Int’l Journal of Environmental Design & Construction Mgt. (CJECM) Vol. 21 (4)


CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT (CJECM)

VOL. 21 NO. 4 – JUNE, 2021 EDITION

Published by:

Cambridge Research and Publications International,

Africa (Nigeria): Centre for African Humanity and Development Circle

(CAHDC), University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

Email: cambridgenigeriapublications@gmail.com

Copyright © 2021 Cambridge Research and Publications International.


Papers:


TRANSPORTATION PLANNING: KEY TO RURAL AND CITY DEVELOPMENT

 

*AYUBA, I.G.U., **JOSEPH, S.C. &*** KWARFWANG, O.J.

*,** & ***Department of Urban and Regional Planning Faculty of Environmental Sciences University of Jos, Plateau State Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT       

Transportation planning is the rational approach aimed at organizing, coordinating, directing and managing various aspects of transportation procedure to achieving effective and less cost efficient transportation system in both rural and city/urban areas. This has inextricable nexus of connectivity and relationship with all the land uses and its specific activity and/or mix-uses as the case might permit the various components of the entirety of the environment. The role of transportation planning as key to rural and city development cannot be overemphasized. This is explicit and implicit in the sense that, no environment exists without land uses, and same is a function of transportation, which provides basis for the movement of commodities (both solid, liquid and gas), services and people. And all these, have its trip generation, origin and destination in a building. So, if the foregoing assertion is apt and correct, land uses of the various rural and city environments development is greatly hinged on the fulcrum of well-conceived, planned, designed/modelled and judiciously implemented transportation plan. Otherwise, there will be very severe and chaotic spatial friction bringing about absolute luck up/total halt of all operations, functions and activities in the society at large. Hence, the relevance of transportation planning well executed in both rural and city environment will make for ordered, ease, comfortable, efficient and effective transport system encouraging mobility, communication, trade and commerce-linking rural-urban, city-region, metropolis and cosmopolitan centres and their fringes promoting economic growth and development bent on dependency of its multiplier effects. Therefore, the subject matter, x-rays the key footings and role of transportation planning to rural and city/urban development. The methodology that necessitated this was via severe and assiduous review of relevant literatures critical to the subject under discourse.

Keywords: Transportation Planning, Rural, City/Urban, Development and Land use.

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OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR E-PROCUREMENT IMPLEMENTATION IN THE PUBLIC CONSTRUCTION SECTOR IN NIGERIA

 

 

*AMEENAH ABDULLAHI; **LUQMAN OYEWOBI; ***BASHIR GANIYU & ****ABDULLATEEF SHITTU.

*,**,*** & **** Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT

The development and adoption of new technologies and ideas boosts the productivity of business organisations, which leads to economic growth. Recent technological advancements in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have resulted in a paradigm shift in the way business processes are carried out in order to deliver projects effectively. This research aimed at establishing operational requirements for the public construction sector in Nigeria using a well-structured close ended questionnaire where the factors on the questionnaire were established through an intense literature review. The responses were analysed using descriptive statistics and factor analysis. The study established that operational requirements for e-procurement implementation in the public construction sector were infrastructural requirements, technological requirements and strategic requirements. Infrastructural requirements  comprised of  infrastructural availability, availability of trained personnel and technological availability  and thus contributed 37.67% of the variance; technological requirements comprised of high rate of internet diffusion, availability of high speed internet and high level of awareness of e-procurement and contributed 18.25% of the variance; while strategic requirements comprised of  development and review of procurement strategy, financial capability and supplier assessment and contributed 14.96% of the variance. The study thus recommended that for effective e-procurement implementation, all operational requirements should be adequately provided.

Keywords: construction, e-procurement, implementation, operational requirements, public sector.

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WEATHER AS A FACTOR FOR VARIATION IN GROWTH PARAMETERS OF THREE VARIETIES OF RICE

 

 

*EZRA, ANDREW; **JOSEPH, IGNATIUS; ***JOHN, K.D & ****SIMON VANDI

*Department of Geography, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola. **Department of Environmental Science, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi -Adamawa State

*** & ****Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi – Adamawa State

 

ABSTRACT

This research was designed to examine the effect of climate on rice growth and yield in Greater Yola. The study was conducted in the research farm at Sangere, Greater Yola, Adamawa State. . Three selected varieties of rice; Nerica L20, Faro 44 and ITA 206 were planted and replicated three times in a Randomized Complete Block Designed. Daily climatic data of rainfall, temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation and sunshine hour were collected from Modibbo Adama University of Technology Meteorological Station. The data collected from rice plants were; plant height, length of leaf and Culm diameter. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the variation in the growth parameter of the three selected varieties of rice, and correlation analysis was used to test the relationship between climatic elements and growth of rice. Variation in Growth Parameters of rice revealed that, there is a significant variation in plant height and leaf length at P= 0.05, but no variation in Culm diameter. Nerica L20 responded most efficiently to weather elements such as rainfall, temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation and sunshine than the others.  In regard to this, cultivation of Nerica L20 should be encouraged in the study area.

Keywords; Weather Elements, variation, growth parameters, varieties, Rice

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URBANIZATION AND HOUSING FOR LOW-INCOME EARNERS IN NIGERIA: A REVIEW OF CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS

 

 

SANI JIBIR DUKKU PhD

Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi – Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT

This review paper examines the challenges and prospects of urbanization and housing for low-income Nigerians. Drawing on a systematic review of published literature, the paper reveals that urbanization in Nigeria has manifested in rapid population increase, transformation of erstwhile rural to urban settlements and emergence of primate cities. It identified the main drivers of urbanization in Nigeria to include natural population increase, economic activities, state policies on reclassification of settlements and decentralization of governance structure. The study also found that urbanization has exacerbated housing challenges among low-income earners by promoting the proliferation of urban slums and poverty; and that these challenges have persisted and are escalating unabated due to the emphasis on top-down approach to social housing in Nigeria. The promotion of participatory and assisted self-help housing among low-income households is advocated in a bid to prevent the current situation from degenerating further.

