CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP (CJMSE)
VOL. 21 NO. 7 – JUNE, 2021 EDITION
Cambridge Research and Publications International,
Africa (Nigeria): Centre for African Humanity and Development Circle
(CAHDC), University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
Copyright © 2021 Cambridge Research and Publications International.
“USING GOD’S NAME TO SELL AND MARKET” CONTEMPORARY INFLUENCE OF RELIGION ON SALES AND MARKETING OF GOODS AND SERVICES IN NIGERIA
*AYOZIE DANIEL OGECHUKWU (PhD); ** MUKTAR ALI MOHAMMED (BSc)
*Department of Business Administration Federal University Lokoja P.M.B 1154 Lokoja, Kogi State Nigeria Post Code260101;**Department of Business Administration Federal University Lokoja
A religion is a particular set of beliefs in a god, or gods and the activities connected with these beliefs, e.g. the Christian or Moslem/Islamic religion. A religion is belief in a god or gods. A religious person has a strong belief in a god or gods. Every country has its own different political, economics, socio-cultural, technological, religious, and legal characteristics, and these variables determine the way marketing is studied and practiced. These external variables especially the socio-cultural (religious beliefs) determine the way marketing is practiced, and how goods and services are bought and sold. Nigeria, the country of study has two major religions (Christianity and Islam), and others like the African Traditionally Religion (ATR) which has its deities, priest and shrines of worship. ATR is still popular among certain tribe and ethnic nationalities in Nigeria. Every marketing practice introduced by people of these religious divides, tend to favour their adherents. This study examines the negative influence of religion on marketing practice, and discovers that religion and religious beliefs have a negative influence on marketing practice in Nigeria, especially in the alcoholic beverage, food and drinks industry. The adverse effects are also seen in the consumption of pork meat, the services and the cigarette producing industries. Religion determines what people sell, buy or eat in Nigeria. In fact, it greatly determines how products are advertised and sold. Thus in carrying out marketing practice the religious beliefs must be considered, although it should not discourage the marketer from performing their functions. Religions beliefs, norms and value have negative impact on marketing practice in Nigeria.
Keywords: Religion, Marketing, Sales, Islamic, Christianity, Belief
EFFECTS OF CAPITAL STRUCTURE ON INVESTMENT GROWTH OF LISTED MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN NIGERIA
*JA’AFAR, YUSUF; AND **ADAMU, DAHIRU
*Department of Accounting, School of Business and Economics, Atlantic International University (AIU), Honolulu-Hawaii, USA. **Department of Accounting, Faculty of Social and Management Sciences, Kaduna State University (KASU), Kaduna-Nigeria
The main objective of the study is to examine the effect of capital structure on investment growth of listed manufacturing firms in Nigeria. The model formulated depicts investment growth (IG) as explained variable, while capital structure proxied by short-term debt, long-term debt, total debt and assets tangibility were used as explanatory variables of the study. The study employed ex-post factor research design which relies mainly on using secondary data. The population of the study consists of all the listed manufacturing firms in the Nigerian Stock Exchange out of which ten (10) listed firms were used as the sample size through filter sampling technique. The study was conducted for a period of eight (8) years ranging from 2012-2019. The study has also adopted the multiple regressions as the technique of data analysis. The result shows a statistical positive and significant relationship between STD, LTD, TD & AT and Investment Growth (IG) all at 1% level of significance except assets tangibility, which is significance at 5% level. Based on these findings, the study recommends that investors, financial analysts, credit rating agencies and the management of listed manufacturing firms as well as the regulatory authorities such as the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) should consider the perceived value of firms with high proportion of equity capital in its financing structure when assessing the value of listed manufacturing firms. In addition, the listed manufacturing firms should intensify efforts towards increasing their short-term debt (specifically), as it has been empirically found that there is statistical positive significant relationship between the explanatory variables and investment growth of listed manufacturing firms in Nigeria.
DO SALARIES AND PROMOTION BENEFITS AFFECT EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE? EVIDENCE FROM NON-ACADEMIC STAFF IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS OF BORNO STATE’, NIGERIA
*KYARI ZANNA SUNOMA, **ABUBAKAR MOHAMMED ALI, ***MOHAMMED KAGU ****AYUBA ALHAJI AMINU
* & ****Department of Business Administration, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. ** & *** Department of Public Administration, College of Business and Management Studies, Konduga.
