SUB-SAHARA AFRICAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE AND AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY (SJAAT)
VOL 22 (1) DECEMBER, 2021 ISSN: 2318-9315
Sub-Sahara African Academic Research Publications,
Centre for African Development Studies, University of Ibadan,
P. O. Box 10108, U. I. Post Office. Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria, West-Africa.
AWARENESS OF YAM AND CASSVA FARMERS ON CLIMATE CHANGE IN SOUTH WESTERN NIGERIA
ADIGUN J.O1 AND ADELASOYE K.A2
1Department of crop and Environmental protection. Ladoke Akintola University Technology. Ogbomoso, Nigeria. 2Agricultural Research Council of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria.
Climate change is a threat to agriculture and arable crops are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects. Thus understanding climate change from the view of arable crop farmers, therefore it is important to further investigate the effects of local knowledge on climate change and the source of their awareness. The aim of the study is to access the awareness of arable crop farmers on climate change in the study Areas. Multi stage sampling was used to select arable farmers, 154 and 69 respectively in Oyo and Ekiti states, totalling 223 selected farmers, a structured questionnaire was administered to elicit information from the respondents. The data were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistical analysis (p<0.050) and Likert rating scale. On awareness of climate change, 82.5% and 100% of farmers from Oyo and Ekiti states respectively indicated inherited/personal sources as the highest source of awareness. In Oyo state 2.6% indicated National Programme on Food Security (NPFS) FADAMA and 2.9% in Ekiti state indicated farmers’ field school as the largest source of awareness. The study is to assess the awareness of farmers on climate change in the study areas.
Keywords: Awareness, Yam, Cassva, Farmers, Climate, South Western.
EFFECT OF CHEMICAL FERTILIZER ON SOIL QUALITY IN BOSSO LGA, NIGER STATE, NIGERIA
ILIYASU M. ANZAKU1, ALIYU H. AWAISU2, ABDULLAHI SHUAIBU3
1Department of Science, School of Continuing Education, Bayero University, Kano, Kano State, Nigeria. 2&3Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa, Nasarawa State.
This study assessed the effects of chemical fertilizers on soil quality in Boso LGA, Niger State, Nigeria; the study investigates the effects of chemical fertilizers (NPK and Urea) usage on the physicochemical and bacteriological properties of the soil. The study was carried out on three sites. Site a represented soil with NPK and Urea Fertilizer usage of 10 years, site represented, soil with NPK and Urea Fertilizer usage of 10 years and site 3 represented the control (i.e. no. NPK and Urea Fertilizer usage). At 5% level of significance, the test of hypothesis showed the following results: Hj: the duration of NPK and Urea Fertilizer application affects the physicochemical properties (pH and Phosphorus) of soil the ANO VA test result indicated that the soil PH decreased with increased NPK and Urea fertilizer usage from site 1 to site 2 while phosphorus increased in site A but decreased in site 2. NPK and Urea increased phosphorus content in site 1but prolonged usage decreased it in site 2. H2: The duration of NPK and Urea fertilizer application significantly affects the bacteriological properties of soil. The findings of the study reveal that the prolonged use of chemical fertilizers (NPK and Urea) adversely affects soil quality. Increased use of NPK and Urea fertilizer reduces the soil pH thereby making it acidic and unfit for crop production and also reduces the microbial population. Therefore NPK and Urea fertilizer increases the phosphorus content of soil which is a vital nutrient for plant development, however, prolonged application diminishes the amount of phosphorus needed by plant for survival due to soil acidity, and growth of weeds which compete for nutrients with plants and other soil organisms. Continuous chemical fertilizer application in the long run results in poor soil health and nutrient deficiency which negatively affects soil microbial bacteria functions. The typical soil management practices recommended for maintaining a balance in the soil pH value, phosphorous content and microbial bacteria count of the soil include appropriate soil liming, minimal organic manure amendment, Agro-Forestry Practices (alley cropping) and cover cropping and mono cropping.
