SUB-SAHARA AFRICAN JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCE (SJPAS)
VOL 20 (9) JUNE, 2021 ISSN: 2318-9315
Sub-Sahara African Academic Research Publications,
Centre for African Development Studies, University of Ibadan,
P. O. Box 10108, U. I. Post Office. Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria, West-Africa.
A GPS-ENABLED REAL-TIME POTHOLE AND SPEED BREAKER DETECTION AND NOTIFICATION SYSTEM (POSDANS) USING ANDROID SMARTPHONE
OMORUYI O. K1., .ADENIYI D.A2. AND OGUNLA, T.O3.
1Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Ondo State University of Science and Technology, Okitipupa, Ondo State. 2Department of Computer Science, College of Science and Technology, Kaduna Polytechnic, Tudun-wada, Kaduna. 3Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti-State.
One of the basic amenities expected of a progressive society is good road network. Unfortunately, this road network for the most part has resulted to large number of deaths as a result of road accidents, not so much for high speed of the drivers as it has been for bad sections of the road popularly known as potholes that come about as a result of wear and tear of the surface tar. Statistics abound and grows by the day to the fact that potholes is arguably a large contributor to the total number of road accidents. Previous researches have focused on responsive solutions instead of preventive. In this work, A GPS app on an android phone was used to capture the coordinates of the potholes on a chosen route using goggle map. First, a drive-through on the chosen route was done from origin to destination while coordinates were taken as documented in the data collection section. Then an in-house prototype android application software was developed using MIT APP Inventor to carry out the experiment, taking into cognizance the pothole coordinates. Another drive-through was carried out with the software installed on an android phone to locate any potholes on the choosen route. The result of the experiment showed an accuracy of about 97.3% in pothole notification. Our proposed system is capable of reducing the present high rate of road accidents due to potholes to its barest minimum.
Keywords: GPS-enabled, Real-time, Pothole, Speed Breaker, Android Smartphone
PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL AND IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC PROPERTIES OF CALOTROPIS PROCERA ROOT EXTRACTS (ASCLEPIADACEAE)
IBRAHIM T. BABALOLA1* AND UMAR M.UMAR1
Department of Chemistry, PMB 1144, Damaturu, Yobe State University, Damaturu Yobe State, Nigeria.
The medicinal value of plants in the treatment of internal parasites has been recognized dated back to 300 B.C by early physician- Theophrastus. Calotropis procera is a popular conspicuous weed-shrub in the North-Eastern Nigeria, belonging to the family Asclepiadaceae. Several works have been reported on the medicinal potential of the plant materials. The current study evaluates the phytochemicals and anthelmintic activity of Calotropis procera root extract. Methanol extract of the plant root was obtained through cold extraction method using Ultrasonicator. Phytochemical screening of the plant root extract reveals the presence of Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Cardiac glycosides, Saponins, Phenolics, Carbohydrates, but Steroids, Terpenoids, Anthraquinones and Oxalates were not detected. The crude methanol extract was partitioned into Petroleum-ether (PET) and Ethyl acetate (EtoAc) soluble fractions using solvent-solvent extraction. The anthelmintic activity of the crude methanol extract, PET soluble fraction, EtoAc soluble fraction and the residue were screened in vitro against Pheritimia pasthuma and Taenia solium at 50-25mg/ml in comparison with reference drug (Piperazine citrate, 10mg/ml) by measuring paralysis time (P) and time of death (D). The crude methanol extract exhibited most significant effect on Pheritimia pasthuma (P= 6.18 and D= 8.75) and against Taenia solium (P= 8.00 and D=15.05) at 50mg/ml when compared with other soluble fractions and the reference drug (P=34.38 and D= 43.17 for P. pasthuma); and for T. solium, (P=28.48 and D=39.5). This result provides support for the ethnomecinal use of Calotropis procera root as worm expellant.
Keywords: Calotropis procera; methanol root extract; solvent-sovent extraction; soluble fractions; phytochemicals; anthelimintic activity, Piperizine citrate.
