on how secure the environment is, how people interact, and how spatially comfortable the space within it is, as security plays a vital role in the selection of a choice place to live and learn, as they impact us both psychologically and physically. Today this notion is far from reality, as university hostels are plagued with reports of high-level crimes, from theft, burglary, abductions, and even kidnappings. This has led to the threat to the safety of students and, as a result, restricts students’ freedom, causing an insecure environment, which affects the performance of students academically and also the student’s overall well-being. This research is aimed at providing a narrative review of the causes of insecurities in university hostels and the impact of adopting CPTED which is a strategy used by Architects and environmental designers to prevent and reduce the occurrence of crime. This was achieved by using a systematic literature review (SLR) as the qualitative research method. The findings in this study suggest that cultism, student riot, and drug abuse are the major cause of insecurity The study further validates the argument of previous research that the application of CPTED principles helps to reduce the occurrence of crime
Keywords; CPTED, Security, Safety, Unhealthy living environment.
ASSESSMENT OF INFORMAL E-WASTE RECYCLING ACTIVITIES IN MINNA NIGER STATE, NIGERIA
ABDULSALAM, A. B.; OWODUNNI, A. S.; & KAREEM, W. B.
Department of Industrial & Technology Education, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, Nigeria
Electronic waste (e-waste) has become a major concern in today’s environment, especially in developing nations such as Nigeria, which has given rise to a new environmental challenge and health problems. The study adopted a mixed research design. The targeted population for the study was 428 respondents. True Non-probability sampling techniques, snowball and convenient sampling techniques were used to draw 40 Refurbishers, 40 Recyclers, 30 collectors and 68 Environmental Protection Agency (NISEPA) staff, 49 National Environmental Standard and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA) staff, and 11 Federal Ministry of Environment (FME) staff in Minna metropolis. Structured questionnaire titled “Assessment of Informal E-waste Recycling and Refurbishing Activities” and structured interviews questions were used for data collection. The instrument was validated by three experts, One from Niger State Environmental Protection Agency, and other two from Department of Industrial and Technology Education, Federal University of Technology, Minna. Cronbach Alpha was used to ascertain the extent of the internal consistency of the instrument and a reliability coefficient of 0.82 was obtained for the entire instrument. Data collected was analyzed using statistical package for social science (SPSS version 21). Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions, while One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Post-hoc (Tukey Honesty Significant Difference, HSD) was used to test the difference for the rejected hypotheses at (p<0.05). The research question one shows that the mean of all the items were within 4.28 – 4.46 which is an indication that the activities are actively carried out in the study area while hypothesis one shows the analysis of f-ratio (1.584) and a significance criterion (sig) of 0.196 which is greater than p-value of 0.05. The study revealed among others that, E-waste are dismantled and disassembled to remove the valuable materials and the non-valuable materials are disposed improperly and burnt within the environment. There is lack of proper awareness of health hazards associating with E-waste equipment amongst the stakeholders involved. Also, techniques in handling and improving recycling and refurbishing e-waste are not adequately aware of. The study recommended among others, that enlightment and sensitization programme on the activities of e-wastes should be organized for e-waste collectors, recyclers; Regulatory Agency should ensure regular orientation and skill acquisition programme for the personnel involved in informal E-waste sector on proper handling method, awareness of health hazards and techniques for improving recycling and refurbishing of e-waste. Government should also ensure that the personnel involved in informal e-waste sectors are registered with the Regulatory Agency to ensure proper monitoring of their activities in the State.
Keywords: E-waste, collection activities, Informal Recycling activities, Assessment
BIOPHILIC DESIGN STRATEGIES IN HEALTHCARE BUILDINGS
OMAGA A. E., LATEEF A. L.
Department of Architecture, Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria.