Keywords: Chemical, fertilizer, soil, quality, effect, degradation
ASSESSEMENT OF OFF AND ON-FARM INCOME DIVERSIFICATION FOR SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS AMONGS THE RURAL WOMEN DWELLERS IN MOKWA LOCAL GOVWERNMENT AREA OF NIGER STATE, NIGERIA
1MOHAMMED, U., 2UMAR I.S., 2OLALEYE, R.S., 3AHMAD B.S, 4MOHAMMED, U., 1UMAR, A.
1Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Services, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai. 2Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Federal University of Technology, Minna. 3National Cereals Research Institute Baddegi, Niger State. 4Niger State College of Education Minna.
The study was on Assessement of Off and On-Farm Income Diversification for Sustainable Livelihoods amongs the Rural Women Dwellers in Mokwa Local Government area of Niger State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 187 of rural women. Data were collected using structured questionnaire and interview scheduled; and analyzed using descriptive statistics (percentage and frequency), Livelihoods status index and Ordered Logit regression Model. The result of Demographic characteristics revealed that age (62.5%) and (35.5%) of the respondents had age of 21-30 years and 31-40 years respectively. The mean age of the respondents was 35 years, the result of.marital status also indicated that 66.1% of the respondents were married while 29.9% and 4% were single and widowed respectively. That 66.0% of the respondents had between 6-10 persons while 31 % had 11-15 person while 3% <6 persons. The mean household size of the respondents was 8.5 persons, 67.2% of the respondents had one forms of formal education and the other, 32.8% of the respondents had non-formal education. Also more than half (62.0%) of the respondents had monthly income between N35,000- N45,000 while 38.% had income of between N50,000 – N60,000. The mean monthly income of the respondents was N41309.02, indicating that majority of the rural women in the study area had monthly income that is above recommended minimum wage in Nigeria, 84.1% of the respondents had moderate livelihood while 12.5% had low livelihood. Also, only (3.4%) of the respondents had high livelihood. The result of ordered logit shows that coefficient of marital status on off and on-farm income (0.3439431) was positively significant at 10% level of probability, also the coefficient of education (0.1015516) was positively significant at 10% level of probability, implying that attainment of more formal education could expose rural women new ways of strategizing on how to improve their livelihood. It was recommended that rural women should diversify into other viable income generating activities in order to increase their livelihood status and Government policy that will create a suitable atmosphere for rural women to market their business should be implemented.
Keywords: Assessment, off and on-farm income, Livelihoods, Diversification, Rural women, Dwellers.
FEMALE ENTREPRENEURS AND SMALL AND MEDIUM SCALE ENTERPRISES PERFORMANCE IN OSHODI: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE OF OSHODI- ISOLO, LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA
*AKINYELE, SAMUEL TAIWO; **AKINYELE, ESTHER FEYISAYO; & *IDOWU. OLALEKAN FUAD
*Dept. of Entrepreneurial Studies, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria **Dept. of Business Administration, School of Postgraduate Studies, Crawford University Igbesa, Ogun State, Nigeria
Traditionally, entrepreneurship is assumed to be a male-dominated area; the participation of women in this arena has been increasing steadily with the support of the transformation into a knowledge economy. Every day entrepreneurs generate economic growth, create new jobs, form new businesses, increase exports, reduce imports, and foster creativity and innovation. This study investigated female entrepreneurs and small and medium scale enterprises performance in Oshodi – Isolo, Lagos State, Nigeria. The specific objective is to examine the effect competency of female entrepreneurs on small and medium scale enterprises productivity; determine impact of female entrepreneurs on small and medium scale enterprises profitability; identify problems affecting female entrepreneurs on employment creation. In attaining the highlighted objectives, a well-structured questionnaire was administered for information and data collection. A simple random sampling technique was used for the selection of the respondents from the study areas. Total of 120 respondents were selected across the study area. The analysis of data was done using descriptive tools basically to show the distribution of socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, and inferential to estimate influence of female entrepreneurs and small and medium scale enterprises performance. Regression and Correlation Models and Chi Square Test were employed. This study findings based on test of the three (3) hypotheses in the study, show that there is no significant relationship between competency of female entrepreneurs and small and medium scale enterprises productivity (R2=0.128, F cal.= 13.944, P<0.05 at 0.000 significant level); there is no significant relationship between female entrepreneurs and small and medium scale enterprises profitability (R2=0.132, F cal.= 14.460, P<0.05 at 0.000 significant level); There is no significant relationship between problems affecting female entrepreneurs and employment creation (R2=0.187, F cal.= 21.826, P<0.05 at 0.000 significant level). In conclusion, the study reflected that each of these independent variables play a significant role on small and medium scale enterprises performance in a positive way. Based on these findings, the study recommends that following recommendations; the government and all stakeholders should establish women’s university to enable girl child to get education. Also, civic education should be done on importance of girl education; the government and policy makers should enforce gender equality in terms of property ownership in order to achieve the set millennium development goals; Women entrepreneurs need be accepted and supported through social networking so that capacity building is made available in the areas of entrepreneurship; Finally, married women entrepreneurs should be given support by their spouse in terms of actual engagement and involvement in running business.