MATHEMATICAL MODELS DESCRIBING LOCAL CULT GROUP CONFLICTS
ISOBEYE GEORGE; & FRIMABO JIM GEORGE
Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt, Rivers State.
A linear mathematical model is proposed to study the relationship between two local cult groups, and . A system of two-dimensional first order ordinary differential equation was considered in this investigation. Stability analysis of the coexistence steady-state solution of the two cult groups is incorporated and a MATLAB ODE45 numerical scheme was used in the computation. The key results of the study show that, a decrease in the ambition or grievance of a cult group discourages arms race. Also, a decrease in the efficiency of increasing the number of arms and ammunition of the cult groups, while the cost of arms and ammunition is fixed, results in a stable system. However, a decrease in the cost of arms and ammunition, while the efficiency of increasing the number of arms and ammunition is fixed, results in an unstable system. Finally, whenever the efficiency of increasing the number of arms and ammunition of the cult group is greater than the cost of arms and ammunition, the system remains unstable for all times.
Keywords: Stability, system of differential equation, arms and ammunition, steady-state solution and ambition or grievance.
A TASK SCHEDULING ALGORITHM BASED ON IMPROVED PSO LOAD BALANCING IN CLOUD COMPUTING ENVIRONMENT
1 SABO ABDULHAFIZ, 2 ISHAQ MUHAMMED, 3 HABIB SHEHU JIBRIL
*Department of Mathematical sciences, Bauchi State University Gadau, **Computer Science Department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, ***Mathematical Sciences Department, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi
Cloud computing is emerging as a new paradigm that provide computing resources in a pay-as-you go model. Users can get satisfying services via cloud computing. The major challenges facing the cloud environment is the issue of load balance the work load on virtual machine on the cloud that are serving various user. Many researchers consider execution time to be the major factor when scheduling the cloud resources as task running time and system resource utilization which trigger more issues in load balancing. In order to solve this problem, this research proposes a model based on PSO to improve execution time in view of both task running time and system resources.
Keywords: Cloud Computing: Load balancing: PSO
POSSIBLE USAGE OF ZOOM VIDEO CONFERENCING TOOL FOR LECTURING IN FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC, MUBI ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA
1 BULUS LUCY DALHATU, 2 WILLIAMS BETTY TEMITOPE & 3 MUSTAPHA KASSIM
1, 2, 3 Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, P.M.B. 35, Mubi Adamawa State, Nigeria
Zoom Video conferencing tools have been widely adopted by Nigerians. It has been daily use in people’s life, either for communication, research, social activities or any other purpose including academics and vacations. The study takes a look at the possible usage of zoom video conferencing tool for lecturing in Federal Polytechnic, Mubi Adamawa state. The study conducted in the institution and the survey form was employed where 100 copies of questionnaire were issued out as the research tool. A stratified sampling technique was used across three sample Departments (Computer Science, Computer Engineering and Office Technology and Management) with a total population of 100 Academic Staff, 98 questionnaires were returned and used. From the results, we reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis. Hence conclude that lecturers in Federal Polytechnic, Mubi are not using the zoom video conferencing tool for lecturing despite the fact that they are aware zoom video conferencing is good for teaching and learning process. The result also showed that despite the existence of Zoom in the information age, lecturers’ passion for zoom and desire to use it for lectures is very minimal and so they depend on the conventional method. This is a situation that needs to be addressed by government, educational institutions and Federal Polytechnic Mubi at large.
Keywords: Zoom, Usage, Video Conferencing and Tools
NANO SCIENCE IN FOOD INDUSTRY: AN APPLICATIONS OF NANOEMULSIONS IN FOOD PROCESSING SECTOR
EZEIFEDIGBO, UDOKA G.
