CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT
VOL. 20 NO. 4 – MARCH, 2021 EDITION
Cambridge Research and Publications International,
Africa (Nigeria): Centre for African Humanity and Development Circle
(CAHDC), University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
Copyright © 2021 Cambridge Research and Publications International.
URBANIZATION AND HOUSING FOR LOW-INCOME EARNERS IN NIGERIA: A REVIEW OF CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS
SANI JIBIR DUKKU PhD
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi – Nigeria
This review paper examines the challenges and prospects of urbanization and housing for low-income Nigerians. Drawing on a systematic review of published literature, the paper reveals that urbanization in Nigeria has manifested in rapid population increase, transformation of erstwhile rural to urban settlements and emergence of primate cities. It identified the main drivers of urbanization in Nigeria to include natural population increase, economic activities, state policies on reclassification of settlements and decentralization of governance structure. The study also found that urbanization has exacerbated housing challenges among low-income earners by promoting the proliferation of urban slums and poverty; and that these challenges have persisted and are escalating unabated due to the emphasis on top-down approach to social housing in Nigeria. The promotion of participatory and assisted self-help housing among low-income households is advocated in a bid to prevent the current situation from degenerating further.
Keywords: Urbanization, housing, Low-income earners, poverty, Nigeria
THE INFLUENCE OF SOME WEATHER ELEMENTS ON THE OCCURRENCE OF MALARIA AND TYPHOID IN TUDUN WADA KADUNA SOUTH L.G.A. KADUNA STATE
*MUKHTAR SULEIMAN; *EJEH LAWRANCE & **HABIB, B. MUHAMMED
*Department of Geography Faculty of Arts, Management and Social Sciences, Federal University Gashua, Yobe. **Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
This paper focused on the influence of some weather elements on the occurrence of malaria and Typhoid in Tudun Wada, Kaduna South LGA, Kaduna State. The aim was achieved through the specific objectives; determining the temporal pattern of rainfall and temperature between 2014 – 2018, examining the relationship between the weather elements and the selected diseases and lastly; determine the seasonality of malaria and typhoid in the study area between 2014-2018. Secondary data was used for this research i.e. (Hospital records and Climate data records). The climate data were monthly records of temperature (minimum and maximum), and rainfall from 2014-2018 for Kaduna South. The data were subjected to SPSS (Version 20); the result showed that rainfall and temperature have all been fluctuating (20014-2018). Rainfall and temperature exhibited decreasing trends indicating a reduction in the amount received, while temperature indicated an increasing trend that portrays that the average amount of temperature received is increasing for the period of study, the occurrence of malaria and typhoid has been fluctuating, this may be attributed to the fluctuations also exhibited by the weather elements. The trend showed an insignificant decrease in the occurrence of malaria and a significant increase in the occurrence of typhoid. Rainfall showed a very strong significant relationship (r =-581**) with malaria and temperature also indicated a significant relationship with malaria occurrence (r =.428**). Rainfall showed a slightly significant relationship (r =146) with typhoid and minimum temperature also showed a significant relationship (r = .673**) with typhoid occurrence. Malaria and typhoid occurred mostly during the rainy season. It was recommended that the state government should come up with programs that involve developing approaches to analyze weather and climate in the context of human health, free mosquito nets should be provided regularly to the people, enlightenment programs should be conducted to educate the people on the effect of climate change on the occurrence of diseases. The State government in order to reduce the rate of indiscriminate building of houses, encourage proper town planning and environmental sanitation should carry out.
Keywords: Weather, Rainfall, Temperature, Malaria, Typhoid
PROSPECTS OF E-PROCUREMENT IMPLEMENTATION IN THE FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY ADMINISTRATION ABUJA, NIGERIA
MUSTAPHA IDRIS ABUBAKAR; & IBRAHIM SAIDU
Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal University of Technology, Minna
Governments around the world had set very ambitious goals and are running programmes for the implementation of electronic service delivery in the public sector. The FCTA project like other public sector projects suffers setbacks in procurements innovation and the implementation of e-procurement technology. This study, thus, examined the prospects of e-procurement in public building construction projects. The study adopted a survey design approach. A total of 145 questionnaires were administered using stratified sampling method of which 143 questionnaires were returned and valid for analysis. The collected data were analysed using Percentages, Mean Item Score (MIS), and kruskal Wallis test. It was found that Kruskal-Walis test shows that there is no significant difference in the views of the respondents group regarding the variables. Based on this findings, it can be concluded that e-procurement poses important prospects which could enhance transparency in public sector projects .It was recommended that appropriate legislations should be put in place by the government to encourage the uptake and adoption of e-procurement.