Keywords: Female entrepreneurs, Knowledge economy, SMEs, Performance, Productivity
EFFECT OF CHEMICAL FERTILIZER USAGE ON THE QUALITY OF AGRICULTURAL SOILS IN UGWU OMU NIKE, ENUGU EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA
MOHAMMED ALKALI1, NNEKA J. OKWETE2., AND SULEIMAN U. KASIMU3.
1Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Nasarawa State University, Keffi. 2Department of Geography, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Nasarawa State University, Keffi. 3Department of Geography, Faculty of Social Sciences, Federal University, Lafia.
The study assessed the effect of chemical fertilizer usage on the quality of agricultural soils in Ugwu Omu Nike, Enugu East Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. An experimental design method was adopted for this study whereby the chemical fertilizer (NPK and urea) and non-chemical fertilized soil samples were collected and subjected to laboratory tests to determine the physicochemical and biological parameters of the soil samples and their effect on soil quality. Twelve soil samples were collected from 3 different farm sites. The result of laboratory determination of the physicochemical and bacteriological properties of the soil samples was subjected to statistical analysis and was used to test the hypotheses formulated for this study. The results of the analyses and test of hypotheses showed that the application of chemical fertilizer affects the quality of soil for agriculture in Ugwu omu Nike; it changes both the physicochemical and bacteriological properties of soil. The results revealed that soil pH value and phosphorus content decreased with increased NPK and urea fertilizer application. The reduction in pH value made the soil acidic thereby reducing its productivity. It was also observed that the application (Site A) of NPK and urea fertilizer on the soil increased the phosphorus content which is vital for the development of strong roots and stems. Based on these findings, the study recommended that proper soil management practices should be equally intensified to ascertain full restoration of soil’s functionality for human health, animal and plant life.
Keywords: Soil, Fertilizer, Fertility, and physicochemical characteristics.
GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKENS UNDER DIFFERENT COMMERCIAL DIETS
1SANI, A. 4DOMA, U. D. 1ABDULLAHI, U. NUHU, S. H. 2GARBA, A. 1OYENIRAN, J. O., 1MIJINYAWA, A.,
1Department of Animal Health and Production Fed. Poly Bauchi.2Department of Forestry Tech. Fed. Poly Bauchi.3Department of Agricultural Technology, Fed Poly Bauchi.4Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Agricultural Tech, ATBU Bauchi.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the utilization of four different commercial feeds available in Bauchi town by broiler chickens. Two hundred and fourty(240) day old chicks were randomly alloted to four commercial grade broiler diets in replicate of four containing 15 birds each in a completely randomized design. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum and the feeding trial lasted for 7 weeks. Results of performance indicated that week 4 weightn (1060-1198g) and daily feed intake (69.47-74.15) were not significantly influence by diets during the starter phase. However, daily weight gain (40.54-47.41g)and feed conversion ratio (FCR) (1.48-1.83) differed significantly (p<0.001) among diets, with better performance on diets C and D. Except for feed conversion ratio (FCR) other parameters were not significantly affected during the finisher phase.Broiler birds fed diets B(2.33) and diets D (3.30) had a better FCR than those on diet A(4.79)
Keywords: Growth, Performance, Broiler, chicken, Commercial diet
PERFORMANCE OF EXTRA-EARLY MAIZE (ZEA-MAY L.) AS INFLUENCED BY DIFFERENT NITROGEN FERTILIZER LEVELS IN MUBI
Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi
An experiment was conducted at the students’ demonstration farm of the Federal Polytechnic, Mubi during the 2021 cropping season to evaluate the performance of extra-early maize (Zea mays L.) as influenced by different nitrogen fertilizer levels. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) where 0, 100,200 and 300 kg N/ha was used as the treatments. The source of nitrogen fertilizer was Urea (46%N). The parameters observed during the plant growth and at harvest were stem girth, and leaf area at 3, 5 and 7 WAS, cob length, 1000 seed weight and yield per hectare. All the data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SAS soft ware and the means were separated using the least significant difference (LSD). The result showed that as the nitrogen fertilizer increases, the growth and yield parameters also increase. Application of 300kg N/ha produced larger leaves (388.27cm2), bigger stems (2.082cm2) longer cobs (12.638cm), heavier 1000 seed and higher yield (8.570 t/ha), therefore, the research suggested the use of 300kg N/ha for production of high yield of extra-early maize in Mubi and its environs to the farmers and recommended for further research to ascertain the recommended rate to the farmers.
Keywords: Performance, Nitrogen, Levels, Maize, Extra-early, Guinea Savanna
CULTURE AS A BARRIER TO LEARNING ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE (ESL): A CASE STUDY OF COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, GUJBA AND COLLEGE OF ADMINISTRATIVE AND BUSINESS STUDIES, POTISKUM
*TIJJANI SALEH ABBA; *UMAR ADAMU MAINA; & **ABDULLAHI NUHU
*Yobe State College of Agriculture, Science and Technology, Gujba. **College of Administrative and Business Studies (CABS), Potiskum.
Language is used among people to express ideas, emotions, and feelings through communication with one another. It is easy to do all these in our mother tongue or our first language. But if we want to express our ideas, emotions, feelings in a second language difficulty occurs. The purpose of this paper is therefore, to investigate whether learners as well as teachers of English language feel and contend that the difficulties faced while learning English as a Second language (ESL) are due to the culture tied to the target language. 10 ESL teachers and 90 (70 males & 30 females) students and teachers participants formed the subject of this research. A questionnaire of 13 items adapted from the work of Ronnie Goodwin (2013) was administered amongst the participants. The major finding of the work is that while the teachers strongly felt that cultural differences affect how we learn other people’s language, the students felt that culture is not a barrier in learning ESL. Though this might be due to the impact of Globalization however, the researchers concluded that teaching ESL should incorporate teaching the culture of the target language (TL), especially with learners of ESL.
Keywords: Culture, a barrier, English as a Second Language, Students of ESL, Teachers of ESL, Foreign languages.