The main objective of the paper was to examine the effect of Salaries and Promotion Benefits on performance of non-academic staff in tertiary institutions of Borno state. The provision of proper emolument could be viewed as a mechanism for eliciting greater cooperation and commitment to task performance. A number of factors such as delays in payment of salary, delay in promotion benefits and pay cuts particularly of employees whom are expecting pay increase to augment their cost of living can have unexpected effects on performance. Explanations exist that such irregularities could damage employee morale leading to lower performances. The population of the study was 960. With a sample size of 282 respondents arrived at using Yamane’s formula. Data were collected using structured questionnaires administered to the respondents. The study used both descriptive and inferential statistics. Regression analysis with the aid of statistical package for social sciences was used to analyze the data collected. Findings of this study revealed that delay in payment of salary, pay cut and delay in payment of promotion benefits has significant effects on employee performance in the study area. Therefore, the study recommended that: Borno state government should ensure timely payment of salaries in order to induce employee commitment towards task performance. In terms of pay cut, Borno State Government should make consultation with non-academic staff unions in order to avoid industrial disputes. Borno State Government should also make adequate budget to meet up future demands in employee promotional cost and ensure prompt payment of such benefits.
Keywords: Delay in Payment of Salary, Pay Cuts, Delay in Promotion Benefits, Employees’ Performance
DETERMINANTS OF FINANCIAL REPORTING TIMELINESS OF LISTED HEALTHCARE FIRMS IN NIGERIA
*JA’AFAR, YUSUF; & **ABDULAZEEZ, ABUBAKAR
*Department of Accounting, School of Business and Economics, Atlantic International University (AIU), Honolulu-Hawaii, USA. **Department of Accounting, School of Business, Ahmadu Bello University (ABU), Zaria-Nigeria
The main objective of the study is to examine the impact of audit committee characteristics and financial reporting timeliness of listed healthcare firms in Nigeria. The model formulated depicts Financial Reporting Timeliness (FRT) as dependent variable, while audit committee independence, audit committee meeting, audit committee size and audit committee financial expertise as independent variables. The study employed ex-post factor research design which relies mainly on using secondary data. The population of the study consists of all the listed healthcare firms in the Nigerian Stock Exchange out of which ten (10) listed firms were used as the sample size through census sampling technique. The study was conducted for a period of ten (10) years ranging from 2009-2018. The study has also adopted the multiple regressions as the technique of data analysis. The result shows positive and insignificant relationship between ACI and FRT, while there is a negative and significant relationship between ACS and FRT. The result also shows negative and insignificant impact between ACM and FRT, and indeed, there is negative and significant impact between ACFE and FRT. Based on these findings, the study recommends that the management of listed healthcare firms as well as the regulatory authorities such as the securities and exchange commission (SEC) should intensify efforts towards ensuring full autonomy of the audit committee and they should meet at least four (4) times in a year. Indeed, a reasonable number of audit committee size should be determined and such should be technically and professionally acquainted with financial knowledge as it has been empirically found that there is significant relationship between the explanatory variables and financial reporting timeliness of listed healthcare firms in Nigeria.
Keywords: Audit Committee, Financial Reporting, Timeliness, Healthcare Firms, Nigeria.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JOB EMBEDDEDNESS, EMPLOYEE INTENTION TO STAY AND WILLINGNESS TO UNDERTAKE TRAINING: THE MODERATING ROLE OF CULTURAL ORIENTATION AMONG NIGERIAN BASED ICT MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES.
Department of Business Administration and Entrepreneurship, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria
Transformative digital technologies and innovation have lead to an upsurge in demand for highly skilled specialists both within the ICT sector as well as other sectors of the digital economy. In particular, as technology is making it increasingly feasible to decentralize task from companies directly to freelancers that put up performance on gig platforms, there has been a significant surge in the competition for attracting, retaining, and optimizing productivity for highly-skilled ICT professionals among multinational ICT companies. Having this in mind, this study examines how job embeddedness may translate into intention to stay and willingness to undertake training. In addition, it explores the moderating influence of cultural orientation in this relationship. To achieve this aim in an empirical atmosphere, survey data would be elicited from employees of (4) multinational ICT companies that are presently operating in Nigeria, by making use of a three wave cross lagged technique. The three steps moderated mediated regression analysis would be utilized as an instrument of data analysis. The practical implication of the study is that that its findings stands a chance to be utilized by human resource departments, human resource consultants in designing embeddedness programs to foster manpower retention particularly in multinational ICT companies. In addition, it would assist those multinational companies being characterized by culturally diversified workforce in making use of cultural orientations to explore varied retention techniques that can be adapted to the preferences of relevant individual with the view of achieving an optimal level of employee retention and employee training outcomes.