Keywords: E-procurement, Public construction projects, Internet facilities, and Prospects of e-procurement.
AN OVERVIEW STREET GUIDE MAP OF BAUCHI LOCAL GOVERNMENT METROPOLIS BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA.
*YUSUF M.I.; *DR. MUSA, S. I.; *ABDULSALAM, A. O.; *DR. SHUAIBU, M. A.; ** MUSLIM BARAU. & ***ABDULAZIZ DAUDA.
*Department of Surveying and Geo-informatics, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi State. **Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi State. ***Department of Surveying and Geo-informatics, Abubakar Tatari Ali State Polytechnic, Bauchi State, Nigeria.
The implication of Remote Sensing data and Geographic Information System techniques in map making cannot be Overemphasized, Because of its capacity to combine spatial data with non-spatial data and also represent the result, information in an easier to understand. More than a few works have been taken benefit of the GIS Techniques to create and modify street maps using High Resolution Images. It’s more reliable to utilize in street guide map expansion in Bauchi local government metropolis street guide map, Bauchi State, Nigeria. This work intends to overview the new development road, by updating the old street guide map in to new digital composite map of Bauchi metropolis that will ease navigation and help the student, visitors and tourists to their various destinations in the town. And it will serve as a platform for decision making for various researched that shows the needs of location, road network analysis, site suitability analysis and extending other social amenities such as water pipelines, roads, street lights in the town.
Keywords: Geographic Information System, imagery, Digitization, Bauchi, Metropolis, Street Guide Mapping,
ANALYSIS OF NEED FOR IMPROVING ETHICS AMONG NIGERIAN LEADERS THROUGH ASSESSMENT OF BEHAVIOURAL TRAITS OF UNDERGRADUATES: A CASE STUDY OF ENVIRONMENTAL VALUATION STUDENTS
ISRAEL OKECHUKWU OGBONNA, PHD
University of Uyo, Nigeria.
Despite the fact that graduating students at convocations are presented as having been found worthy in character and in learning, assessment of undergraduates in Nigerian universities presently is basically limited to academic learning as marks are awarded for only that aspect while marks are not awarded for ethics or character of the students. With growing concern on the level of ethics of Nigerian leaders most of which are university graduates, this work therefore sought to analysis the need for improving ethics among Nigerian leaders by the universities having to award marks for behavioural traits of their undergraduates. The case study being Environmental Valuation students, the work used structured questionnaires administered on 55 students studying Environmental Valuation as a stand-alone course in Nigerian universities as well as 8 Specialist Lecturers of the Course. The finding was that majority of the students (77.8%) and Lecturers (100%) agreed that assessing and awarding marks for behavioural traits can have major/moderate effects in reducing cases of ethics and professional misconduct upon the students graduating and becoming leaders in the profession. The work therefore recommends that universities in Nigeria should begin to award marks for behavioural traits of undergraduates as a way of improving ethics among Nigerian leaders.
Keywords: Analysis, Ethics, Nigerian Leaders, Behavioural Traits, Undergraduates, Environmental Valuation, Students.
RAINFALL TREND ANALYSIS AND ITS IMPLICATION ON FLOOD IN SULEJA, NIGERIA
YAHAYA, T.I.; O.F ALAMOH; IDRIS, ALIYU JA’AGI & M. ODEKUNLE
Department of Geography Federal University of Technology of Minna, Nigeria.