Keywords: Urbanization, housing, Low-income earners, poverty, Nigeria

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ANALYSIS OF THE CONSTRAINTS TO HOUSING DEVELOPMENT IN MINNA URBAN

 

 

ZAKARI NDADAMA & ABBAS I. SULE

Federal University of Technology, Minna, Department of Estate Management and Valuation

 

ABSTRACT

The complexity of constraints to private housing development vary from one nation to the other. Some countries have dealt with theirs in a pragmatic manner while other countries have backed off from looking at it objectively. In Nigeria, many factors have been identified as militating against effective participation of the corporate private real estate developers in real estate development. Housing inadequacy in Nigeria is rapidly growing urban centres has manifested in qualitative and quantitative terms. It is on this basis that study assess these constraints with view to recommend for lasting solution. The study utilized questionnaire survey to sample 300 private developers (both individual and corporate developers). The study utilized both descriptive and inferential method of analysis. The result of factor analysis revealed that the seven most high emphasized factors were loaded which constituted about 61.841% variance in the constraint factors to private housing development. such constraint factors includes Institutional and financial factors, economic factors, market and bureaucratic factor, land ownership factors, technical factor physical control and foreign exchange factor and infrastructure development factors. The study recommends that Government should address the economic and financial constraints to private housing development by granting subsidy, and lower interest rate on housing loan, and encouraged mortgage loans for private housing development.

Keywords: housing. Development, constraints 

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PAYMENT METHODS AND PRODUCTIVITY OF CONSTRUCTION SITE WORKERS: A REVIEW

 

 

*PETER BABA BAKE; **JOSEPH .K. MAKINDE

*Department of Project Management Technology, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State. **Department of Building Technology, Minna Institute of Technology and Innovation, Niger State

 

ABSTRACT

Construction Labour Productivity (CLP) is important to the construction industry as it has a direct impact on the competitiveness .Labor productivity is gaining growing attention as the construction industry faces many challenges related to workforce, but one of the most important is poor labor productivity. Several construction projects were suffering from various problems, including poor management, declining fertility, and thus causing projects delay, and cost overruns. The main aim of this study, therefore, is to review previous studies on labour productivity and factors affecting it in the construction industry in Nigeria. Hence, to emphasize on the need to look at payment methods as a sensitive factor affecting labour productivity in construction industry. The common payment methods used in Nigeria construction sites were briefly discussed. The finding of the study will help in understanding the directions required for better management of CLP in terms of payment techniques in Nigeria construction sites.

Keywords: Construction Site, Labour, Payment Methods, Productivity, Workers

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EFFECTS OF GULLY EROSION IN KONTAGORA, NIGER STATE NIGERIA

 

 

OJOYE, S.

Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology, Minna

 

ABSTRACT

Environmental degradation is a menace to many developing cities and they are not unconnected with the changes in the weather pattern occasioned by Climate Change. Erosion in a changing Climate is usually very devastating as it causes a lot of losses both to the environment and the economy of places where they occur. Erosion in Niger State is devasting and has caused a lot of human and material losses. In this study the cause’s effects of erosion and the coping strategies were studied. The entire study areas were mapped to identify the extent of the erosion. Gully Erosion Classification System which assessed the gully and allocates an erosion class rating was used. The results revealed that natural and anthropogenic factors are responsible for the causes of erosion in the study area. Poor drainage systems (27%), poor road condition (21%), overgrazing, poor construction techniques (19%), dumping of waste along drainage channel, and falling of trees. The effect of gully on property value (2.57) and threat to lives and properties (3.10) is moderate, while the effect of gully erosion on loss of farmland (2.26) is low. The use of sand bags is the most common coping strategy employed by majority (56.8%) of the respondents which could be as a result of the low cost of producing the sand bags.

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BULDING COLLABORATION AMONG CONSTRUCTION PROFESSIONALS ON BUILDING INFORMATION MODELLING (BIM) IMPLEMENTATION IN ABUJA, NIGERIA

 

 

IBRAHIM N.; AND ANIFOWOSE, M. O.

Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal University of Technology, Minna

 

ABSTRACT

BIM (Building Information Modelling) is one of the most important technical developments in the building design and construction industry to date. BIM adoption has risen dramatically over the last decade, as project participants recognize that awareness and information sharing is one of the most important aspects of a successful contractual partnership among stakeholders in the construction industry, due to a lack of collaboration among the parties, the project was delayed, materials were wasted, rework was done, and the work was of poor quality. This research aims to create a guiding principle for active participation among professionals in order to improve BIM implementation proficiency. A total of 115 questionnaires were distributed to Architects, Quantity surveyors, Structural engineers, and Builders. Eighty-five (85) questionnaires were returned and analyzed, accounting for 73.9 percent of the total. The data obtained was analyzed using descriptive analysis (chart, table, relative important index and mean item score). The study resulted in a “reduction and avoidance of project failure, as well as team building,” according to the researchers, who went on to discuss the advantages and drawbacks of building. Finally, the factors that enhance BIM cooperation and how stakeholder success can be assessed were investigated, who went on to discuss the advantages and drawbacks of building. Finally, the factors that enhance BIM cooperation and how stakeholder success can be assessed were investigated finally, the factors that enhance BIM cooperation and how stakeholder success can be assessed were investigated, with the conclusion that professional engagement can minimize project delays and improve project delivery time and quality. If efficiency, project completion on time, quality, and cost remain the organization’s priorities for successful and productive productivity, it was recommended that deliberate technique be instituted during the construction process to effectively develop and assess the binding relationship and performance among all parties in the construction sector.