Evidence-based studies have shown the benefits of including nature and its elements in the built environment suggesting that they could have a positive effect on healing and health. The innate emotional attachment of human to nature and the living things in nature is known as “biophilia”. Biophilic design is an approach that integrates nature into the buildings in which people live to foster human-nature relationship. Extensive literature review gives a clear understanding of Biophilic design and confirms a link between patient’s recovery and building with nature. The study is aimed at assessing the extent to which biophilic design strategies is adopted in hospital buildings in Nigeria. Case study methodology was adopted to give
critical analysis of existing health facilities and Biophilic design strategy adopted. The Selected hospitals have been evaluated through the 14 Patterns of Biophilic Design strategies defined by Browning et al., 2014 and the results presented descriptively with the use of tables. The findings showed low consideration of these principles in health facilities of Nigeria and further gives pointers on how Biophilic design strategies could be applied in design for positive outcomes.
Keywords: biophilia, biophilic design, healing environment, nature, wellbeing.
A COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT RETURN IN BOSSO AND SHANGO MINNA, NIGER STATE, NIGERIA
BELLO MURTALA AND NAOMI, POPOOLA
Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Faculty of Environmental Science Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna.
The study comparatively assesses the residential real estate investment return in Bosso and Shango neighborhoods area of Minna Niger State, Nigeria. The aim of the study is to comparatively assess the level of return on residential real estate investment in the study area. Data and information were collected through the use of two set of structured questionnaire in which a total number of 250 and 110 questionnaire were administered in Bosso and Shango neighborhood respectively A total number 235 and 105 filled questionnaires were returned successfully, while second questionnaire for estate surveyors and valuers The sampling techniques which was adopted for the study is systematic random sampling technique. The data collected from the field was analyzed by using frequencies and percentages for the demographic variables of the respondents while mean and standard deviation was used to analyze the respondent’s opinions to the item statements in the questionnaire, factor analysis among others. The findings of study revealed that, all the respondents agreed that factors such as location, size, area and shape of land, soil characteristics, electricity and water supply, ownership status/certificate, change of policies of the state and local authorities, age of the building, materials used for the construction among others influence residential real estate investment in the study areas. The study recommended that, other study should explore the condition of properties itemizing all the building component and material used on quality based And it may be worthy to explore other factors including many locations in the study areas and the Prospective investors in residential real estate investment should always compare the return on similar properties before taken a decision for investment, because the performance of similar investments in the area may be the basis for success of the other investment.
Keywords: Comparative, Assessment, Residential, Real Estate, Investment Return.
ASSESSMENT OF THE BUILDING MAINTENANCE PRACTICES IN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS (A CASE STUDY OF KUJE CORRECTIONAL FACILITY, ABUJA)
MAMMAN YABAGI JOEL AND ABASS IYANDE SULE
Department of Estate Management and Valuation, School of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna
The study is on the assessment of building maintenance practice of public institutions in Abuja with reference to kuje correctional facility. The study stems from the deplorable state of public building which accounts for a fund chunk of our national asset. The study assessed the maintenance approach of public institutions if any and the qualifications of maintenance department. Data collated for the research included both qualitative and quantitative data. The latter, which comprises the condition of the physical building component, was analysed using simple statistical tool. Findings from the study indicate that the government do not have a clear-cut maintenance programme for public buildings. Recommendations emphasises the need for adequate budgeting for maintenance and a planned maintenance schedule that should be carried out by professional maintenance personnel.
Keywords: Maintenance, Public structures, Building component
BIOPHILIC DESIGN: TOWARDS ENHANCING USER’S COMFORT VIA DIRECT EXPERIENCE WITH NATURE IN HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDING, ABUJA, NIGERIA
ABDULKADIR J.* AND OLAGUNJU, R. E.
Department of Architecture, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger state, Nigeria
High-rise buildings are becoming a trend today due to the shortage of land in cities and rural-urban migration. According to the United Nation (UN, 2014) population report, more than half of the world’s population will live in urban areas, with the figure expected to rise to 60% by 2030. This makes the liveability of high-density city a central point of interest and concern. The energy consumption of high-rise buildings is enormous and should be regulated, to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emission, global rising temperatures and climate change. This paper seeks to assess biophilic design based on direct experience with nature in high-rise residential apartment with a view to ensures user’s comfort and energy efficiency. Six high-rise building were selected from Abuja; the study area. A descriptive survey was adopted for the research and a structured observation schedule with variables utilized focusing on biophilic direct experience which includes; natural lighting and ventilation, presence of water, presence of animals, contact with weather through sit-out, vegetations and natural ecosystem. Data obtained were documented and analysed using Microsoft excel package. The study reveals that most high-rise building adopts natural light and ventilation. Few of the building accessed makes provision for plants/ vegetations, while none make provision water/pool, and animals within the building. In order to ensure safe, healing, and healthier living environment through biophilia; this study recommends the use of well landscaped courtyard/atrium with fountains, green roofs, balconies to ensure contact with weather, and gardens to promote natural ecosystem.