Keyword: Job Embeddedness, Retention, Training, Culture, ICT, Multinational
EFFECTS OF PROMOTION STRATEGY ON MARKET PERFORMANCE OF SELECTED MANUFACTURING COMPANIES IN LAGOS, NIGERIA
DR IBEH, J.I
Department of Animal Production/Entrepreneurship Unit, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
Understanding how promotional strategy impact on the market performance after high capital investments is crucial to the contribution of the food and beverage companies in national economic growth; however, there is dearth of information on this subject matter. The study thus examined the effect of promotional strategies on the market performance of selected manufacturing companies in Lagos, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study are (i) to find out the effect of promotion strategy on market performance; (ii) to determine the extent to which advertising affect market performance.The researcher employed the descriptive research design using survey design techniques. Multiple regressions and correlation coefficientwere also carried out through SPSS programme. A population of 24 product promotional related managers were drawn through a census sampling technique and all the population were used in the study. Two research instruments – Annual Report/Financial Statement and Questionnaire were used to collect data. Data retrieved were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result shows that the overall profitability performances were high in NNP when compared to CNP.Advertising was found to be significantly and positively correlated with profit level of the companies.The study also found out that investing in marketing or promotion activities can contribute to the profitability index of the company. The study recommends that staff saddle with the implementation of promotional strategy should devote time and resources into it since it largely influences profitability of the companies.
EFFECT of FIRM SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS ON STOCK RETURNS OF SELECTED QUOTED INDUSTRIAL GOODS COMPANIES IN NIGERIA
NYIKYAA, MIRIAM NGUAVESE
Department of Accounting,Nasarawa State University, Keffi
The study examined the combined effects of firm size, price earnings ratio, firm age, and leverage on stock returns of quoted industrial companies in Nigeria from 2009-2018. Stock returns was measured by the amount of dividend paid in a year. The study adopted ex-post facto research design. The population comprised of nineteen (19) quoted industrial goods companies in Nigeria out of which fourteen (14) were selected for the purpose of data collection. The study used secondary data obtained from the audited accounts of the sampled firms while analysis of data was done using Ordinary Least Square (OLS). The result of the study showed that firm size and price earnings ratio have significant effect on stock returns, leverage have positive insignificant effect on stock returns while firm age have negative insignificant effect on stock returns of quoted industrial goods companies in Nigeria. The study concluded that firm specific characteristics have significant influence on stock returns of industrial goods companies in Nigeria. Based on the findings and conclusion, it is recommended that government and policy makers (SEC) should design and implement policies that encourage frequent payment of dividends to shareholders.
Key words: Stock Return, Firm Size, Firm Age, Leverage and Price Earnings Ratio.
ISSUES AND REALITIES IN EMPLOYEE JOB PLACEMENT: A SECOND LOOK
OKEKE RAYMOND NJELITA; CHUKWUEZI FRANKLIN NZUBECHUKWU; & UZOMA FELICIA IFEYINWA
Department of Business Administration and Management, Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo
Institutions become organizations as work is shared and people who have requisite skills are placed on the job. This marks the emergence of management as an organizational activity. Employee job placement ensures success or otherwise of an organization. The finding of this research is that there are criteria for assessing appropriateness of employee job placement, which include passion for service delivery, interpersonal relationship, employee appraisal, meeting targets and objectives, and level of accidents and wastages incurred on the job. It was also discovered that poor orientation, poor working condition, technological changes, attitude of employee, managers style of leadership, and poor selection process are the factors that hinder employee job placement. Findings also indicate employees suffer frustration, loss of confidence, turnover and not meeting objectives due to inappropriate job placement.