Keywords; Collaboration; Stakeholders; BIM Implementation; Construction stage

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THE ARCHITECTURAL PLAUSIBILITY OF AN URBAN PARKING FACILITY PROJECT: A JOS CITY CENTRE SCENARIO

 

 

*ARC OKO, **JOSEPH OKO, ***ARC. DEMENONGU, ****I. JAMES, *****DR. (ARC) DETUR GWATAU; ******DR. (ARC) SHEM R. LEKJEP

Department of Architecture, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Jos, Jos

 

ABSTRACT

This paper is aimed at addressing the car park shortage problem of the Central Business District, CBD, of Jos, the Plateau State capital, Nigeria. The car park dilemma has become a blot in the landscape of the city centre and a negative smear on the tourism destination potential of Jos. A study of the city centre’s car park problem revealed a continuing, incremental trend whose actual magnitude is not easily quantifiable. The purpose of this paper is to evince the major causes of this trend and put forward a plausible, sustainable solution which would address the parking problem such that it is contained as the need arises irrespective of the developmental stride of the city centre. This was achieved by undertaking a field investigation using field observation, physical field survey and enumeration. Through this process, a first hand vista of the problems and challenges was obtained. Consequently, an Outline Architectural Design proposal of a prototype car park facility that has the potential of add – on – module to address the exigencies of sustainability and adaptability was developed. The proposal also sought to address the unpredictable but surely increasing future car park space needs. Through this means emerged a blueprint for addressing the present car park problems and also the future requirements within the framework of socio – economic, environmental and sustainability needs.

Keywords: Architectural Design, Car Park, Central Business District (CBD), Planning, Sustainability.

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THE ARCHITECTURAL PLAUSIBILITY OF AN URBAN PARKING FACILITY PROJECT: A JOS CITY CENTRE SCENARIO

 

 

*ARC OKO, **JOSEPH OKO, ***ARC. DEMENONGU, ****I. JAMES, *****DR. (ARC) DETUR GWATAU; ******DR. (ARC) SHEM R. LEKJEP

Department of Architecture, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Jos, Jos

 

ABSTRACT

This paper is aimed at addressing the car park shortage problem of the Central Business District, CBD, of Jos, the Plateau State capital, Nigeria. The car park dilemma has become a blot in the landscape of the city centre and a negative smear on the tourism destination potential of Jos. A study of the city centre’s car park problem revealed a continuing, incremental trend whose actual magnitude is not easily quantifiable. The purpose of this paper is to evince the major causes of this trend and put forward a plausible, sustainable solution which would address the parking problem such that it is contained as the need arises irrespective of the developmental stride of the city centre. This was achieved by undertaking a field investigation using field observation, physical field survey and enumeration. Through this process, a first hand vista of the problems and challenges was obtained. Consequently, an Outline Architectural Design proposal of a prototype car park facility that has the potential of add – on – module to address the exigencies of sustainability and adaptability was developed. The proposal also sought to address the unpredictable but surely increasing future car park space needs. Through this means emerged a blueprint for addressing the present car park problems and also the future requirements within the framework of socio – economic, environmental and sustainability needs.

 Keywords: Architectural Design, Car Park, Central Business District (CBD), Planning, Sustainability.

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EXAMINED LOCATION DECISION OF HOME-BASED ENTERPRISES IN URBAN NEIGHBOURHOODS OF BAUCHI NIGERIA SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH

 

 

*HARUNA BABA BWALA; **OMEGA JACOB KALAT; ***SHU’AIBU AMINU BELEL

Department of Urban and Regional Planning Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi

 

ABSTRACT

The emerging paradigm of home-based enterprises (HBEs) phenomenon, which turn an economic hub in every society is challenging to urban planning thought to think in a more nuanced way of location decision theory. Hence the study investigated location decision of HBEs in the neighbourhood of Bauchi town.  A mixed design was used, quantitative and qualitative data were collected to gain better knowledge. Study population were HBEs operators. The instruments used were structured, unstructured questionnaires and observations. A sample size of 365 HBEs was established using Krejcie and Morgan (1970) table of determining sample size. Hence 365 questionnaires were administered using random sampling technique without replacement. Only 350 questionnaires were returned with 96% response rate. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. The findings revealed that, Religious orientation on family values and religious desire of HBE at home among women in Bauchi town were found out to influence significantly location decision of home-based enterprises with a very strong influence on retail, production and service HBE types. The study recommend religious norms and values should guide economic policy of transforming HBEs for growth and development in the cosmopolitan nature of Sub-Saharan African society.

Keywords: Location Decision, Home-Based Enterprises, Urban Neighbourhood, Economic Growth

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ASSESSMENT OF CHARCOAL PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY USED FOR COMMERCIAL CHARCOAL PRODUCTION IN NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA

 

 

EKPO ABRAHAM SALAMATU; HARUNA KUJE AYUBA, N.D MARCUS, ADAMU TANKO OGAH

Faculty of Environmental Science, Nasarawa State University, Keffi.