Keywords: Biophilic design, Energy consumption, User’s comfort, High-rise Building, Energy efficiency
EFFECT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ON ESTATE AGENCY PRACTICE IN ABUJA, NIGERIA
ANOMA MOTUNRAYO GEORGE & KEMIKI A. OLUROTIMI
Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Federal University of Technology, Minna.
This study assessed the Effect of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on estate agency practice in Abuja, Nigeria. The study’s data were collected using structured questionnaires and personal interviews with real estate firms registered with ESVARBON and NIESV, the association of estate agents of Nigeria registered with AEAN and real estate development firms registered with Redan with offices in Abuja, Nigeria. A total of 242 questionnaire were administered out of which 230 was obtained and were examined using standard deviation, mean score, factor analytical hierarchy advancement and multiple linear regression analysis. phone calls, SMS, microsoft offices packages, company website promotions and other social media platforms are the primary ICT tools utilized by real estate agencies in Abuja, Nigeria. The study also found that company website promotion through ranking is the most influential ICT application in Abuja real estate agency transactions. In addition, phone calls and SMS are the most significant tools followed by property website promotion and whatsapp affect the frequency of real estate transactions in the study area while Twitter has the least significant tools and the insignificant tools such as LinkedIn. It recommends that practitioners and real estate firms benefit from ICT in real estate services, the various real estate agency bodies, such as NIESV, REDAN, and AEAN which are charged with regulating the profession, should develop the relevant regulations and guidelines and that future research should analyze the function of trust in property transaction frequency to identity how trust influences transaction frequency.
Keywords: Real Estate Practice, Information and Communication Technology
MODELING SLUM AND INFORMAL HOUSING DEVELOPMENT IN AKURE, NIGERIA (1986-2019)
ADEDEJI A. A.1, JUNAID A. M.2, SANNI L.M 3.
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
Slums and informal housing developments in Akure are growing at an unprecedented rate. It was on this basis that this work assessed the indices of slum and informal housing development in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. A stratified sampling method was used in selecting the corridors, and a simple random sampling technique was used in selecting the residents in the corridors. Primary data was collected using a questionnaire administered to 600 respondents with the aid of trained enumerators. Descriptive statistics, spatial analysis, and logistic regression models were used for the analysis. The study concluded that between 16.3% and 40.8% of the variance in predicting whether there is or is not development of slum and informal housing in Akure were explained by the following predictors: housing shortage, lack of affordable housing, high incidences of urban poverty, lack of planning and development plans, inadequate development control by planning agencies, inadequate provision of sites and services, tenure insecurity, inadequate neighbourhood facilities and services, and inadequate sanitation, with significance values of 0.000, 0.035, 0.000, 0.045, 0.005, 0.021, 0.030, 0.024, and 0.000, respectively. Each of these values were less than 0.05. The study recommended that the state government should upgrade earth roads to gravel and construct distribution roads with drainage, especially in areas like Igoba, Ijoka, and Orita-Obele in Akure.
Keywords: Modeling, Slum and Informal, Housing Development, Logistic Regression
ACHIEVING UNIFIED COORDINATES SYSTEM IN OYO STATE USING CONTINUOUSLY OPERATING REFERENCE STATIONS (CORS)
1LASISI, K. O., 2ANIFOWOSE, O. I. AND 3YUSSUFF, O. N.