Keywords: Employee, job placement, organization, management, structure
INVESTIGATING BOARD INDEPENDENCE AS A DETERMINANT OF RISK DISCLOSURE BY DEPOSIT MONEY BANKS IN NIGERIA
*MABUR ZUMBUNG DANLADI; **PROF. AMBROSE A. OKWOLI; & **SAMSON I. NYAHAS
*Department of Accounting, Plateau state University, Bokkos, Nigeria. **Department of Accounting, Faculty of Management Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria.
The purpose of the paper is to investigate the relationship between board independence and risk disclosure in Nigeria. Looking at the 14 deposit money banks listed on the stock exchange, a Partial least squares- structural equation model was run to examine the influence of bank size on the extent of risk disclosure measured through an index based on the information disclosed in their annual reports. Findings from the analysis revealed that board independence does not have any significant relationship with the risk disclosure of deposit money banks in Nigeria. The possible explanation for such a situation may be the fact that the outside directors have just a minimal dealing with the company and so may not have any concern with the disclosure of risk information of the company. The implication of this finding in the banking sector is that, board independence is not important in determining the level of risk disclosure of Deposit money banks in Nigeria. It is therefore recommended that the independence of board members should not be a source of concern if the aim of a policy is to improve risk disclosure.
Keywords: Independence, risk, annual reports, disclosure
DYNAMICS OF PSYCHOGRAPHIC VARIATION IN TOP MANAGEMENT HETEROGENEITY TEAM AS A DECOY TO NO-JOB CLASSIFICATION
ABDUSSALAM AGBEYANGI FUNSO1, OLANREWAJU ISIAKA ANAFI2 & ABDUSSALAM HAWAU3
*Department of Business Administration and Management Science Studies, Institute of Finance and Management Studies, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin. **Department of Marketing, Institute of Finance and Management Studies, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin. ***Department of Business Administration and Management Science Studies, Institute of Finance and Management Studies, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin
The level of psychographic variation within a given top management team heterogeneity often accounts for its success. However, given the prevalence of literatures on top management team heterogeneity, little focus had been given to psychographic analysis aspect of top management team heterogeneity. Therefore, this paper sought to review the neglect of this important aspect of modern work fare as top management team heterogeneity had become in the global space. Employment of three by three matrixes to evaluate the previous revelations in the research using regression and correlation analyses were employed for this study. It is affirmatively concluded that given other things been equal a deepening well varied psychographic variants top management team heterogeneity shall surpass the other teams not so blessed.
Key words: Psychographic variation, top management team heterogeneity, Global space and Work fare
THE EFFECT OF FIRM CHARACTERISTICS AND EARNINGS MANAGEMENT IN DEPOSIT MONEY BANK.
*MONICA SHADRACH & **PETER IRMIYA YAKURA
Department of Accountancy, Federal Polytechnic Mubi. Adamawa state.
This paper examined firm characteristics and earnings management in the deposit money bank in Nigeria. Specifically, the paper examined the effects of firm characteristics attributes of firm size, firm age, and auditor type, audit committee independent and financial leverage. The population of the study consist of the twenty one deposit money bank in Nigeria as at the time of data collection (2006-2017). Filtering sampling technique was used to select ten banks from the population as sample size and analysed using descriptive statistics. The result of the analysis shows that firm size and firm financial leverage does not have significant effect on earnings management in deposit money bank in Nigeria at 5% level of significance. However, firm age, auditor committee independence and auditor type have significant effect on earnings management. The study recommended, among others, that the shareholders should insist on the institution of highly independent audit committee as a mechanism for curtailing the tendency to window dressing of the financial statements and appropriate mechanism for monitoring earnings management activities in the industry by Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) for adequate evaluation, examination and scrutnization of banks financial statements.
Key words: firm size, firm age, auditor type, auditor committee independent, financial leverage and earnings management.
IMPACT OF SOCIAL MEDIA ADOPTION ON PERFORMANCE OF SMEs IN KANO STATE, NIGERIA
KATERI, ZAHRADDEEN A.
Business Education Department Federal College of Education, Yola. Adamawa State, Nigeria.