Rainfall distribution pattern has been a major concern to Climatologists, Penologists, Agriculturist hydrologist and even to the ordinary man in the street. Rainfall is a critical index of climatological investigation and has major impacts on flora and fauna, as well as ecological setting and water resources management of any area. The study is in this direction as it examines the trend in the rainfall over a period of 10years. Data obtained from 60 local dwellers with the aid of a well-structured questionnaire were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Linear Regression model was used to analyze the trend in rainfall. A Digital Elevation Model was used for terrain analysis while findings from the fieldwork were used to ground- truth the results from the analysis of the image. Result shows that there was an uneven distribution of rainfall throughout the period of years that was considered. The result shows that the study area experiences little changes in rainfall patterns and the occurrence of flood was so minimized but from year 2012 it rises to over 800mm and dropped down in the next two years (2013-2014). The year 2015 and 2016 sixteen experience the highest annual rainfall, it was the same year that the study area experienced the worst occurrence of flooding that claimed about 9 lives and destroyed several buildings and damaged several properties. From 2017 to 2018 there was a downslope experience which indicates low annual rainfall. The terrain analysis shows that the area is vulnerable to flood coupled with the poor drainage system in the vulnerable areas. Result also shows that the local dwellers adopted some cultural method in coping with the flood incidence before and after such as embankments, clearing of refuse and blockages and building with fortified materials.
Keywords: Rainfall, Vulnerability, Flooding, and Trend
EVALUATING THE FACTORS MITIGATING AGAINST THE USE OF INSURANCE POLICIES IN MANAGING BUILDING CONSTRUCTION RISKS IN ABUJA
SAMUEL OSAYI SUNDAY & MUHAMMED Y.D.
Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
This study is evaluating the factors mitigating against the use of insurance policies in managing building construction risks in Abuja with a view to finding solutions towards improving the usage. The objective are to identify and rank the prevalent risk factors that construction firms in Abuja are exposed to and identify the challenges confronting the adoption of these insurance policies by construction firms in Abuja. This study is quantitatively conducted through questionnaire administered on 250 professionals from the selected building construction firms in Abuja. The study adopted descriptive method of analysis. The study identified 18 risk factors mitigating against the use of insurance policies in managing building construction risks in Abuja in the study area. Among the risk factor identified are weather and seasonal implication and uncertainty of resource and availability of goods was ranked 1st with a mean score of = 4.40 followed by pollution by construction work with a mean score of 4.30 and ranked 3rd. Also the major challenges confronting the Adoption of these insurance policies were ranked from 1st to 7th and the financial strength of the construction firm was ranked 1st (MS = 3.86). The study therefore recommends proper contracts reviewed by a knowledgeable attorney and read contracts for consistency should be carried out, ethical practices by all stakeholders should be encourage and construction companies should ensure to subscribe to one type of insurance in order to reduce risk. This will go a long way in reducing the influence of risks on construction project performance to the barest minimum and boost the economy of the country. Construction industry plays a vital role in the natural economy development of many countries.
Keywords: Factors, Mitigating, Insurance, Building, Construction.
THE DRIVERS FOR GROWTH OF REAL ESTATE EDUCATION IN NORTH-CENTRAL NIGERIA.
HAMZA, ABDULLAHI NAUZO; & RUKAYYAT ADEOLA OGUNBAJO (PHD)
Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Federal University of Technology Minna.
The paper assesses the factors influencing the growth of Real Estate Education in North-Central Nigeria with a view to the salient activities and elements responsible for the growth. The study was conducted to provide basic information about the reason for the growth, using the variables generated from some literatures and inputs of some senior academics in the field. It is worthy of note, that, many researches on issues bedevilling the real estate education effectiveness and by extension its practices have emerged, But the improvements and growth in real estate education especially in the northern context have not been sufficiently studied. In the recent past, University of Jos, Nasarawa State University, Baze University and Dorben Polytechnic and other institutions created an estate management and valuation department, what prompted the creation of the department after all these years of its start in the country? Relevant literatures were reviewed on real estate education with regards to the growth in other parts of the globe. The study utilized both qualitative and quantitative approaches, with descriptive (Mean score) and inferential method (Factor analysis). The study reveals that the growth of Real Estate Education in North-Central Nigeria has been influenced by the Educational influence and Economic influences more than the Socio-political influences factors. The study recommends that, stakeholders in real estate education should take a bold step in creating more awareness of the vitality of real estate profession and its education.