1Department of Urban and Regional Planning, the Polytechnic, Ibadan, Nigeria. 2Department of Civil Engineering, the Polytechnic, Ibadan, Nigeria. 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, the Polytechnic, Ibadan, Nigeria
In Nigeria, it is often difficult to achieve the same coordinates system and station adjustment during field observation and computations on the same reference Ground Control points (GCPs) using different modes of GPS. Diverse references such as National Origin, Local Origin and Universal Traverse Mercator (UTM) are adopted by different surveyors. Inability of surveyors to achieve a unified coordinates system and establish common station adjustments at different epochs introduce errors within a network of survey controls. Using two GPS receivers in differential or absolute precise point positioning is prone to various types of inconsistencies. This paper therefore focuses on comparison of coordinates using Single and Dual Frequency GPS receivers with Nignet Continuous Reference Stations (CORS) of the controls on XN07(FSS), Y1 (Koso (Hill), Y2 (Erelu Hill), Y3 (Bosero Hill), Y4 (Akube Hill), Y5 (Ikolaba Hill), Y6 (Owinni) and L11 (Agidan Hill), all in Oyo, Oyo State. CORS are established as the primary infrastructure to support user needs for real-time, centimetre level positioning accuracy requirements. The study involves office and field recconaisance, data acquisition using single and dual frequency Global Positioning System, downloading of data, transformation of data to UTM coordinates projection system and processing of the coordinates with Nignet Continuous Reference Station (CORS). The final results were presented in tables. In conclusion, this research has identified the best frequency receiver device that will give the reliable accuracy coupled with the COR Stations’ consideration. The best result can then be recommended for use in any GPS observation exercise that will gradually bring about the unification of Nigeria reference system.
Keywords: Coordinates Systems, CORS, Global Positioning System, Epochs, Controls
REMOTE EVALUATION OF SEDIMENTATION OF ELEYELE RESERVIOR, IBADAN, OYO STATE, NIGERIA: THE SATELLITE DERIVED BATHYMETRIC APPROACH
LATIFAT OLAIDE OYELAKIN1&3; & SIMEON OLUWOLE OGUNLADE (PhD)2
1Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Federal School of Surveying, P. M. B. 1024, Oyo, Oyo state, Nigeria. 2Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Federal University of Technology, P. M. B. 704, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. 3C/O Surv. Oyelakin, Latifat Olaide, Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Faculty of Geospatial Sciences, Federal School of Surveying, P. M. B. 1024, Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria.
The availability of water in adequate quantity is fundamental to sustainability of the environment thus artificial impoundments called dams are constructed to conserve water resources for a variety of purposes ranging from domestic to industrial uses. Eleyele reservoir, constructed in 1942, has been subjected to severe sedimentation since its construction thus unable to cater to water demands of users in Ibadan and environ. This study adopted Satellite-Derived Bathymetric (SDB) approach to evaluate the rate and volume of sediments deposit in the reservoir between 2001 and 2020. Landsat imagery constitute the main input data while other ancillary data utilised include SRTM, rainfall, Goggle Earth imagery, digitised map, etc. The methodology involves a comparative analysis of depths of shallow water body derived through the processing of satellite imagery at different epochs. The satellite derived bathymetry was calibrated with ground truth data. The obtained bathymetric data showed that the deposited sediment between 2001 and 2006 was 66.05%, 29.62% between 2006 and 2011, 66.08% between 2011 and 2016 and between 2016 and 2020 sediment deposited was 35.81%. The result analysis showed that remote sensing data can be used in determining the depth of water, total sediment thickness, sediment removal systems, catchment management practices, and periodic desilting.
Keywords: Satellite imageries, sedimentation, digital image processing, satellite derived bathymetry, spatial analysis.