 

ABSTRACT

Deforestation and Forest degradation is one of the major environmental problem ravishing the world today, Charcoal production involves a wholesome dependency on the natural woodlands which contributes to deforestation, leading to the loss of valuable resources and dangerous interference with the environment. The adverse effect of deforestation is climate change through the release of large amounts of greenhouse gases that fuel global warming. Charcoal production reduces the bio-productivity of ecosystems by disrupting the habitats of thousands of species, and gradually transforms forest lands into barren deserts. Consequently, by impoverishing our natural environments, in the long run deforestation affects our lives and economy negatively. Over the years, sustainable management of forest resources has been of primary concern due to its potential impact on biological diversity and importance in maintaining global ecological function. The most used technology in the production of charcoal for commercial and domestic purposes in Nasarawa state of Nigeria is the use of Kiln which is economically ineffective and environmentally unfriendly. Production processes from cutting down of trees, to logging, stocking, covering, burning, separation and bagging. Results in dangers to the biodiversity, such as introducing excess carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which can affect the health of producers, introduction of toxic substance into the soil which affects the structure of the soil and exposure of bare surfaces which can lead to erosion. This study based on the concept of sustainable forest management and theory of common good, aim at exposing the effect of this technology and suggests sustainable solutions. Primary and secondary data will be utilized and analyzed using statistical, inferential and Geospatial techniques. It is recommended that recommends that traditional and religious leaders should e used to enlighten the charcoal producers on the effect of the used technology and also a more efficient and less harmful technology should be invested in.

Keywords: Charcoal Production, Kiln, Environment, Technology, Woodland

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DAILY RAINFALL INTENSITIES LEADING TO FLOOD IN PORT HARCOURT, NIGERIA

 

 

*JOHNSON, D.V; **GOBO, A.E; ***NGEREBARA, O.D.; ****EKAKA-A, E.N.

*, **, & ***Institute of Geosciences and Environmental Management, Rivers State University, Nkpolu -Oroworokwu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ****Department of Mathematics, Rivers State University, Nkpolu -Oroworokwu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

Daily Rainfall data of Port Harcourt, Nigeria from 1981 to 2016 (36 years) was obtained from Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) and analyzed based on 6 different classes of rainfall intensities as in Tarhule et al., 2009. Six (6) rainy months of May, June, July, August, September and October were considered for rainfall intensities of Extremely light, Light, Moderately light, Moderately heavy, Heavy, and Extremely heavy. Total of each classes or ratings were calculated and Total rainy days obtained for the 6 months being considered with the rating percentage of each class of intensity. The percentage of extremely light rainfall varied from 45.590 in 1999 to 65.854 in 1983. The light rainfall varied from 13.870% in 1982 to 28.0% in 1986. Moderately heavy rainfall ranges between 1.60% in 1986 to 7.14% in 2005. Heavy rainfall component ranged from 0.0 in 1983 to 3.361% in 2007. Extremely heavy rainfall varied from 0.0 for many years of the considered period to 4.26% in 2014. Rainfall contributes greatly to flooding in a city so a knowledge of rainfall intensity is essential in planning for agriculture, design of flood protection, preventive and mitigation facilities. Rainfall intensities and duration are natural occurrences and knowledge of them helps in future planning and management of flood in the city.

Keywords: Rainfall, intensity, Total rainy days, classes of rainfall, flood management.

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GOVERNMENT VIOLATION OF ACQUISITION RULES ON LANDS SCHEMED FOR PUBLIC PROJECTS IN SOME PART OF IMO STATE NIGERIA

 

 

DR OKORONKWO, NDUKAUBA SUNDAY NWAFOR,PhD. MR. OHAEGBULEM, EMMANUEL.

Dept. of Estate Management, Imo State University Owerri, Principal Partner at Ndu-Okoronkwo and Company No. 17 MCC/Uratta Rd. Ikenegbu L/out Owerri Imo State.  Lecturer in the Department of Statistics Imo State University Owerri, Imo State Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

Official negation of statutory rules for acquisition of land for public use recently by some government authorities is creating worrisome situation for individual real property owners. The trend manifested in the acquisition of the One hundred thousand (100,000) ton Grain Silo at Obinorie Ezinnacchi Okigwe Local Government Area and, the Modern Mechanic Village projects at Umuolo/Umuehieta Avu, Owerri West Local Government Area Imo State..  The Imo State Government deviated from granting adequate opportunities to claimants to properties and improvement on the two acquired sites proper access to statutory process to revocations of rights of occupancies, assessment of claims and compensation payments for their improvements on the site. Methodology adopted for the study is the empirical survey type. Both data, information and materials used for the sturty were collected by expert on the site and supplied to the researcher. The data for the study were conducted by certified professional firms of Estate Surveyors and Valuers who proffered Alternative Approaches to establish heads of claims and sums presented on behalf of the claimants for compensation. Notwithstanding the professional ingenuity of the dully elected Attorneys presentation of genuine cases of claimable interests of their clients to the acquiring authority, out of the composite compensation sum of approximately Twenty million Naira (N20,000,000.00) only submitted by the consultants to the government only Ten million Naira (N10,000,000.00) only, which is (50%) percent sum of the assessed total compensation sum was released to the accessed claimants. This actually neglected the presentations and refused the claimants payments of compensation for their properties damaged as a result of institution of the projects. This paper has recommended among other measures to tame the ailing chief executive officers of acquiring authority by devising specific training and proper enlightenment programs on the due process needs for matters bordering on land administration. Executive Declarations and Order should be made to compel ailing acquiring authorities to strictly comply to the statutory guidelines of the enabling Statutes on land administration in Nigeria; as well as empower any affected persons to employ initial soft resistance to the agents of any acquiring authority invading the real property of any intended affected property owner; and,  express judicial injunction from court of competent jurisdiction restraining such acquiring authority from damaging the intended claimants’ properties without due processes being applied; while official law enforcement agencies should assist promptly to protect the interest of any intending affected individual that sought for their intervention.