This study examines the impact of social media adoption on SMEs performance looking at how SMEs can use social media for marketing and communication, customer relationship, information search, building brand awareness and equity, increase market share, sales and revenue and gain competitive advantage. Although studies have been conducted on factors influencing adoption of social media by SMEs, few studies examine critically the impact of the adoption on SMEs performance. The study used quantitative research design and data was collected from 384 manager/owners, and Information Technology workers across 8,286 different categories of SMEs in Kano state, Nigeria using stratified random sampling technique. The data was analyzed using SMART PLS3. The study revealed that social media adoption greatly impacts on SMEs performance in terms of reduction in cost of marketing and communication, increase customer relationship, easy access to market information, building brand awareness, loyalty, and equity, increases market share, sales and revenue and competitive advantage. The study recommends that SMEs should adopt a new business model integrating social media as a marketing tool to achieved less cost of marketing and advertising, increase global presence leading to a larger market share, sales and revenue and equally build strong brand equity and competitive advantage which in turn improve SMEs performance.
CAPACITY BUILDING AND EMPLOYEES’ PERFORMANCE IN DR ISA MUSTAPHA AGWAI I POLYTECHNIC, LAFIA, ASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA
*MAKU SAMPSON HASSAN, **SYLVESTER UMBUGADU AKU & ***DANIEL ASHEDZI MERCY
*Department of Business Administration and Management, School of Administration and Business Studies, Dr Isa Mustapha Agwai I Polytechnic, Lafia. **Department of Accountancy, School of Administration and Business Studies, Dr Isa Mustapha Agwai I Polytechnic, Lafia. ***Department of Office Technology Management, School of Information and Comm. Technology, Dr Isa Mustapha Agwai I Polytechnic, Lafia
This empirical study explores the relationship between Capacity Building and Employees’ Performance in Dr Isa Mustapha Agwai I Polytechnic, Lafia, based on descriptive research design. Two research questions, objectives and hypotheses were formulated for the study. In this study, capacity building is measured with training and education, while employees’ performance is measured with productivity. Yamane‘s sample size determination formula was used in the study to obtain a sample size of 155 for the study. Both primary and secondary data were used. The 155 copies of questionnaire were administered to the teaching staff across the schools that constitute the Polytechnic, after proper validation by experts, returned and the data analyzed based on Karl Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMCC)to get the two hypotheses formulated tested. Descriptive Statistics and frequencies were also performed on the data. The two research questions raised were analyzed using simple percentage and the hypotheses formulated were also tested at 05% confidence interval. The major Findings in the study are that; there are significant positive relationships between training, education and productivity in Dr Isa Mustapha Agwai I Polytechnic, Lafia. Thus, conclusion has been drawn that capacity building plays a significant role in improving the performance in terms of training and education of the academic staff of the Polytechnic. The study recommends among others, paying attention to academic staff training so as to enhance their commitment to work and consequently achieve the overall objectives of the institution.
Key Words: Capacity building, Employee’s Performance, Training, Education and Productivity
GREEN PACKAGING: MUSHROOM BASED PACKAGING FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA (A Descriptive Perspective)
ASORE, E. PATRICIA (MRS)
Department of Marketing, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi
The main objective of the study is to find out the importance of mushroom based packaging for sustainable development. The specific objectives are: To identify the key roles and functions of packaging, to find out why green packaging is important, to determine the benefits of mushroom packaging for sustainable development and to showcase the practical applications of mycelium. Methodologically, the paper has been written from a descriptive perspective. The key roles and functions of packaging are shown to include the following: Containment, protection and preservation, user Convenience, marketing communication, loading and transport, and identification. Green packaging is important because it is used to overcome the negative impacts of plastic packaging on the environment, humans and animals. Some of the benefits of mushroom packaging for sustainable development include the fact that they are biodegradable and strong, Can be grown into any molded shape, Can be grown with at-home packs, Consumer preference, versatile base material for the manufacture of other products, abundant, sustainable, and inexpensive, mycelium in the packaging Industry creates further income potential for farmers, it is hydrophobic and flame resistant. The practical applications include its uses in household goods and clothing, transportation, packaging, and automotive; construction, Soil, Computing and information. Some of the recommendations include the following: Universities and Polytechnics in Nigeria should be encouraged to partner with local farmers around them in the cultivation of mushroom that can used for researches into packaging , medicinal , manufacturing construction and textiles purposes. With the bill on the ban on the manufacturing, importation, and use of plastic bags, popularly called nylon bags for both commercial and domestic use, It will be good for the Nigerian government to give grants to some research institutions in the country; to research on how they can use mushroom, corn starch, rice starch, sugar cane, cashew, and others to manufacture these and other products. To the manufacturers who wish to transform their traditional packaging strategy into green packaging strategy, the government should provide them tax reliefs and loan facilities.