Keywords: Real Estate, Education, Growth, Factor Analysis.
ASSESSMENT OF THE COMPLIANCE TO HEALTH AND SAFETY TRAINING PRACTICES BY MEDIUM SIZED CONSTRUCTION FIRMS IN ABUJA
HALIMAT SALAKO; SHITTU A. A.; OGUNLOLU ALICE T.
Department of Quantity Surveying, School of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
Health and Safety (H&S) training is one of the most widely adopted practices to improve workplace safety. Existing H&S literature focuses on training of workers in large sized construction firms leaving out the medium sized construction firms. This study therefore evaluated the effectiveness of H&S training practices of medium sized construction firms in Abuja, with a view to proposing strategies for reducing accidents on construction sites. The population for the study constitutes 25 construction firms registered with the Federation of Construction Industry (FOCI) operating within Abuja metropolis. Data were collected using structured questionnaire. Analysis of data was carried out using Relative Importance Index (RII) and Mean Item Score (MIS). The study identified 12 important H&S Training practices (average RII = 0.813) which are averagely complied with (average MIS = 4.067). 7 important Regulations identified have significant impact on H&S performance of construction firms (average MIS = 4.08). 15 effective strategies were identified for reducing the rate of accidents, injuries and fatalities on construction sites (average MIS = 3.84). It was concluded that the level of compliance to H&S training practices among medium sized construction firms in Abuja, Nigeria is not effective. It was thus recommended that medium sized construction firms should implement the suggested strategies to the latter in order to create a conducive atmosphere for both management and workers to be able to implement the H&S regulation and training practices for enhanced H&S performance.
Keywords: Construction, Effectiveness, Health, Safety, Training.
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOL HOSTEL BUILDINGS IN NIGER STATE
*LIMAN IBRAHIM ALHAJI; **KASIMU MOHAMMED ALHAJI; ***ALICE TAIYE OGUNLOLU
*Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal University of technology, Minna **Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal Polytechnic, Bida **Department of Quantity Surveying, Baze University, Abuja
A complete building with its facilities and services must be fit for the purpose it is initiated. Most public secondary school hostels buildings in Niger state were built during the colonial era, many of them are so old that they are dilapidated and unsafe for human occupation. this study aims to expose the condition and performance of public secondary school hostel buildings in Niger state. the study utilized a quantitative approach where structured questionnaires were distributed to hostel facility managers and student users of higher classes. A total of 187 questionnaires were retrieved out of the 218 distributed which represent 85.32%. the collected data were analysed using a descriptive statistical method such as relative importance index (RII) and the ranking method. The study revealed that the public secondary school hostel buildings sampled are in a poor but manageable condition requiring maintenance and renovation. the study therefore recommends that effective building performance evaluation and maintenance management practices for the public secondary school’s hostel building be carried out to improve its conditions and comfort of users. Regular inspections and maintenance should be carried out in the hostels and adequate funding should be provided for this purpose.
Keywords: Hostel buildings, performance evaluation, inspections and maintenance.
ANALYSIS OF STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS IN ABUJA, NIGERIA
ALAYANDE AISHA & WASIU OLA-AWO
Department of Quantity Surveying, School of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna – Nigeri
The structure of the Nigerian construction industry is very complex in nature and consists of a wide range of parties. The aim of this paper is to analyse stakeholder management in construction projects in Abuja, with the view to improve construction projects performance. This study identifies and assesses barriers to stakeholder management in construction projects and determines critical success factors influencing stakeholder management and the delivery of construction projects. The paper employed a qualitative research design approach through semi- structured interviews. 30 construction professionals interviewed were purposively selected based on their experience. Content analysis was used to analyse information gotten from them. The study identified 25 barriers affecting stakeholder management and 14 critical factors influencing successful stakeholder management through interview carried out. The factors and barriers frequency mentioned during the interview were ranked. “Poor knowledge of stakeholder management procedure” and “lack of proper stakeholder management procedures” were the highest mentioned barriers affecting stakeholder management. Effective Communication emerged the highest ranked critical factor for successful stakeholder management. The study concluded that there is need to pay special attention to the above barriers and recommends appropriate strategies one of which is appropriate stakeholder analysis and engagement process within consulting project management firms managing project stakeholders.