Keywords: Violation, Lands Acquisition, Compensation Rules, Government Authority, Public Projects.

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ASSESSMENT OF THE APPLICATION OF MONITORING AND EVALUATION ON CONSTRUCTION PROJECT PERFORMANCE BY QUANTITY SURVEYORS IN NIGER STATE

 

 

IBRAHIM, ZAINAB MOHAMMED; & ADAMU, ANITA DZIKIWI

Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal University of Technology, Minna

 

ABSTRACT

Quantity surveyors who are known to be the cost engineers of the construction industry, and are known to ensure that clients get value for their money, currently do not match the demands of other market participants. Monitoring and Evaluation tend to be neglected in the building and construction sector, while other project management sectors have a lot of interest in it and practice it religiously. As a result, the supervision and review of the whole project execution process to ensure the satisfactory completion of projects is neglected and given less priority. The rationale of this study was to assess the application of monitoring and Evaluation on construction project performance by Quantity Surveying in Niger State, Nigeria. The study used a survey as well as interviews among Quantity Surveyors, registered with the Niger state chapter of the Nigerian Institute of Quantity Surveyors. Some data were collected using a structured online questionnaire, whose link was shared with 60 Quantity Surveyors who make up the research population. 43 responses were received and were analysed using percentages, coding and ranking. Other data were collected via interviews with a Lead Quantity Surveyor from some selected organizations. The data was tabulated. The study showed that detailed drawings, bill of quantities, programme of work, material schedule, labour schedule are tools used by quantity surveyors to monitor and evaluate projects. Site visits, site meetings and intermediate valuations are also used as a medium to monitor and evaluate projects. It was found that only 26% of the respondents use monitoring and evaluation tools very often. Majority of the respondents understand the tenets of Monitoring and Evaluation very well and believe it is important as the respondents believe it would improve the output of constructions work. However, Corruption, Skills and Know how were believed to be a barrier to the usage of Monitoring and Evaluation. It was recommended by the respondents that by ensuring professionalism, observing due process, timeliness and concision of monitoring and evaluation activities with further training and enlightening professionals on the technicalities of Monitoring and evaluation; those barriers can be broken

Keywords: Quantity Surveyors, Monitoring and evaluation, and Project performance

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IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH ON SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF AKWANGA TOWN, NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA

 

 

*FRANCIS DAMACHI; **ILIYASU M. ANZAKU; ***SAMAILA BUBA; ****JENNIFER H. HAMADU4,

*Department of Geography, Faculty of Environmental Science, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria **Department of Science, School of Continuing Education, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria *** &**** Department of Geography, Faculty of Humanity, Management and Social Sciences, Federal University,    Kashere, Gombe State, Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT

This study examined the impact of population growth on the physical and economic development of Akwanga Town. Key issues in the research were causes of population growth impact of population growth on the physical and existing infrastructures and the relationship between population growth and economic development Questionnaires were administered to three hundred and fifty respondents. The data was analyzed using simple descriptive statistics and Pearson Correlation Co-efficient (P. CC). The findings revealed that migration, fertile land for agriculture, cultural and religious beliefs were among the factors responsible for population growth in the study area. The degradation of the biodiversity, increased solid waste and pollution were the impact of population growth in Akwanga town. There were positive relationships between population growth and small scale business (+1.02) and investment on housing and hospitality (+ 1.08). It was agreed that there are negative relationship, between population and unemployment (+1.89) and a negative relationship between population and resources (-0.42).

Keywords: Impact, Population, Growth, Planning, Socio

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SPATIO-TEMPORAL TRENDS AND PATTERNS OF URBAN EXPANSION IN KADUNA METROPOLIS

 

 

*ABDULLAHI MOHAMMED NASIR; **MANSUR BELLO; & ***ZAINAB YUSUF

*JOSADA Multi-Services Limited (Planning and Management Consulting Firm) No.5 Zamfara Road, Barnawa New Extension, Kaduna,**Department of Urban and Regional Planning, College of Environmental Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna*** Department of Environmental Management, Kaduna State University, Kafanchan Campus, Kaduna

 

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study is to determine the spatio-temporal trends and patterns of urban growth in Kaduna metropolis. Specifically, the study determined the major factors of urban growth in Kaduna metropolis. Overtime, the drivers of urban expansion in Kaduna metropolis include rural-urban migration, urban migration, population increase, commerce, transportation, technology and industrialization, Institutions and demand for living space, etc. This paper evaluated and discussed the spatio-temporal trends and patterns of urban expansion in Kaduna metropolis from 1998 to 2013 and suggested physical planning solutions for improvement. The remote sensing, GIS and spatial metrics techniques to evaluate spatial-temporal urban growth trends and patterns were used to provide information on the extent and rate of urban growth. The spatial metrics was computed based on the remote sensing image classification results to quantify the trends and patterns of growth.  The integration of both techniques provided better understanding of urban growth processes and patterns. The results of the findings revealed that the spatial development change in Kaduna metropolis is drastically at a rise from 1998, 2003, 2008, and 2013. Water bodies experience insignificant increase from 1.52161%, 1.38209%, 1.65265%, and 4.23816% respectively as a result of development encroaching wetland within the year under review (1998, 2003, 2008, and 2013). The built up area on the other hand increased significantly from 3.57834% to 16.57835%. There was a tremendous decrease on non- built up area causing disparity as a result of rapid urbanization and other influencing activities in the study area. Non -built up area decreased from 94.90004% in 1998, 88.46415 % in 2003, 85.89385% in 2008, and 79.18350% in 2013 respectively. It was concluded that there is a rapid rise in growth and development in Kaduna Metropolis.  Based on the results of the findings of the study it was recommended that the state government should muster the land supply monitoring for the dynamic aspects of urban growth by estimating the current and future supply of developable land to determine which lands are potentially developable according to physical constraints, governmental policies so that the location of current infrastructure could be made.