Keywords: Green packaging. Mycelium, Mushroom, Biodegradable, Transportation, Plastic, Sustainable Development.
TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL: IT’S PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES OF CORRUPT PRACTICES IN NIGERIA
*IDRIS MUHAMMED BUHARI. **ABDULLAHI MOMOH
*Department of Public Administration, School of Business Studies, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi Edo State. **Department of Public Administration, School of Business Studies, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi Edo State
The United Nations Global programme against corruption (UNGPAC) defines it as “abuse of power for private gain”. The paper examines corruption as a challenge to sustainable development in the fourth republic. In this research work, attempt was made to conceptualize corruption and sustainable development .With regards to the methodology, the paper was based on systematic qualitative content analysis .We also used historical and cultural theory of corruption as the tool of our analysis. A cursory observation into the Fourth Republic in Nigeria reveals that corruption was perpetrated with impunity with little or no effort at bringing the perpetrators to justice. Despite the establishment of the anti-graft commissions by the Obasanjo Administration, corruption has continued to escalate like wildfire. Therefore, this paper attempts to extrapolate the factors that were responsible for this high profile corrupt practices in Nigeria and this were traceable to historical and cultural factors of the components that make up the country. The amalgamation of Nigeria in 1914 by Sir Frederick Lugard placed the three major ethnic groups in the country advantaged over the minority ethnic groups. The minorities, who felt insecure in the hands of the major ethnic groups therefore, resorted to manipulations just as the major ethnic groups attempt to maneuver their ways. It is this suspicious attitude of the people that make up the country for one another, and for what a person in position is likely to be, that results in corrupt practices. It is therefore, the contention of this paper that unless this phenomenon is fought with every decorum it deserves by the Federal government of Nigeria, sustainable development will be a mirage with dare consequences on the economy, the citizenry and on our collective image globally. The anti-graft commissions should therefore be empowered to work assiduously without being molested or interfered with by the government. The paper contended that unless good governance is in place with accountability carefully observed, sustainable development cannot be realized.
FACTORS THAT AFFECT TAX COMPLIANCE AMONG SMALL AND MEDI UM ENTERPRISES (SMEs) IN BAUCHI METROPOLIS
IRIABIJE EMMANUEL UAREME, AYANWUYI JOHNSON, EIKHOMUN EHI DANIEL, YUSUF OVA MUTALIB.
Department of Accountancy, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi
Tax is a significant stream of income for government’s improvement projects. In any case, tax compliance among SMEs is poor .Along these lines, this examination was directed utilizing SMEs in Bauchi metropolis Nigeria to assess and rank the components that support rebelliousness with tax commitment by SMEs It was tracked down that high tax rates and complex fi ling procedures are the most vital variables causing resistance of SMEs Different components like multiple taxation and absence of tax knowledge influence tax compliance among the SMEs reviewed uniquely to a lesser degree. In this way it is suggested that SMEs ought to be levied lower level of assessments to permit enough funds for business improvement and better odds of survival in a competitive market .The public authority ought to likewise consider expanding tax motivating forces, for example, exceptions and tax holidays as these will not only encourage voluntary compliance but also at tract investor who are potential viable taxpayer sin the future.
Keywords: taxation developing economy, tax compliance tax compliance costs, informal economy, SMEs
JOINT EFFECT OF FINANCIAL DEEPENING AND FINANCIAL FRAGILITY ON ECONOMIC GROWTH: EVIDENCE FROM NORTHERN AFRICA
*NASIRU ADAMU; & **YAHYA ZAKARI ABDULLAHI PhD
*Department of Economics, Isa Kaita College of Education Dutsin-ma, Katsina State, Nigeria. ** Development Economics, Department of Economics, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria.