ASSESSMENT OF FOOD TYPES AND THEIR NUTRITIONAL VALUES AMONG FEMALE FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN BAUCHI STATE
ADEOSUN, FUNKE FLORENCE1; ADEBUSOYE, MICHAEL SUNDAY1 AND EDUZOR ESTHER2
1Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria 2Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria
In order to ensure adequate food production by female farmers to feed the teeming population of Nigeria; challenges and constraints which hamper women’s effectiveness must be promptly addressed. The present study aimed to assess food types and their nutritional values among female farming households in selected Local Government Areas of Bauchi state. A cross-sectional descriptive survey was carried out to document the commonly produced, highly acceptable formulations and consumed food types by the female farming communities. Three hundred and one (301) questionnaires were administered to female farmers in Bauchi State. Multistage sampling technique was employed, where the respondents were stratified into three senatorial districts; one local government was picked from each stratum. Nutritional values analysis was carried out using standard procedure. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 21.0 to analyze the data. A large majority (90.7%) of the respondents are married while the remaining percentage is single mothers, divorced and widowed. Majority (72.8%) of the respondents earned less than ₦10,000 monthly. A mean ranging from 0.5 – 1.0 revealed that the respondents consumed at least one from all the various groups of foods. Based on the laboratory analysis, the increase in nutrient contents of cookies as observed in the proximate analysis of sample TBR (cooked) due to its enrichment by soybeans, which is adequately rich in protein, 12.95 g of protein per 100g. Sample TBC (cooked) showed relatively increase in mineral contents and was higher in sodium (10.17±0.203a), calcium (5.24±0.104a), magnesium (8.22±0.164a), zinc (6.22±0.03b) and iron (9.81±0.14b) contents than sample GPC. It was concluded that low income and environmental factors affects the food choices of female farming household as well as hygiene practice of the women. The prevalence of malnutrition especially among their children is significantly high. There is need to organize nutritional awareness among the females in the study area in order to encourage eating meals with plenty of fruits and vegetables
Keywords: Food types, nutritional values, female farming households
EFFECTS OF PLASTICS POLLUTION IN SOIL: AN OVERVIEW
SARKINGOBIR Y1; MUSTAPHA SAHABI2; ABDULAZIZ BELLO3; SAMAILA YUSUF BELLO4
1Department of Biology, Shehu Shagari College of Education, Sokoto, Nigeria 2Department of integrated Science, Shehu Shagari College of Education, Sokoto, Nigeria 3State College of Basic and Remedial Studies Sokoto 4Department of Applied Sciences, Abdu Gusau Polytechnic Talata Mafara, Zamfara state, Nigeria.
The objective of this paper is to discuss plastic pollution consisting of main sources, effects, and possible control. Soil pollution is instigated by plastic waste (due bulk production and inappropriate treatment), agriplasticulture, and flooding from waters among others. In soil, macroplastics is easily converted to microplastics or nanoplastics by agents. Most of the additives (which are mostly toxic) can easily leach to the soil to affect soil animals, microbes or be absorbed by the plants. Intake/ absorption/adsorption of plastics or additives by plants or animals channeled the toxic chemicals along the food chain. Plastics can be able to traverse the cellular membrane in eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells owing to their lipophilic constituents. Plasticiphere or eco-corona confer the plastics with tendency to act as vehicle for shuttling of toxic chemicals or adopt microbes in the plasticiphere. Some microbes utilize processes such as co-metabolism to degrade plastics or their chemicals. Albeit, this field received few attention, some studies have revealed that plastics can be able to adhere to plant body(root), can be incorporated to reach leaves and other parts of the plants. It can also be able to affect growth and physiology of plants. Plastics in soil can alter soil quality, deplete soil organic matter stock, increase soil water repellence, reduce crop productivity, degrade soil, and increase greenhouse gases emissions. Plastics tend to change biological, chemical, and physical properties of soil. Parable, increased soil organic carbon, reduces soil organic matter accessibility to microbes, adhere to soil extracellular enzymes. To control plastics, laws and regulations shall be properly implemented. There is need for creating awareness among the public and stakeholders. Production innovation should be championed to make plastics that are biodegradable and recyclable.
Keywords: Plastics, pollution, soils, waste, earthworm, plasticiphere
EFFECT OF NATIONAL SPECIAL PROGRAMME ON FOOD SECURITY (NSPFS) PARTICIPATION ON SMALL SCALE FARMERS’ FOOD SECURITY IN PIRO COMMUNITY OF GANJUWA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA
A.I. ABUBAKAR, BABUGA, U.S., ABDURRAHMAN, M.U AND ABBA A.A
Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.