Keywords: Evaluation, Urban expansion, Spatio-temporal growth, Trends and Patterns

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PLANNING PROPOSAL FOR RURAL INDUSTRIALIZATION OF MUBI REGION, ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

 

 

*TOWN PLANNER (TPL) RABIU, MOHAMMED USMAN; **TOWN PLANNER (TPL) JAMES JESSE SHINGGU; ***BATHON NUWARI

*&** Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State ***Department of Environmental Science and Industrial Safety, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State

 

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EFFECTS OF AGGREGATE SIZE ON CONCRETE STRENGTH

 

 

*BABA BABANGIDA; **SAGIR YUSUF ABDULLAHI; ***BUKATA YAKUBU GIZAKI; ****MUHAMMAD SULAIMAN.

*,**,***,&**** Department of Civil Engineering, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic PMB 0094, Wunti Dada, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the effects of aggregate size on concrete strength. Concrete is a composite material made of aggregates bonded together by liquid cement which hardens over time. Compressive strength of concrete can be affected by many factors including water to cement ratio, aggregate size, degree of compaction and shape. Aggregate gradation plays an important role in concrete mixing. The fine and coarse aggregates generally occupy 60% to 75% of the concrete volume (70% to 85% by mass) and strongly influence the concrete’s freshly mixed and hardened properties, mixture proportions, and economy. Materials used was Portland cement, Granite aggregates are crushed had rock of granular structure, being the most common on earth. Granite rock comes from magma that erupted on the ground surface and then hardened. The results shows the weight retain for 2mm were 39g and 95.13g percentage passing 103g weight retain for 1.18mm and 2.38g for 1.0mm respectively. It was concluded that the aggregate size and gradation affect workability of fresh concrete and compressive strength of hardened concrete, workability of concrete made from uniform size aggregates decreases as the aggregate size increases, compressive strength of concrete made from uniform size aggregates increases with increase in aggregate size. It was also recommended that for a concrete beam, 10mm, 20mm 30mm coarse aggregate size could be adopted as they give appreciable compressive strength. Further research be carry out to investigate the use of appropriate  aggregate  gradation  procedure  for blending  aggregate  for  concrete  used  for  highway  pavement  and  its  effect  on  compressive  strength  of concrete.

Keywords: Concrete, aggregate, strength, Portland and apparatus

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COVID 19 PANDEMIC AND THE REAL ESTATE SECTOR NIGERIA: THE WAY FORWARD

 

 

*MOHAMMED SANUSI MUSA;**ZAKARI DODO USMAN; ***WALI IBRAHIM RAKIYA; ****SHUAIBU MOHAMMED NASIR

*,**,***, & ****Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Niger State Polytechnic Zungeru. Niger State, Niger State, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

This study assess the COVID-19 pandemic and the real estate sector in Nigeria with a view to proposing the way forward. The study focused on events of COVID-19 pandemic on the real estate sector with a view to evaluating the pandemic on the real estate market before, during and after the COVID-19 crises. The real estate sector in Nigeria faces potential challenges arising from the lethal viral outbreak called corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has brought the world and economy to almost a total shutdown. The severity of this situation brings about project delays,unfavourable leasing and sales activities. The study was conducted across Nigeria. Using simple random sampling technique, one hundred and three (103) questionnaires were transmitted online to respondent real estate practitioners across Nigeria. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Primary and secondary sources of data were obtained for the study. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and weighted mean was used to analyze the data. The study found that most real estate practitioners experienced low business patronage.Practitioners were compelled to review their rents and land prices downwards, and recorded low rate of valuation proposal offers.  The study also found a high increase of distressed land sale offers as a result of the excruciating COVID-19 pandemic. The study recommended that real estate practitioners should leverage on use of vast technology to intensify the bulletin of their products while offering reduced land prices and rent, during this period. Practitioners should engage more in viability appraisals to advice clients on worthwhile investments and best land uses for the future.  The study furthermore recommends that real estate practitioners should employthe most modern, digital tools at its disposal to handle house sales even when personal inspection of a property is no longer possible. The government through their central banks and mortgage financing regulatory agencies should urgently roll out different fiscal stimulus for real estate industries in order to sustain investments, save millions of low-income jobs and sustain the production of housing for low to medium-income earners. The government should reduce interest rates on mortgages and increase access to mortgage finance loans from all banks at special rates to ameliorate the situation posed by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: COVID-19, Pandemic, Real Estate, Practitioners, Nigeria.

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FEASIBLE FACTORS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY IN OYO STATE, NIGERIA

 

 

*AKINPADE. J. A.; **YUSSUFF, O.N.; ***AMUSAT, T.A.; ****LASISI, K.O

*Department of Building Technology, The Polytechnic Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. **Department of Civil Engineering, The Polytechnic Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. ***Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Polytechnic Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. ****Department of Urban and Regional Planning, The Polytechnic Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT

This paper identifies ten key factors associated with the development of the Construction Industry in Nigeria using Oyo State as a Case Study. Each of these factors encompasses several other underlying factors militating against the development of this Industry in Nigeria. The paper exposes why the Nigerian Construction Industry is comatose particularly in the face of many failures of constructed structures. The paper analyses the data collected from a structured questionnaire generated to establish the key factors that can elevate the Construction Industry in the most populous black nation on earth enough for us to start exporting our services to other countries of the world. The questionnaire in Likert scale was administered to a sample size of 195 respondents out of 3,900 construction professionals representing 5%. The key factors identified by the selected professionals were 40. In order to achieve parsimony and reduce the data sets to a manageable size, a combinatorial approach of factor analysis and principal component analysis was adopted. An initial capture of factors was made for each data set, STRENGTH and IMPORTANCE, using a Principal Component Analysis approach. Thereafter, the original unrotated solution was refined through a series of rotations using both orthogonal and oblique options to synthesize the variables into 10 factors. The hypothesis tested was that development in construction industry is a function of management skills, availability of construction materials and conducive environment using a regression analysis with Y= a+b1X1b2X2+e.