This paper intends to resolve the apparent contradiction emanating from two interrelated but conflicting theories of financial deepening on one hand and financial fragility on the other hand as they jointly effect Economic growth in different directions. The study was conducted on five cross-sections within the North African Sub-region and it covers a period of thirty-one (31) years (1985-2016). Levin, Lin and Chu unit-root test was conducted and the variables (RGDP, PSECR, FINFR and TROPN) were found to be integrated of the first order I(1), the study also found the presence of a positive and statistically significant joint influence of financial deepening and financial fragility on Economic growth based on the results of the computed Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS). Causality test conducted based on the Pairwise Panel Granger framework indicates that there is no causation between financial deepening, financial Fragility and Economic growth in Northern Africa. Result of the cross-sectional dependence test indicates that there is a serious contagious effect of financial fragility across Northern Africa, as shocks within the North African sub-region is transmitted to all cross-sections within the region. Findings from this study call for the extension of private sector credit to productive enterprises (Small and Medium), in addition to the need for an effective institutional arrangement that will reduce the number of non-performing loans and bad debts which will also stabilize the intensity of the shocks arising from financial fragility.
Keywords: Financial deepening, financial fragility, Cointegration, North Africa, Economic Growth.
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF INTERNAL SECURITY CHALLENGES: EVALUATING THE EFFECT OF BANDITRY AND KIDNAPPING IN NORTH WESTERN NIGERIA AND THE ROLE OF THE MILITARY
* SADEEQ GARBA ABUBAKAR, ** BELLO DOGOJI ADAMU, ***YAHAYA SHEHU MOHAMMED, **** MUHAMMAD SANI MUSA, *****LAURATU MUSA YAHAYA
*,**,***,**** & ***** Department of Business Administration and Management, the Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. 5Department of Office Technology Management, the Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.
In the last five years, the communities living in Nigeria’s Zamfara, Kaduna, Niger, Sokoto, Kebbi and Katsina states in the northwest, have been negatively affected by insecurity. About 21 million people living in these states have been exposed to insecurity from activities of bandits and kidnappers. Though unconnected to the Boko Haram insurgency in the northeast, the banditry violence began as a farmer/herder conflict in 2011 and intensified between 2017 to 2018 to include cattle rustling, kidnapping for ransom, sexual violence and killings. The violence has affected about 35 out of 92 local government areas in the 4 states. Therefore, evaluating the situation with the aim of proffering solution through the development of strategic thinking approach as a remedy for attempting to overcome the present day challenges is the main objective of this study. The study is based on a case study design using secondary sources of data. The study employed qualitative research technique for its data analysis. The findings suggest that the skill of leaders represent the knowledge base required for action to implement the vision of what must be accomplished. Furthermore, skills sustain those at senior levels through times of great crisis, allowing them to make timely decisions, issue appropriate orders, and execute plans decisively in the absence of detailed information. Other finding indicates that while the basic tenets of leadership can be applied without any difficulty, but the greatest challenge faced by senior leadership is of leading subordinates into the face of certain death and motivating them to fight the domestic insecurity and terrorism threats. A recommendation on basis of the current information society, it seems logical that the strategic leadership of all security agencies should put more effort into creating structures and concepts that first of all can cope more effectively both with the network of the bandits/kidnappers and their non-state financiers & sympathisers.
Keywords: Banditry, Kidnapping, Insecurity, Military, Strategic thinking.
ROLE OF INFORMATION iN INSURANCE SECTOR OF BANKING INDUSTRY
*AGU ODIRA .C. **OKORO MICHAEL UGOCHUKWU
*Department of Insurance Federal Olytechnic Oko. **Department of Banking and Finance Federal Polytechnic Oko
The developments in IT are the working wonders in all the fields of activity. It has become possible to send and receive information almost instantaneously. If circulars do not reach the agents on time or doubts are not cleared quickly, or the agent does not have details of the new plans announced in the press, the agent may face awkward situation with the prospects. Insurance companies face problems which can be totally ducked with the use of technology. The insurers who are conventionally have been quick to adapt latest developments in the field of IT. The scope of information technology will vary between insures. The IT has constantly played a very imperative role in the operations of every insurance company. The fact is that of all the business establishments in the facility sector, of the life insurance companies were the first to adopt Computerization as an incontrovertible part of their operation all over the world. The swift innovation in the area of information and communication technology has stood with serious challenges for the insurance industry in India. The practice with the application of information technology in comprehensive variety of guarantor’s operations has now become strategic in the sense that it has direct impact on the efficiency of resources, and a steepening impact on reducing the case of various activities. With the entrance of private insurance players, the competition has become more powerful and an important role is being played by the insurance sector. The use of information technology is not new to the insurance sector, yet we may find constricted computerization regarding the use of information technology in various departments of the insurance companies including the major players from past several years. The most evident departments are accounting, Legal issue and servicing, claim processing, sales management etc.