Keywords: Construction; stakeholder management; project delivery, qualitative approach.
ASSESSMENT OF MAINTENANCE COST OF BUILDINGS AT TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN KWARA STATE
OLAYEMI OLAMIDE OLORUNLOGBON; & ANITA DZIKWI ADAMU
Department of Quantity Surveying, School of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
The maintenance of tertiary institution buildings in Nigeria as over time been faced with the issue of funding. Funding is not the only problem militating against the maintenance work of Nigeria tertiary institution buildings; cost overrun and underestimating also contribute to maintenance problem in tertiary institutions and this frequently result in failure of management to recognize the value and need for realistic budget and in return affect the maintenance work of tertiary institution buildings in Nigeria. This study focus on the assessment of maintenance cost of buildings at tertiary institutions in Kwara State. The objective of the study were to: identify factors affecting maintenance cost of tertiary institutions buildings in Kwara State; examine the determinants of maintenance cost for buildings at the tertiary institutions under study; examine the maintenance budgets implementation strategy for execution of maintenance works at these tertiary institutions. To achieve these, 105 questionnaires were administered and 87 was recovered and analyzed using MIS, RII and one way ANOVA.The study found that the most important factor affecting maintenance cost was building material with a Mean score of 4.70 and age of the building as the most important determinant of maintenance cost of tertiary institutions in kwara state with RII of 0.93. Condition assessment costs was also discovered the most significant in maintenance budget composition of tertiary institutions buildings with a mean of 4.45 and RII of 0.89 while Establishing priorities was discovered to be the most significant implementation strategy with a mean of 4.59 and RII of 0.92. Finally a one-way between-groups analysis of variance was conducted to examine the maintenance budgets implementation strategies for execution of maintenance works at the institutions of study on effective cost estimation and allocation strategy. The result depicts no significant difference in relationship between Maintenance budget composition and Maintenance Budget Implementation
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF BUILDING CONSTRUCTION WASTE ON THE NIGERIA ENVIRONMENT
1TONGO, S.O.; 2AMUSU, O.R.; 3FAGBEMI K.A; 4SALVADOR, K.A & 5OBATUASE, B.
1Department of Architecture, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ibogun, 2,4Department of Building Technology, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu 3Department of Architecture Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Ile-Oluji, 5Department of Quantity Surveying, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu
Urbanization resulting from rapid population growth in a developing country like Nigeria has led to a significant increase in the demand for physical development (residential accommodation, spaces for business and commerce, as well as infrastructure to support live activities which includes; The extensive building construction and infrastructure development projects that are ongoing all over the major urban centres of the country have, in turn, led to increased generation of a significant percentage by volume of construction waste. The construction waste is clustered into physical and non-physical wastes and is generated throughout the different stages of the construction process. Today’s global concern to address environmental degradation caused by various developmental actions (construction projects inclusive) is one of the reasons for the need to assess the impact of construction waste on the environment (that is; This study sought to emphasise the physical component of the generated construction waste which volume has attained an alarming proportion and consequently the deterioration of the immediate environment and eventually the degradation of the global environment on an incremental basis through a review of the literature. It is therefore suggested that to reduce environmental degradation, building construction stakeholders must adopt the need to carry out environmental impact analysis and assessment before, during and after the commencement of construction activities to ascertain the potential effect that the development will have on the environment and to develop strategies with which to reduce the effects and protect the environment.