A REVIEW OF THE CAUSES, EFFECTS AND MANAGEMENT OF FIRE DISASTER IN NIGERIA
BEJIDE MUNIRAT MONISOLA
Urban and Regional Planning Department, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo State
The study assessed the causes and control measure of fire disaster in Nigeria. fire outbreak is one of the world’s most rampant and devastating disasters in Nigeria. This disastrous impact of fire to the environment and economy has attracted attention to strategies to prevent, control or eliminate it when it occurs. There are two-edged of disasters. One edge is the natural and man-induced mishap or the trigger mechanism which could be earthquake, tremor, thunder / windstorm, technological disasters among others while on the other edge, are the damages done to the built environment, the injuries and loss of human life and property. The contributing factors to fire disasters are; cooking and heating equipment, smoking material, child playing with fire, electrical, open flame or ember and so on. Fire outbreak causes emotional distress as well as physical damage. It threatens life and property and it is unpredictable. People are often affected by what they see during and after a fire outbreak. The study thereby discovered that for any management method of fire disaster to be successful, it requires mass participation, public awareness and education about fire disasters, involvement of local volunteers, citizens, organizations and businesses, there is need to review urban and regional planning laws, especially the building code to reflect the prevailing circumstances in Nigeria among others. The study thereby concluded that inclusive decision making should be encouraged to integrate the knowledge and views of all stakeholders in development and disaster management.
Keywords: Review, causes, effects, management and fire disaster.
INFLUENCE OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECT TEAM MEMBERS’ TRUST ON TEAM PERFORMANCE IN HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION BUILDING PROJECT IN BAUCHI STATE
BALA HASSAN1, ALIYU ABDULLAHI MOHAMMED 2 AND ISMAIL ISAH SULAIMAN3
1Department of Quantity Surveying, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria. 2Department of Architectural Technology, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria 3Department of Building Technology, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria
Progressively, construction practitioners are turning their attention towards managing the members within the project teams. Team members hold the key towards project success. The working relationships between key members of a project team, namely, the client, main contractor and consultants, have critical influences on projects success. Nevertheless, the temporary nature of teams that they operate within influences their trust. Despite this, efforts were limited in determining the issue relating to team trust and team performance by construction projects team. Accordingly, this research determines the influence of construction projects team trust on team performance in Bauchi state higher educational `institutions. 152 questionnaires were conveniently administered to construction projects team members in seven higher educational institutions in the study area. The research found, construction projects team trust factors in order of their presence, team meeting its negotiated obligations each other’s, team members keeping their word and telling the truth during negotiations as the team trust factors were moderately present in the study area. While, other team trust factors, contribution to the team, rate at which the team is reliable, rate at which honestly the team negotiates with me, rate at which the team fairly negotiates joint expectations, rate at which the team tries to get the upper hand of me, rate at which the team jointly solve individual’s problems, rate at which the team tries to be committed in all dealings, rate at which the team tries to solve the problems of vulnerability, trust on teammates in making decisions for the team and team members believes of trust as an important component in team were low level present in the study area. The general team performance level of construction projects team in the study area was found to be low which is significantly influenced by the team trust factors positively. Accordingly, projects team performance can therefore be improved by improving the team trust factors. The research conducted is most beneficial for project managers and team leaders in construction organizations to adjust their focus on key components of effective trust in team that lead to augment the possibilities of team performance. This serve as a wake-up call to stakeholders in Nigerian construction industry on the consequences of team trust for enhancing effective team performance for national economic development.
Keywords: Team, Projects Team, Team Performance, Project Team Trust
EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE VARIATION ON THE BOND AND TENSILE STRENGTH OF SLAG CEMENT CONCRETE
SESUGH TERLUMUN1, MC OKAH1, DAVID BROWN1, ALABI JO2,
1Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Air Force Institute of Technology, Kaduna, Nigeria. 2Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, Nigeria
This work examine the effects of thermal variance on the split tensile strength of slag cement concrete. In this research, slag cement was prepared by blending 50% Portland cement with Ground Granular Blast Furnace Slag and used as the binder. Concrete cylinders of 100mmx300mm were prepared using slag cement, the samples were cured for 28 days to achieve strenght. Therafter, some samples were selected and tested to determine the tesile strength using split tensile test while some were subjected to varying thermal conditions of 150, 200, 250 and 300C at time intervals of 30, 45 and 60 minutes after which split tensile test was conducted on the heated samples to determine effects of varying temperature conditions. At the end of the research, it was observed that slag cement concrete has good thermal performance compare to ordinary Portland cement
Keywords: Temperature, Variation, Bond, Tensile Strength, Slag Cement Concrete
IMPACT OF URBANIZATION ON WATER RESOURCES OF KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
MUHAMMAD LAWAL UBALE1; AND ONOJA BENJAMIN UFEDO2
1Department of Urban and Regional Planning, College of Environmental studies, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna Nigeria. 2Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Nigerian Defence Academy Post Graduate School, Ribadu Campus, NDA, Kaduna, Nigeria.