Department of Food Science and Technology Federal Polytechnic, Oko, Anambra State
The rapid development of nanotechnology has transformed many scientific and industrial sectors including food industry. A wide range of nanostructured materials (NSMs), the so-called nanomaterials, including nanoencapsulated materials, nanoemulsions, nanosensors and nanoparticles have been applied in food industry including food processing packaging and preservation. This review aims at elucidating the emerging applications of nanoemulsions in food industry particularly in food processing sector. A wide range of nanoemulsions have been applied in food processing. This involves the encapsulation of some bioactive substances and nutraceuticals into nanoemulsions for various purposes such as for flavouring colouring and preservation of processed foods where they act as antimicrobials such bioactive substances and nutraceuticals including citral, ß-carotene, resveratrol, vitamins, astaxanthin, curcumin, lecithin, essential oils, capsaicin and so on. However, safety and health concerns as well as regulatory policies must be considered during nanomaterial manufacturing, use in food processing as well as the consumption of nanoprocessed foods. Extensive research must be carried out to determine the critical health and environmental impacts resulting from the use of nanotechnologies in food processing industry.
Keywords: Nanotechnology, Food Processing, Nanomaterials, Bioactives, Nanoemulsions.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF EFFECT OF DIGITAL INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL ON ACHIEVEMENT OF ENGINEERING STUDENTS IN ELECTRICAL SCIENCE
ONWUBUMPE, BIBIANA NKIRUKA; & AKUNNA, OGOCHUKWU AGATHA
Department Of Statistics, Federal Polytechnic Oko, Nigeria
The paper, which contained two research questions and two hypotheses, focused on statistical analysis of effect of digital instructional material on achievement of engineering students in electrical science. A sample size of 264 students was purposively drawn from a population made of all national diploma engineering students in the polytechnics in the south-east zone of Nigeria. A quasi-experiment was carried out by using digital instructional material and analogue instructional material in teaching an experimental group and control group respectively. The two groups (digital and analogue) were subjected to pre-test and post-test. The instrument for data collection was Students’ Achievement Test on Electricity (SATE) which is a 50-item 4-option multiple choice objective test with reliability co-efficient of 0.89. Statistically, the research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation, while the hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance using ANCOVA. Results obtained showed that engineering students taught electrical science with digital instructional material has higher mean achievement score than those taught with analogue instructional material. Hypothesis tested (F = 288.504, P = 0.000) revealed that there was a significant difference in the mean achievement scores of the two groups of students. Also, result from the hypothesis tested (F = 0.469, P = 0.494) showed that there was no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female polytechnic engineering students, although the female students had a slightly higher mean achievement score than the male students. Conclusion from the statistical deduction is that digital instructional material is more effective than analogue instructional material in enhancing polytechnic national diploma engineering students’ achievement in electrical science.
Keywords: statistical analysis, instructional material, electrical science, achievement, engineering students.
THE ROLE OF DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DBMS) IN INSTITUTION/ORGANIZATION
OFUALAGBA MAMUYOVWI HELEN
Department of Computer Science, Delta State Polytechnics Otefe, Oghara, Delta State.
Today an organization uses large amounts of data. A database management system (DBMS) is a software tool that makes it possible to organize data in a database. Within an organization, the development of the database is typically controlled by database administrators (DBAs) and other specialists. This ensures the database structure is efficient and reliable. In this paper we will look what database management system is all about, and to know the role of DBMS in managing institution records, and also to understand the various areas database can be used. The benefit of DBMS in institution,
Keywords: Data, Database, Dbms, Record, System, Server, Codasyl, and Mysql
DIETARY INTAKE, ANTHROPOMETRY AND BLOOD GLUCOSE OF MORINGA USERS AND NON USERS WHO LIVES WITH DIABETES
1ADEOSUN, F.F., 2OGBEBA, J., 3SAMUEL E. AND 1ABDULLAHI, Y.J.
1Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi state, Nigeria. 2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi. 3Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.