CREDIT MANAGEMENT AND PERFORMANCE OF DEPOSIT MONEY BANKS IN NIGERIA (A SURVEY OF SELECTED DEPOSIT MONEY BANKS IN NIGERIA)
*ABIOLA BOLAJI IBRAHIM (ACA); **YAHAYA ALIU BABATUNDE & ***OLAIYA ABIODUN LUKUMAN
*,**, & *** Department of Accountancy Federal Polytechnic Offa, Kwara State
The study investigated the impact of credit management on performance of Deposit Money Banks (DMBs) in Nigeria. Survey method was adopted for the study. The study covered all the Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria (DMBs). Six banks were selected using simple random sampling technique. Secondary data was used through Annual Reports from six banks selected for ten years between 2010 to 2019. Data collected were analyzed using multiple regressions by adopting panel method. This is with a view to providing further empirical evidence on how credit risk policies affect the performance of Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria (DMBs). Panel regression was used to determine the effect of loan loss provision (LLP), loans and advances (LA), non-performing loans (NPL) and shareholders’ funds on return on asset (ROA). The findings revealed that credit management or credit risk policies have impact on the profitability of DMBs. Based on the findings; shareholders’ funds is a major predictor of banks’ profitability. So, it is recommended that DMBs should be well capitalized to maintain good capital adequacy. It is also recommended that appropriate credit risk policies should be instituted in the DMB.
Keywords: Credit Management, Performance, Return on asset, Non-performing loans, Loan and advance, Deposit Money Banks.
AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OF STRATEGIC PLANNING AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE: EVIDENCE FROM NIGERIAN MANUFACTURING COMPANIES
1AFOLABI, MUSBAU. A, 1AMUSAT WALI .A,
1Department of Business Administration and Management, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree, Nigeria
The main objective of the study was to examine the impact of strategic planning on organizational performance with particular reference to selected manufacturing companies. Purposive sampling method was used to select five manufacturing companies operating in Ibadan metropolis, while simple random sampling technique was used to select one hundred and sixty five (165) respondents. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the data while analysis of data was performed with the aid of both descriptive and inferential statistical tools such as frequency, mean, standard deviation, and Linear Regression. The Result showed that strategic planning process awareness and involvement is low among the respondents. Result also revealed that strategic planning (β = 0.617; t = 1.687; Pns) has a positive impact on organizational performance but insignificant. Based on the findings, the study concluded that strategic planning process is major predictor of organizational performance.
Keywords: Strategic planning, organizational performance, Awareness, Involvement, Manufacturing
A STUDY OF HOTELS’ FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE FOR INTRODUCTION OF AN INTER-HOTEL COMPARISON SCHEME IN YOLA, ADAMAWA STATE NIGERIA
GABRIEL UNUAGBO YESUF1; RUKKAYATU SULEIMAN2; & ADEJOH APEH MATTHEW3
1 & 2 Department of Hospitality Management and Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi 3 Department of Hospitality Management, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi
One way of achieving classification of hotels is by comparative analysis of major operating statistics .Comparative analysis of hotel operating statistics for the purpose of classification is achieved through inter-hotel comparison scheme. Inter- hotel comparison is a system where hotels of comparable standards agree that their performance statistics be collected, analyzed and compared by a center so that each hotel is able to assess its performance in relation to other hotels in the scheme. Hotels in Yola lack this medium. The purpose of this study was to determine the perception and willingness of hotels to participate in a comparative scheme with a view to improving on their service quality delivery and financial activities. Three ratios each of profitability and cost factors were investigated in twelve (12) hotels. Raw figures supplied by the hotels were processed into ratios through the process of common size analysis. It was found out that the hotels have understanding about the importance of inter-hotel comparison and the resources to participate in such scheme. A trial analysis of available ratios showed that some of the hotels were actually doing better than others. This study recommends a functional inter-firm comparison program for hotels in Yola as it will help the hotels evaluate and improve on their financial performance while at the same time providing government an avenue for economic policy formulation
Keywords: Inter-hotel; Comparison; Financial ratios; Hotel performance