Keywords: Urbanisation, Environment, Construction Waste, Environmental Degradation, Waste Management,
ASSESSMENT OF LEAN TECHNIQUES FOR BUILDING MATERIALS WASTE MINIMISATION IN ABUJA, NIGERIA
AISHA ANGO; & IBRAHIM SAIDU
Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal University of Technology, Minna
Lean construction techniques have been known globally as production system with a high capacity of waste minimisation. However, previous studies revealed a sub-optimal understanding of the construction professionals on the relevant lean techniques for building material waste minimisation in Nigeria. Thus, this paper assessed lean techniques for material waste minimisation in building projects in Abuja, Nigeria. The study adopted a survey design approach using quantitative data. Data was purposively collected using well-structured questionnaire administered to 320 construction practitioners (project managers, contractors, heads of waste management departments, and consultants) of 80-active building construction sites that are practicing lean within Abuja. A total of 189 questionnaires were retrieved from the 320 distributed. The collected data was analysed using frequencies, percentages and Relative Importance Index (RII). The study revealed that the lean techniques relevant to the pre-construction stage of building projects are: visual management; waste disposal management; and space utilisation management, with average RII values of 0.78. The research also found that the most important lean techniques relevant to the construction stage of building materials waste minimisation are: optimise value/value identification, good supply chain management, and visual management. Based on these findings it can be concluded that the lean techniques advanced in this paper are relevant in building material waste minimisation. Adoption and implementation of the lean techniques would translate into a drastic reduction in the quantity of material waste generation in building construction projects in Nigeria.
Keywords: Building projects, Team techniques, Material waste, and Minimisation Introduction
ANALYSIS OF TREE SPECIES PREFERENCE AND REASONS AMONG COMMERCIAL CHARCOAL PRODUCERS IN NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA.
EKPO ABRAHAM SALAMATU.*; HARUNA KUJE AYUBA2 AND DANJUMA N. MARCUS**
*Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental Science, Nasarawa State University Keffi. **Department of Geography, Faculty of Environmental Science, Nasarawa State University Keffi.
Commercial charcoal production has over time become an indispensable means of livelihood among rural settlers in Nasarawa State. However, charcoal production involves woodland exploitation which contributes to deforestation. Considering the growing significance of charcoal in rural and urban livelihoods in Nasarawa State, this paper analysed the preference of tree species and reasons among commercial charcoal producers in Nasarawa State in view of identifying endangered species and suggesting measures to ensure sustainability of the business. The study employed descriptive survey using both qualitative and quantitative data drawn from primary and secondary sources. Questionnaire was administered to 450 respondents randomly sampled from commercial charcoal producers drawn from 6 communities and 3 LGAs of Nasarawa State. Interviews and Focus Group Discussions were also conducted and the data obtained were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics in Microsoft Excel and SPSS (version 23). A total of 22 tree species were identified as usable for charcoal production in the study area. Investigation into the producers’ preference of tree species showed that eight (8) were mostly preferred out of which Anogeissus leiocarpus (Marke) (57.3%), Erythrina senegalensis (Madri) (52.2%) and Prosopis Africana (Kirya) (49.1%) were among the top three. Marke, Kirya and Madri were the most preferred species in Akwanga, Doma and Karu production areas respectively. High charcoal yield, good combustion quality, high heat content of resulting charcoal, less ash production were the main reasons for their preferences. Most of the preferred tree species have been depleted to the point that they are no longer commonly found for use among commercial charcoal producers in the state. The most endangered species due to commercial charcoal production were Anogeissus leiocarpus (Marke), Erythrina senegalensis (Madri) and Prosopis Africana (Kirya). However, pressure is currently on Teminalia glocosece (Baushe/Uko), Andira inermis (Gwaska), Ficus Spp (Baure), Vitellaria paradoxa (Kede) and Gardinia aqualla (Gaude) due to the difficulties in finding the endangered ones which constituted the most preferred species among producers in Nasarawa State. It was recommended that state energy policies should incorporate a law recognizing charcoal as a key source of energy in the State, thereby encouraging investments in the activity of commercial charcoal producers. Furthermore, conservation plans and practical measures of replacing the extracted trees from woodlands/forests for commercial charcoal production should form the basis for license issuance for charcoal production.
Keywords: Charcoal, Commercial, Tree-species, Preference and Woodland.
MOTIVATING FACTORS AND BARRIERS OF INNOVATION IN THE NIGERIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
A AWODELE1; U.U. DURU2; O.SOFOLAHAN3; C.N. BAYWOOD4 & S.I. EGWUNATUM5
1,5Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. 2,4Department of Surveying and Geo informatics, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria 3Department of Quantity Surveying, Lagos State Polytechnic, Nigeria.