Studies have shown the antidiabetic effect in humans of Moringa oleifera among many other uses. This study is aimed at assessing moringa users and non- users who lives with diabetes and visited Specialist Hospital Jos, Plateau state. It was a cross sectional survey, where 200 questionnaires were administered to randomly selected respondents who visited the diabetes clinic of the facility. Data on socio-demography, food intake using 24 hours dietary recall, anthropometry using weight and height measurements and blood glucose using glucometers were obtained. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20 was used to analyze data. The results shows that 52% of PLWD in this study consumed MO. Majority of MO users consume it weekly (48.1%); Moringa leaves (47.1%); check blood sugar after consumption (76.9%); were >46 years (36.5%), female (52.9%), secondary school leavers (32%), married (51%) and full time house wife (40%). Overweight (34.6%;35.4%) and obesity (42.3%;57.3%) are pronounced in both users and non-users of MO respectively among PLWD. The mean energy intake of both users (2550.21Kcal) and non users (1658.11Kcal) were below the RDA(2950Kcal) and the mean fiber intake of users(49.12g) was above RDA(38g) but non user (26.27g) was below the RDA. The fasting blood sugar of users of MO shows lesser hyperglycaemia (29.8%) than that of non-users (47.9%) in this study. In conclusion, MO users had better fibre intake, protein, anthropometry and less hyperglycaemia than non-users among PLWD.
Keywords: Moringa Olifera, diabetes, diet intake, anthropometry, blood glucose
DESIGNING THE CIRCUIT OF A WATTS STEP DOWN 1 PHASE TRASNFORMER, WITH RATED PRIMARY RESISTANCE OHM AND PRIMARY INDUCTANCE , USING THE SHORT CIRCUIT AND OPEN CIRCUIT TESTS
ENGR. NWOSU NDUBUISI O.; & AMAECHI M. C.
Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Oko
This paper examines the experimental design of a 30 watts step down transformer’s circuit. The actual circuit is the equivalent circuit with all the parameters referred to the primary. The parameter values in the primary section was obtained through open circuit test and supplemented with calculations. In the section referred to the primary, the values were got and substituted in the parameters referred to the primary was realized. Initially, when designing a transformer, the first requirement is the specification of the transformer and the performance expected from it. The output equation usually employed was output rating , where is the source frequency, is the maximum flux density, is the area of cross-section, is the window area, is the specific magnetic loading, , is the window space factor. However, there are a lot of short comings using this output rating method. Because of this, a direct approach method of open circuit, short circuit tests and supplementary calculations was used.
IN-VITRO ANTIBACTARIAL ACTIVITY OF COMMONLY USED CHEWING STICK ON SELECTED ORAL MICROBES
AZEEZ, E.M.,1 & ADEYEMI, S.O2
Department of Biology, Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo
This study investigates the antibacterial effect of commonly used chewing stick. The three chewing sticks selected for this study are Prosopis Africana, Sarcocephalus latifolius and Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides. Extracts were made from 150g each of finely grounded powder of the chewing sticks soaked in 150ml of 70% ethanol and water for 48 hours. The ethanol and aqueous extract were then used on Streptococcus mutans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from clinical origin. Antibacterial effect was measured by on the diameter of the zone of inhibition. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration of the extracts were also determined. All the medicinal plants studied were active against the test organism at varying concentrations. 19mm was the maximum zone of inhibition observed in ethanol extract of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides at concentration of 200mg/ml against Pseudomona aeruginosa and the minimum zone of inhibition in ethanol extract is 4mm of Prosopis africana against S.mutans The ethanol extract of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration on Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 25mg/ml while aqueous extract of Prosopis africana and Sarcocephalus latifolius had the highest value of MIC on Pseudomona aeruginosa and Streptococcus mutans at 200mg/ml each. The ethanol extract of Prosopis africana had the highest MIC at 200mg/ml on Streptococcus mutans and aqueous extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius have the lowest MIC at 100mg/ml. The MBC shows that Prosopis africana, Sarcocephalus latifolius and Sarcocephalus latifolius of ethanol extract had bactericidal effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus mutans at 200mg/ml and 100mg/ml respectively. Based on the findings, it was therefore recommended that efforts should be made to purify active component of the plants extract so as to standardize it in recommendable dosage.
Keywords: Prosopis Africana, Sarcocephalus latifolius, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides, Anticonvulsant, and anxiolytic.