This study examined the effect of National Special Programme on Food Security (NSPFS) participation on food security among small holder farmers in Piro community of Ganjuwa Local Government Area of Bauchi state. Specifically, it described the socio-economic characteristics of beneficiaries of NSPFS in the study area. It also determined the effect of National Special Programme on Food Security on small scale farmers in the study area. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and purposive sampling technique was utilized to select one hundred respondents for the study (50 NSPFS participants and 50 non-participants) used for the study. Data were obtained with the aid of structured pre-tested questionnaires, and analyzed using food consumption score, descriptive and inferential statistics (Logistic regression).The average age of the respondents is 45 years. Majority of the respondents (75%) were males with average household size of 8. The findings showed a food consumption score of 50 and 30 for participants and non-participants respectively. This indicated that the participants have an acceptable level of food security, while the non-participants have a borderline food security. The major constraint faced by participants of NSPFS in the study area is the late disbursement of funds (83%). It is recommended that more farmers should be encouraged by the government to participate in the next phase of the National Special Programme on Food Security for increased food production, income and enhanced standard of living.
Keywords: Food Security, Participants, Piro, Food Consumption
USE OF POLYTHENE MATERIALS AND THEIR NEGATIVE IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURAL LAND USE ON BAUCHI TOWN, BAUCHI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF BAUCHI STATE
*BALA SAGIR MADAKI; *ASHIRU SABIU YUSUF; & **YAHUZA SHEHU
*Department of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. **Department of Leisure and Tourism, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi
The work looks examines the possible impact of polythene on agricultural land in Bauchi town, Bauchi local government of Bauchi state. Data was collected using questionnaires. Some of the possible reasons for the spread of polythene in the study area include ’I don’t care attitude’’, poor implementation of laws, ignorance, its’ non-recycling nature, easy to get and use etc. Some negative impacts of polythene waste include reduction in yield, destruction of soil fertility, reduction in the rate of plant growth through suffocation, etc. Possible remediation measures include implementation of existing laws, public enlightments, Proper disposal method, self-restraint in our interactions with the environment and undecided etc.
Keyword; Polythene, Agriculture, Waste, Laws, Environment
EFFECTS OF IMPLEMENT SPEED, SOIL MOISTURE AND TILLAGE DEPTH ON DRAUGHT AND POWER REQUIRMENT OF TWO PRIMARY TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS IN LOAMY SAND SOILS
Y ABUBAKAR, E.K. BWADE AND M.A. BARKA
Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 35, Mubi, Adamawa State.
Field investigations were carried out on the effects of soil moisture, implement speed and tillage depth on draught and power requirements of disc and mouldboard ploughs on loamy sand soils. Soil parameters such as soil type, moisture content, bulk density, and cone index were determined. Similarly, machine parameters such as tractor speed, draw-bar pull and power requirement for pulling both disc and mouldboard ploughs were determined. Two tractors “John Deere and Mersey Ferguson ‘’MF 375’’ were used as prime movers for the study. Randomised block design with factorial treatment structure (split plot design) was used in the experimental design with a field size of 0.8 ha which were divided into a sub-plot size of 9m x 2m and then replicated. Analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range tests shows that, moisture content, implement speed and tillage depth have significant effects on drawbar pull of the tractor, and hence on draught and power requirement. Draught increased with increase in speed of implement and decreased with increase in soil moisture level of 10.47% db, Draught also increased with increase in depth of tillage and is found to be higher in mouldboard plough. The analysis further revealed that, at 7km/h implement speed, the physical properties of the soil (cone index and bulk density) reduced to minimum considerably and usually maintain a constant value of 0.2 kg/cm2 and 1.11kg/m3 respectively, which equals the values recorded at implements speed of 9km/h and 10km/h. This shows that, the physical properties of soil required for good soil tillage could be achieved at implement speed of 7km/h.
Keywords; Draught, tillage depth and implement speed.
DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECTS OF VARYING PROPORTIONS OF ORGANO-MINERAL FERTILIZER AS SOIL AMENDMENTS FOR OKRA IN A DERIVED SAVANNAH
Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering Department, The Oke Ogun Polytechnic, Saki, Nigeria
Although okra is very popular in Nigeria, the yield is still low due to biotic and abiotic factors. The low yield has been attributed to poor soil fertility and deficiency in important mineral nutrients. This is because fertilizers have become a scarce commodity and even when available; it is beyond the reach of the poor resource farmers due to high costs. This study determined the effects of varying proportions of organo-mineral fertilizer as soil amendment for the cultivation of okra. The study was carried out on a plots layout located on the research and demonstration farm of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering Department of The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki (TOPS), Oyo State in South Western Nigeria. This research work was carried out by using field experimental plots. The four treatments are employed in this study are plots amended with 25% Organic fertilizer + 75% Inorganic fertilizer composition of organo-minerals, plots amended with 50% Organic fertilizer + 50% Inorganic fertilizer composition of organo-minerals, plots amended with 75% Organic fertilizer + 25% Inorganic fertilizer composition of organo-minerals and Control experiments (plots with no amendment). Okra can be cultivated without the application of fertilizers as seen in the control treatment, it was observed from the study that combination of 75% organic fertilizer with 25% inorganic fertilizer produced the tallest plants, while combination of 50% organic fertilizer with 50% inorganic fertilizer gave the highest number of leaves at eight weeks after sowing. For yield components, combination of 75% organic fertilizer with 25% inorganic fertilizer gave the highest mean fruit weight followed by combination of 50% organic fertilizer with 50% inorganic fertilizer and then combination of 25% organic fertilizer with 75% inorganic fertilizer while the least value was got from the control experiment. Generally, combination of organic manure and inorganic fertilizer greatly boost the production of okra in terms of fruit weight and number and this is economical for peasant farmers lacking means to obtain inorganic fertilizers.
Keywords: Fertilizer, Organo-mineral, Soil, Amendment, Savannah.
TOWARDS ENHANCING AGRICULTURAL TRANSFORMATION AGENDA SUPPORT PROGRAMME (ATASP-II) ON INCOME OF RICE PROCESSORS VALUE ADDITION FOR SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD IN AGRICULTURAL ZONE 1 NIGER STATE, NIGERIA
1MOHAMMED, U., 2UMAR I.S., 3AHMAD B.S,
1Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Services, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai 2Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Federal University of Technology, Minna. 3National Cereals Research Institute Baddegi, Niger State .
The study was on Agricultural Transformation Agenda Support Programme (Atasp-II) on Income of Rice Processors Value Addition for Sustainable Livelihood in Agricultural Zone 1 Niger state, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 113 Rice processors. Data were collected using structured questionnaire and interview scheduled; and analyzed using descriptive statistics (percentage and frequency), Livelihoods status index and multiple regression Model. The result of Demographic characteristics revealed that age (75.5%) and (25.5%) of the respondents had age of 21-30 years and 31-40 years respectively. The mean age of the respondents was 30 years, the result of marital status also indicated that 67.1% of the respondents were married while 28.9% and 4% were single and widowed respectively. That 60.0% of the respondents had between 6-10 persons while 40 % had 11-15 person while 3% <6 persons. The mean household size of the respondents was 10.5 persons, 63.2% of the respondents had one forms of formal education and the other, 36.8% of the respondents had non-formal education. Also more than half (70.0%) of the respondents had monthly income between N45,000- N55,000 while 30.% had income of between N60,000 – N65,000. The mean monthly income of the respondents was N62,500.00, indicating that majority of the rice processors in the study area had monthly income that is above recommended minimum wage in Nigeria, 75.1% of the respondents had moderate livelihood while 20.6% had low livelihood. Also, only (4.3%) of the respondents had high livelihood. The result of Multiple regression shows The coefficient (67286.64) of training on rice processing was positively significant at 10% level of probability, implying that access to training is expected to influence rice processors income positive. Also, the coefficient of cost of modern equipment (-.6492417) was negatively significant at 10% level of probability, implying that reduction in cost of constructing modern equipment is expected to increase rice processors income. More so, the coefficient of cost of rehabilitation of rice mill (7121.319) was negative significant at 1% level of probability, implying that reduction in the cost of rehabilitation of rice mill is expected to increase income of processorsHowever, processors should be assisted by government and other donor agencies in order to reduce cost.
Keywords: Income, Livelihoods, Rice Processors, Transformation, Agenda, Programme.