Keywords: Feasible Factors, Development, Construction Industry

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THE IMPACT OF FLOODING ON RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY VALUE IN BADAGRY AREA OF LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA

 

 

*OGINNI OLALEKAN E.; **FAMOUS CHUKUMA, ***AKINROGUNDE OLUWATOYIN O; & ****AKINOLA OLUSOLA O., 

* & ** Department of Architectural Technology, Ogun State Institute of Technology, Igbesa, Nigeria. *** &****Department of Estate Management, Ogun State Institute of Technology, Igbesa, Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT

Flood related disasters and its impacts in recent times have arguably been unprecedented, an impact affecting the lives of hundreds of millions of people across the world. This study sought to assess the impact of flooding on residential properties in Badagry local government area of Lagos State. The major objective of this study is to assess the impact of flooding on the built environment, critical infrastructures and property value. The study explored issues regarding the types of flood, causes of flood, frequency, causes and impacts of flooding in Lagos state through secondary sources. Both the purposive and stratified random sampling method was adopted rin carrying out the research survey by choosing only six (6) major areas in Badagry Local Government namely; Morogboo, Ibiye, Magbon, Oko-Afo, Ilogbo-Eremi and Aradagun. Of all the 94 administered questionnaire on the experience and perception of respondents living in a flood prone location, 91 questionnaire were retrieved from the respondents, who were owners/occupiers of residential buildings built in a flood prone location, while 20 questionnaires were retrieved from the practicing estate surveyor and valuers. However, the questionnaire retrieval level indicates a response rate of 97.4%. The findings from the analysis revealed that poor/lack of drainage system (30.7%), excessive rainfall (16.5%) and improper refuse 80% of the respondents sees the impact of flooding on the property as “severe”, 15% respondents sees its impacts as “low”, while 5% respondents sees the impact as moderate. It can be deduced that the impact of flooding on property in the study area is severe, which will in turn makes such property extremely difficult to sell, compared to non-flood affected properties in the same area. Therefore, the study gave a far reaching recommendations.

Keywords: impact, flooding, residential property, property value and environmental disasters

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UNLOCKING THE POTENTIALS OF LEAN PRINCIPLES TO IMPROVE CONSTRUCTION PROJECT PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA.

 

 

*OSABHIE PAUL ESANGBEDO, **DOMINIC E. EALEFOH, ***HARUNA SADIQ

* & **Department of Building Technology, National Institute of Construction Technology and Management, Uromi. 3Department of Quantity Surveying, National Institute of Construction Technology and Management, Uromi.

 

ABSTRACT

The construction industry is congested with many types of project management systems to control and manage construction projects, but there’s inadequate research done on the maximization of workflow and minimization of waste. The implementation of the lean construction principles into the construction industry can improve on the identified problems. However, lean construction is complex and can be risky if not properly managed. To implement lean construction principles and to increase the chances of success in eliminating waste, a thorough investigation of the barriers is essential. The aim of this study was to identify the barriers of lean construction in construction industry in Edo State. A questionnaire was distributed among construction Managers. The data thus obtained was analysed using mean and standard deviation in order to identify the key barriers to implementing Lean construction principles in the construction industry in Edo State.  It was concluded that, Fragmentation and subcontracting, culture and attitudinal issue, lack of adequate lean awareness and understanding, unclear strategic goals and lack of top management commitment are the most significant barriers hindering the implementation of Lean construction in the construction industry in Edo State.  Furthermore, this study made professionals and practitioners aware of Lean construction.

Keywords: Lean construction, barriers, implementation, construction industry, Edo State

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AN OVERVIEW OF FAMILY LAND UNDER THE NIGERIAN CUSTOMARY LAW AND PRACTICE

 

 

*SHEKARA PEACE JOHN; & **UMAR IBRAHIM WUNTI

*Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, School of Environment, Department of Estate Management. **The Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, School of General Studies, Department of General Studies.

 

ABSTRACT

The concept of customary family land ownership has been an interesting subject of consideration in both academic and the judicial circles in Nigeria. This study was undertaken with a view to finding a way out of the protracted challenge. The study established that family land ownership under the customary law is as old as the history of land itself, and is acceptable as a means of land ownership with many judicial decisions to that effect. One major cause of conflict in this practice is the customary practice that prohibits senior female members from becoming head and subsequent prevention from inheriting such properties. Therefore, it is recommended that a more liberal approach to the application of customary law and practice should be given to enable the equal rights of all family members over family land. Additionally, it was suggested that female family members should be allowed to inherit family and decision making over family land should be democratic.