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A CLOUD-BASED FDR
SN ARIH1; S. N. UDEH2; & G. N. JOLA3
1Computer Science Programme, National Mathematical Centre, Abuja, Nigeria. 2Computer Sceince, University of Lagos, Lagos. 3Electrical Electronics Engineering Department Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria
Over the years, there has been the question of improving the mode of collecting flight data record from an aircraft which has a traditional device called the Flight data recorder (FDR) that records both mechanical data, electrical data as well as cockpit voice records popularly known as the “blackbox”. It has been a subject of study over the years in research to have flight data records transmitted to a cloud repository in order to have a better-assured way of keeping flight data records in the case of an emergency situation where the data needs to be retrieved. Several research works have been carried out in this area to store flight data records to cloud repositories which grant faster access to such data for analysis. Others also in the areas of data compression in order to optimize the collection of data to the cloud. The only issue here is that these data collected are primarily for investigative purposes in case of a crash or an after flight analysis. None have been able to provide flight assistance using the cloud-based FDR while a flight is still air bound. Here in this work, we have implemented a system that collects flight data to a cloud repository and checks the condition of the flight based on such data in order to provide some form of assistance even while the flight is still air bound. Our system cross-checks the flight data collected and compares it with the active database created which have a set of rules for a normal flight condition and provides a clue to the condition of a flight that is air bound. All flights with an abnormal condition are flagged red and this allows flight control tower administrators to alert the aircraft concerned as well as alert some emergency units for a standby given the location of the flight. The system was implemented using Java Flight Simulator. The two systems were implemented and evaluated using the metrics such as CPU time, Memory Usage and Bandwidth consumption. The results revealed that the proposed system uses less CPU time utilization of 40.7% as against the existing system’s 52.71%. The Memory usage capacity of the proposed system is at 151.35mb which is lesser than the existing system with 194.8mb. The existing system makes use of 1.733mbps bandwidth specification while the proposed system uses 3.55mbps bandwidth specification which makes the proposed system to have a faster data transmission rate.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GLOBAL SOLAR RADIATION MODELS IN KAZAURE, NIGERIA
1MUSEFIU ADERINOLA, 2JAFARU IBRAHIM, 3ABBA MOHAMMED, 4USMAN KABIR
1Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, Kazaure, Jigawa State, Nigeria. 2Department of Computer Engineering, Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, Kazaure, Jigawa State, Nigeria.
Solar radiation plays important role for solar energy system and development of solar energy devices. The purpose of this study is to compare four different global solar radiation model namely Angstrom, Bakirci, El-Metwally and Ogelman model for Kazaure with latitude 12.650N and longitude 8.420E. The regression analysis shows that Ogelman perfom excellently with coefficient of determination R2= 0.997 with respect to other three model, El-Metwally, Angstrom and Bakirci with their coefficient of determination to be R2=0.944, R2 = 0.9229 and R= 0.9162. Other calculated parameter monthly average global solar radiation, monthly average extraterrestrial solar radiation, clearness index, monthly day length.
Keywords: Monthly Average Global Solar Radiation, Monthly Average Extraterrestrial Solar Radiation, Angstrom Model, Bakirci Model, El-Metwally Model and Ogelman Model.
STUDY ON THE DETERMINATION OF THE PHYTOCHEMICAL AND VITAMIN CONTENT OF PUREE PRODUCED FROM “Trichosanthes Cucumerina” (SNAKE TOMATOES)
ECHEM FRANKLYN NDUKA
Food Science & Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Oko, Aguata, Anambra State.