The construction industry has of recent been blamed for lack of innovation. This is believed to be responsible for the decreasing or stagnant levels of productivity in the industry in comparison with other industries. This study seeks to appraise drivers and barriers to innovation in Nigeria construction industry. Data on factors that propel and hinder innovation were obtained through Questionnaires administered to 100 construction professionals. Mean item score (MIS) was used to analyse drivers and barriers of construction innovation and demographic response of the respondents was through percentile. The findings of the study revealed that ‘Need for improved performance is the greatest drivers with Lack of Technical knowhow and shortage of fund as the most critical barriers of innovation in Nigeria. It is concluded that company or organisation should include innovation as one of their main objectives and that construction professionals should be sent on periodic training. Besides, adequate funding should be devoted for such purpose.
Keywords: innovation, construction professionals,construction industry, productivity, performance.
MAPPING PART OF THE KADUNA RIVER WATERSHED FOR SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENT PLANNING AT SHIRORO DAM, NIGERIA
MOHAMMED ABUBAKAR BOSSO & M.B. YUNUSA.
Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology of Minna, Nigeria
The lower and upper region of River Kaduna and other present rivers in LGA of Shiroro, Niger State has been harnessed for the environmental development for the sustenance of life in the country and the area specifically. Such as electricity generation at Shiroro dam, irrigation purposes, fishing purposes and for domestic uses at home. Therefore, the aim of the study is to identify and map out of watershed areas using geospatial techniques in Shiroro Local Government Area, Niger State, Nigeria. There are two (2) sources of collection of data which were utilized for this research namely: Secondary and primary data sources. Field survey was carried out which handheld GPS personal was used and as well as structured questionnaires. Secondary data is the type of data accumulated through ready-made materials source from different places which consists of; reports seminar paper, satellites imagery, and journals, from the net. For this research, Landsat satellite images for three varying epochs 1988, 2008, 2018 were acquired from USA geological survey website (earth explorer). Enhanced Thematic Mapper, the Landsat Thematic Mapper and Operational Land Imager with a resolution of 30m of 1988, 2008, and 2018 respectively were used for LULC classification. These datasets were imported to IdrisiTerrset. Delineation and identification of water parameters was done using DEM. The study shows that in 2018, the built-up areas has a coverage a total of 226.224 (Km2) (15.72%) of the complete location which actually consist of commercial, residential and other land use areas. Similarly, farm land also increased from 376.4835 (Km2) (26.16%) in 2008 to 404.4231 (Km2) (28.11%) in 2018 which may be attributed to the inflow of humans resulting in explosion in the number of the inhabitant and mounting pressure on the LULC, in the other way round vegetation has declined furthermore to 359.2962 (Km2) (24.97%) in 2018 from 421.0254 (Km2) (29.26%)in 2008, which was attributed to the translation of the region to other land uses as well as improved in farmland. Also, cleared land which covers 157.7142 (Km2) (10.96%) in 2008 reduced little to 136.4859 (Km2) (9.48%) in 2018. Water bodies on the other sides reduced to 312.3700(Km2) (21.7%) in 2018. It’s therefore recommended that multiple-used sustainable management and coordination of watershed that combines all water resources developmental process with compatible economic land productive systems (i.e. crops, trees, recreation, fish and livestock) is effectively introduce.
Keywords: Watershed, Remote Sensing, River Kaduna and Shiroro dam
COVID 19 PANDEMIC AND THE REAL ESTATE SECTOR NIGERIA: THE WAY FORWARD
MOHAMMED SANUSI MUSA; ZAKARI DODO USMAN; WALI IBRAHIM RAKIYA & SHUAIBU MOHAMMED NASIR
Department of Estate Management and valuation, Niger State Polytechnic Zungeru. Niger State.