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LINKING URBANIZATION TO URBAN POVERTY: A MARXIST INTERPRETATION

 

 

*OKEKE V. U; **AHAOTU, E.O

*School of Environmental Design and Technology, Imo state Polytechnic, Umuagwo, Nigeria. **School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Imo state Polytechnic, Umuagwo, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

This study theoretically simplified how urbanization can fuel urban poverty using Marxist’s interpretation as a baseline for the study. It was based on the review of over thirty related works on urbanization, urban poverty and Marxist theory. Marxism stipulated that capitalist elites controlling the political and economic structure of society were able to manipulate policies that concentrate development and amenities in cities thereby impoverishing rural regions which push migration thereby increasing urbanization. For a clearer view of the situation, the migration characteristics of 79 young migrant men between ages of 25-30 years from rural areas coming into Owerri, a city in Southeast Nigeria were sampled. The results showed that 91.14% of migrants come into the city seeking for jobs of which only 12.66% of them have any form of higher education required to secure jobs while only one had any formal working experience. In the long run this new set of people will add to the poverty situation in the city. As more people enter into cities with little economic expansion to accommodate new comers, there is increased competition for the available employment opportunities and a corresponding lowering of income for many struggling families reducing income to many families thereby increasing the poverty rate in the city. This study recommended a political and economic structure for cities that de-emphasizes excessive capital accumulation which influences public policy. Also the Chinese model of urban villages should be integrated into development plans of developing countries to act as a means of reducing rural migrants from coming into cities directly where they are likely to add to the poverty situation of cities.

Keywords: Urbanization, Urban Poverty, Elitist Theory, Marxist theory.

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EFFECTS OF BUILDING MATETIALS ON HOUSING DEVELOPMENT A CASE STUDY OF MAIDUGURI METROPOLIS

 

 

MUKTAR USMAN ALHAJI, HUSSAINI ALHASSAN FUNTUA AND BABAGANA BUKAR

Department of Estate Management, School of Environmental Studies, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B 1006, Damaturu, Yobe State

 

ABSTRACT

Over the years there has been an increase in the rising cost of building materials and which in-turn discourage individuals to embark in housing development. This research paper was designed in order to look into the effects of building materials cost on housing development in Maiduguri metropolis area of Borno State. Data on the prices of building materials were obtained by the researcher through market survey between the year 2019 and 2020. One hundred and Twenty Five (125) respondents were selected randomly. One hundred and twenty questionnaire were dully returned and were used for the analysis. The data were presented using chi-square statistics and theoretical analysis were used to analyse data that are not numerical in nature. The analysis revealed that the implication on building material cost could result in the downward effect on the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the nation’s economy. The result also shows that rising cost of building materials was generated due to the exchange rate of the Nigerian Naira. It is recommended that the use of local building materials should be encourage by individuals, housing developers as well as contractors in order to produce houses at subsidize rate. Government at all levels should endeavour to play their own role in the control of prices of building materials in order to avoid further inflation in the country.

Keywords: Building, Materials, Housing, Development. Building Materials, Housing, Development

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THE EFFICACY OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM IN CRIME ANALYSIS; A CASE STUDY OF JALINGO, TARABA STATE

 

 

1TANKO, BINIBONORI SALIHU AND 2 GAMBO HYELLAGUNACHA GUNDIRI

1Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa state 2Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Adamawa State.

 

ABSTRACT

Traditional and age-old system of intelligence and criminal record maintenance has failed to live up to the requirements of the existing crime scenario. Manual processes neither provide accurate, reliable and comprehensive data round the clock nor does it help in trend prediction and decision support. It also results in lower productivity and ineffective utilisation of manpower. The solution to this ever-increasing problem lies in the effective use of Information Technology. Geographic Information System (GIS) uses geography and computer-generated maps as an interface for integrating and accessing massive amounts of location-based information. GIS allows police personnel to plan effectively for emergency response, determine mitigation priorities, analyse historical events, and predict future events. GIS can also be used to get critical information to emergency responders upon dispatch or while en route to an incident to assist in tactical planning and response. GIS helps identify potential suspects to increase investigators suspect base when no leads are evident. GIS plays an important role in crime mapping and analysis. Response capabilities often rely on a variety of data from multiple agencies and sources. The ability to access and process information quickly while displaying it in a spatial and visual medium allows agencies to allocate resources quickly and more effectively. In the ‘mission-critical’ nature of law enforcement, information about the location of a crime, incident, suspect, or victim is often crucial to determine the manner and size of the response. GIS software helps co-ordinate vast amounts of location-based data from multiple sources. It enables the user to layer the data and view the data most critical to the particular issue or mission. It is used world over by police departments, both large and small, to provide mapping solutions for crime analysis, criminal tracking, traffic safety, community policing, Intranet/Internet mapping, and numerous other tasks. GIS helps crime officers determine potential crime sites by examining complex seemingly unrelated criteria and displaying them all in a graphical, layered, spatial interface or map. It also helps them map inmate populations, fixtures, and equipment to provide for the safety of inmates by separating gang members, identifying high-risk or potentially violent inmates, and identifying hazardous locations in an area. It reduces the potential for internal violence by providing better command and control. GIS functions, when combined with capabilities of location identification devices such as GPS facilitate tracking the movement of high-risk inmates or at-risk personnel throughout an area. It is more cost-effective for the crime analyst to come up with the information than for patrol officers to do it themselves.Virtually every operational activity in the police department includes spatial relationships. Traditionally, these activities have been supported by paper maps and pins. Police officers now have the ability to immediately generate maps directly relevant to the situation at hand. Police agencies collect vast amounts of data from many sources including called-for-services, arrests, first information reports and daily report. Data in this form, however, can be difficult to visualise. The same information displayed graphically provides a powerful decision making tool for investigators, supervisors, and administrators. The visual format shows relationships and patterns that are buried in the data. GIS could also be used to explore the relationship between crime and the environment.

Keywords: Efficacy, Geographic, Information System, Crime Analysis, Jalingo, Taraba State

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