Studies on determination of phytochemicals and vitamin content of puree produced from Trichosanthes Cucumerina (snake tomatoes) were conducted or carried out to determine the phytochemicals and vitamin composition of snake tomatoes. Other parameter of interest like PH value, total solid and moisture content were also determined. These were carried out with the standard method of Harbole 1998 and Okwu 2004 respectively, of phytochemicals and vitamin analysis. The result of these assessments or analysis showed that Trichosanthes Cucumerina contained alk aloid (2.92+0.chnologies, including cooking (kardenize and Eski, 1999)r high mineral and vitamin contents, some are known to co04 and 4.46+0.01), Phenoloic compound (1.31+0.01 and 1.11+0.01), saponin (0.11+0.01 and 0.09+0.01), tannin (0.07+0.01 and 0.04+0.01), phytic acid (0.13+0.01and 0.13+0.01), and flavonoid (0.33+0.01and 0.27+0.01) which indicate good medicinal properties. The content of vitamin contained by Trichosanthes Cucumerina in raw (Fresh) and puree are as follow:- thiamine (2.38+0.01and0.49+ 0.01), Riboflovin (211.75+0.04 and 192.58+0.08), Niacin (2.86+0.03 and 1.12+0.02) and ascorbic acid (388.96+0.30 and 248+0.25) respectively. From the resource so far, it was proved that alkaloid was in high level when compared to other phytochemicals even though the some alkaloid are poisonous but not all and as well can be used as medicine – analgesic (pain relief). The amount of water soluble vitamin in Trichosanthes Cucumerina showed that the vegetable could be used as a veritable source of these vitamin more especially vitamin C, having (248.75 to 388.96 mg/100g). therefore, the presence of these chemical substance in this vegetable denotes that it is an important sources of essential nutrient and also possesses medicinal qualities or properties for human benefits. And it’s consumptions should be highly encouraged.
KEYWORDS: Snake tomatoes, phytochemicals, vitamins, puree and vegetables
A RELIABLE CONNECTIVITY AWARE ROUTING PROTOCOL WITH VARYING VELOCITY FOR VANET
1Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, P. M. B 0231Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria
This paper proposed a Reliable Connectivity Aware Routing (RCAR) protocol with varying velocity for Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET). The protocol uses a control broadcast to reduce the number of overhead packets needed in a route discovery process. It is also equipped with an alternative backup route that is used whenever a primary path to destination failed, which highly reduces the frequent launching and re-launching of the route discovery process that waste useful bandwidth and unnecessarily prolonging the average packet delay. NS2 simulation results show that the performance of RCAR protocol outperformed the original connectivity aware routing (CAR) protocol by reducing the average packet delay by 24%, control overheads by 13.4% and increased the packet delivery ratio by 10.4%.
Keywords: alternative path, primary path, protocol, routing, VANET.
COMPUTER MEDIATED APPROACH (CMA) AND EDUCATION OF DISPLACED CHILDREN IN BORNO STATE, NIGERIA
1OGAH U. S., 2WADZANI A. GADZAMA; & 3NGUBDO MAIGANA A.
1Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic Mubi P.M.B. 35, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria. 2ICT Unit, Federal Polytechnic Mubi P.M.B. 35, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria. 3Department of Computer Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Mubi P.M.B. 35, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria.
One central thing for the employment of all other human rights and for general societal growth and development is education. Internally displaced persons (IDPs) are considered as most vulnerable due to the increased demands for essential public services and livelihoods by them. This study is essentially targeted at the children in these camps as they also face a lot of hardship with little or no education because of overcrowding and influx of people, especially in Borno, the North East of Nigeria. Computer mediated approach (CMA) of instruction was adopted as means of instruction for these children. As an instructional strategy it harnesses the better of the other methods to improve the instructional process especially of the children in IDPs camp Schools which are usually over crowded with on the spot recruited teachers. Three (3) different camps in Borno were visited and a total of 600 questionnaires, were administered and responses gotten on the effect of this method of educating children in IDPs camps. Percentage was used in analyzing the data and was discovered that the method is very effective. It is recommended that educating displaced children in IDPs camps should be the responsibility of all, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), Philanthropists and the government at all levels. This will help growth and develop a healthy society for tomorrow.
Keywords: Approach, Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), Educating, Computer Mediated Form (CMA), Development.