This paper examined the high rate of urban growth in Kaduna metropolis and its impact on the water resources from 1973 to 2022 which is 49 years. The study employs the use of Remote Sensing (RS) and the Geographical Information System (GIS). Data used for the study include: Landsat Imagery of 1973, 1990, and GeoEye image of 2012, 2022 and the population data for 1963, 1990, 2012 and 2022. The data was used to determine the rate of growth within the study area and its impact on water resources of the study area. The study revealed that there is a great increase in urbanization within the study area and as a result, resulted to a great impact on the water resources.
Keyword: Urbanization, Water Resources, Remote Sensing (RS), Geographical Information Service (GIS).
RURAL DEPOPULATION: THE PLANNING IMPLICATIONS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF BIDA URBAN AREA, NIGER STATE
DANGANA ISMAILA AND YAHAYA MOHAMMED SHAFII
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, School of Environmental Studies, Federal Polytechnic Bida Niger State.
The paper examined the causes of rural depopulation and the planning implications for the development of urban area of Bida, Niger State. The objectives are to; examine the forces contributing to rural- depopulation of the study area, ascertain the urban preparedness in accommodating the rural migrants of the study area. Both primary and secondary sources of data collection were adopted. Structured questionnaire and personal observation were used and copies of questionnaire designed were administered to 214 selected residents through stratified random sampling techniques in the study area The data collected were carefully analyzed using frequency tables pie chart and histogram. The following finding were revealed, After the careful analysis of the data; majority of respondents revealed that they lack of social amenities in their rural area, the respondents concurred with availability of job opportunities in the urban area,91.1% of the respondents attest to the availability of jobs and 8.9% responded against the availability of jobs in the study area. Recommendation Provision of essential services and facilities for both the urban area and the neighboring rural areas to bring about a balance:, Population Control, Key stakeholders in urban areas must provide campaigns and counseling for effective medical health clinics and family planning to help reduce the high rates of population growth.
KEYWORDS: Depopulation, Rural, Urban, Facilities Counseling.
SYNOPSIS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF LARGE HYDROELECTRIC POWER DAMS
YEKINI SUBERU MOHAMMED1, AND ABDULLAHI AL-HASSAN AHMED2
1Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering Technology,
School of Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. 2Department of Estate Management, School of Environmental Studies, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, Nasarawa State, Nigeria.
The entire world has tremendously relied on power generation through the technologies of fossil fuel consumption for many decades. From an environmental perspective, the scenario of excessive combustion of fossil fuels has critically affected the global warming potential. Increasing global warming potential is against the context of sustainable development. Therefore, increasing efforts toward the deployment of renewable and sustainable energy technologies such as solar energy, wind turbine, hydropower, geothermal, and biomass have been a focus of global energy stakeholders. The current developmental stride of the global hydropower projects is fast growing meanwhile efforts towards the mitigation against climate change scenario are also encouraged to be improved. The present situation around the world is that there is growing advocacy for sustainable development that involves taking actions for the mitigation of activities with consequential environmental impacts. The construction and operation of hydropower systems have some negative environmental impacts at different stages of construction and operation, therefore early project planning stage must identify and define clearly all the possible environmental mitigation efforts. Carbon emissions are produced during the construction of hydropower dams while there is also the possibility of destruction of the ecosystem resulting from modification of the existing natural landscape and natural water flow regimes. Therefore, this paper presents a review of the environmental impacts of large hydropower dams. It also highlights the core benefits of hydropower systems as a renewable energy technology and the study concludes with some suggested mitigation actions against the identified environmental challenges presented in the study.
Keywords: Hydropower; Environment; Emission; Dam; Renewable energy; Sustainable development.