DETERMINATION OF LEVEL OF GASEOUS POLLUTANTS IN INDUSTRIAL ESTATES IN KANO, KANO STATE
*OLABIMTAN SAMUEL OLUGBENGA; **ATSOR ANENGE JOSEPH; *DR. ALHASSAN MUAZU
*Department of Physics, Federal College of Education (Technical), P.M.B 3473 Bichi. **Department of Physics, Federal College of Edu. (Tech.), P.M.B 3473 Bichi, Kano State.
We conveniently carried out this study to determine the air pollution levels in industrial Estates in Kano State using Bayero University Kano (BUK) new site as the control area. Air pollution present not just an aesthetic problem. It also causes potential health problems. Thousands of deaths have been directly related to poor air quality in the cities. Crowcon Gas Detector was typically used to accurately measure the concentrations of Hydrogen Sulfide nitrogen dioxide, methane, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide at Bompai, Sharada, Gundunwawa, and the control area. From the analysis of the results got, we found out that the pollution levels in the industrial estates; Bompai, Sharada, and Gunduwawa are higher than the levels of pollution at the BUK new site, the control area. Therefore, it is recommended that a clean air act should be enacted and agencies involved in the environment’s protection empowered to implement it. The clean air act should establish a series of detailed control requirements that the federal government implements and the state administers.
Keywords: Determination, Gaseous, Pollutants, Industrial Estates, Kano.
APPLICATION OF ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS (ANNS) FOR FORECASTING RAINFALL IN ILORIN KWARA STATE, NIGERIA
MOSES, OLUWATOSIN ABIGAIL AND T.I YAHAYA
Department of Geography Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State.
Rainfall is one of the most complex and difficult elements of the hydrological cycle to understand and model due to the tremendous range of variation over a wide range of scales both in space and time. The complexity of the atmospheric processes that generate rainfall makes quantitative forecasting of rainfall an extremely difficult task. The Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) is an emerging computationally powerful technique with very high degree accuracy and widely used as forecasting models in many areas such as engineering, social, finance, economic, stock and foreign exchange problems. The Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) approach has several advantages due to its robustness and flexibility over conventional methods or semi-empirical models require known input data set with few prior assumptions. In this research, we attempt to study the application of artificial neural networks for forecasting rainfall using some dependent weather variables such as temperature, rainfall, wind speed and sunshine hour in Ilorin metropolis Kwara state, Nigeria. The research work adopted some key climatic data ranging from monthly Maximum and Minimum Air Temperature, Relative Humidity, Wind Speed and total monthly Rainfall from June to October, all for the period of 19 years (1999-2018) over the study area (Ilorin Metropolis). The first part of the methodology to carry out this research was the collection of rainfall data (from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency) which serves as the fundamental input for statistical computations. The second aspect was the data processing then followed by the presentation of relevant outputs. From the monthly rainfall data, computation of mean rainfall and percentage mean rainfall for the period under study was carried out. Decadal charts were plotted to ascertain the maximum mean rainfall for each decade and the degree of variation in the amount of fluctuation in rainfall recorded over the period. Developing an artificial neural network (ANN) as a reliable rainfall forecast essentially involve a nonlinear modeling approach that provides a fairly accurate universal approximation to any function. Its approximation power comes from the parallel processing of the information from the data. ANN is a non-statistical data forecasting tool which is contained in any version of “MATLAB tool box . The reliability of the artificial neural network is determined in the results of its prediction when compared to the observed data obtained from meteorological stations. This is done both visually (using plotted graphs) and statistical measurements such as root-mean-square error (RMSE), mean square error (MSE), Mean Absolute Percent Error (MAPE) and the coefficient of correlation (CORR) to test the degree of error and examine the model performance. The research has established that with the availability of relevant and necessary weather parameters serving as inputs, the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) rainfall forecast has the capability to forecast accurate rainfall amount over a given a location. The findings from the study showed that the trend and pattern of rainfall movement with respect to its amount and time is such that the rainfall amount either ascends gradually or fluctuates. It was discovered that much of the amount of rainfall in all the years under study is received in the month of June, July, August and September which are largely variant and characterized with fluctuations. Generally, a decreasing trend in rainfall is observed within the first three years of the first decade, with the highest amount of rainfall experienced in the first year of the decade totaled up to 1539.3mm. Also a significant increase in the rainfall amount for the last year of the first decade was observed resulting in an upward trend with values close to what was experienced at the beginning of the decade. The trend in rainfall for the second decade is a little similar to the previous decade with respect to the first, second, eight, ninth and tenth year. However, the eighth year of this decade is most significant as it recorded the highest value of 2552.6mm compared to the previous years in the decade. The highest mean annual rainfall experienced in the first decade was 128.3mm and 212.7mm in the second decade which also correspond to the highest value within the period under study. It was recommended that meteorological stations should be established to cushion the effect and challenge of sparse meteorological data and further reduce the representativeness of a system which can also have significant effect on the results of subsequent analysis. Government should support and encourage private organizations to key into establishment of more automatic weather stations.
Keywords: Application, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNS), Forecasting, Rainfall, Ilorin Kwara State.
DETERMINATION OF NIGHT AMBIENT AIR QUALITY IN ADO-EKITI, NIGERIA
AWOPETU, M. S., BAYERO, M., AKANBI, T. Y., WASIRI, J. A. AND AHMED A. A.
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Ground and Communication Engineering, Air Force Institute of Technology, Kaduna, Nigeria
This study investigated the level of night ambient air pollution in Ado Ekiti. The pollutant of interest investigated is carbon monoxide (CO). The air quality samples were taken in January 2020, during the dry season for a period of one week (7 days). Seven (7) sampling points across the two (2) major environmental zones in the study area namely; commercial and residential (high income and low income areas) were considered, three (3) times daily totaling one hundred and forty-seven (147) samples. All sampling locations were sampled at different times of the night, early night (9pm-11pm), midnight (1am-3am) and early morning (4am-6am). It was discovered that most of the air pollutants sampled at night were low except for carbon monoxide (CO) which is disgustingly higher than the World health organization (WHO) and Federal Environmental Protection Agency of Nigeria (FEPA) standard thereby posing great risk to the public health in particular and the environment in general. Cleaner energy such as solar energy should be adopted in place of power generating machine in order to reduce carbon monoxide generation.
Keywords: Ambient, air pollution, night, Ado-Ekiti, environmental zones
BINARY LOGISTIC REGRESSION ON STAFF SATISFACTION WITH ALLOTTED OFFICES IN FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC, BAUCHI
LAWAL ADEMOLA S1 LEKA CAPHAS2 AND IBRAHIM ABDULHAKEEM3
1&3Mathematics and Statistics Dept., Federal Polytechnic Bauchi 2Office Technology and Management Dept., Federal Polytechnic Bauchi
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between befitting offices and staff satisfaction in order to make recommendations which will help improve staffs’ performance in Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State. An office is a place where professional duties and administrative work are carried out in the organization’s building. A survey questionnaire of 29 questions was administered to a sample of 120 academic staffs selected by a stratified random sampling technique of which a total of 86 questionnaires were returned (response rate of 71.67%). The descriptive analysis was used to determine the proportion of staffs with befitting offices while binary logistic regression technique was used to examine the likelihood of an academic staff satisfaction (dependent variable) against his/her perception about the office elements (independent variables) like furniture, noise, temperature, lightings, equipment and ventilation. Findings from the study showed that 50% of staff of FPTB feel satisfied with their office while others are not satisfied, it was also discovered in the interpretation which implies that furniture, noise, equipment and ventilation have a significant impact on FPTB staffs’ satisfaction, while temperature and lighting has no significant effect on the staffs. The study recommended that more attention should be provided on the office ventilation and equipment so as to have a sustainable and conducive atmosphere and well-furnished offices as recommended by NBTE. Also, lower noise level should be sought for most especially in School of General Studies and School of Business as it has significant effect on Academic Staff satisfaction.
Keywords: Befitting, Offices, Logistic Regression, Odd Ratio