This study assess the COVID-19 pandemic and the real estate sector in Nigeria with a view to proposing the way forward. The study focused on events of COVID-19 pandemic on the real estate sector with a view to evaluating the pandemic on the real estate market before, during and after the COVID-19 crises. The real estate sector in Nigeria faces potential challenges arising from the lethal viral outbreak called corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has brought the world and economy to almost a total shutdown. The severity of this situation brings about project delays,unfavourable leasing and sales activities. The study was conducted across Nigeria. Using simple random sampling technique, one hundred and three (103) questionnaires were transmitted online to respondent real estate practitioners across Nigeria. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Primary and secondary sources of data were obtained for the study. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and weighted mean was used to analyze the data. The study found that most real estate practitioners experienced low business patronage.Practitioners were compelled to review their rents and land prices downwards, and recorded low rate of valuation proposal offers. The study also found a high increase of distressed land sale offers as a result of the excruciating COVID-19 pandemic. The study recommended that real estate practitioners should leverage on use of vast technology to intensify the bulletin of their products while offering reduced land prices and rent, during this period. Practitioners should engage more in viability appraisals to advice clients on worthwhile investments and best land uses for the future. The study furthermore recommends that real estate practitioners should employthe most modern, digital tools at its disposal to handle house sales even when personal inspection of a property is no longer possible. The government through their central banks and mortgage financing regulatory agencies should urgently roll out different fiscal stimulus for real estate industries in order to sustain investments, save millions of low-income jobs and sustain the production of housing for low to medium-income earners. The government should reduce interest rates on mortgages and increase access to mortgage finance loans from all banks at special rates to ameliorate the situation posed by the COVID-19 pandemic.
Keywords: COVID-19, Pandemic, Real Estate, Practitioners, Nigeria.
EFFECT OF RISING COST OF BUILDING MATERIALS ON PROPERTY DEVELOPMENT IN BARIGA LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA.
*ABDULAKEEM O. OTUNOLA; **HADIZA ABDULKADIR MUSA & ***YUSUF GAMBO LUKMAN
*Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Federal Polytechnic, Offa, Offa, Kwara State. **Department of Estate Management, College of Environmental Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna. ***Department of Estate Management, School of Environmental Studies, College of Science and Technology, Niger State Polytechnic, Zungeru, Niger State.
Building materials played an important role in the Property development. It includes those materials put together in erecting or constructing structures, development is not conceivable without their use. The cost of building materials poses a significant threat to both the construction industry and people aspiring to own houses and that many projects were not completed on time due to the cost of materials, which have been on the increase. This study examined the effect of rising in the cost of building material on real property development inBariga area of Lagos state, Nigeria. A field survey research design was adopted for collection of primary data on the subject of study.The target population comprises of.forty (40) property developers, forty (40) contractors and 40 building materials dealers operating in Bariga area of Lagos state. The sample size of this project is 120; this comprises property developers, contractors and building materials dealers operating within Bariga area of Lagos state which were targeted for administration of questionnaire. Random sampling technique was used as appropriate sampling technique.The questionnaires were complimented by oral interview. Descriptive statistics was used in analyzing the collected data such as cross tabulation, frequency table The paper revealed that cost of land acquisition, cost of building materials, professional charges and lack of capital are militating against property development in the study area.It is indeed unfortunate that the alarming increase in cost of building materials and labour does not only affect the rent passing on prospective tenant nor the market value of such property but also on the individual dream to build and owned a home in the study area.Besides timely completion, high prices of building materials form a crucial constraint to improving housing conditions in the low-income earning countries like Nigeria. Over dependent on imported materials and lack of instability in government policies and programme among other factors has a drastic effect on cost of building materials.Inhibited innovations in construction methods, quality of workmanship is affected, quality of workmanship is affected, project abandonment, volume of construction output is affected..The study recommends that incessant rising in cost of building materials be remediable through the development/use of alternative building materials, among others.
Keywords: Cost, Building Material, Property Development, Lagos, Nigeria
WILLINGNESS TO PAY RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY TAX IN IKEJA METROPOLIS, NIGERIA
*ADETOYE SULAIMAN ADEPOJU & **MICHAEL TOLULOPE ADEYEMI AJAYI.
*Department of Estate Management, School of Environmental Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Ado Ekiti. Ekiti State. **Department of Estate Management and Valuation, School of Environmental Studies, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State. Nigeria.
The study examined factors affecting the willingness to pay (WTP) residential property tax in the study area. This was with a view to providing information that will enhance willingness to pay residential property tax in the study area. Primary data was used for the study, data were sourced using questionnaire. Ninety valid questionnaires were returned and analysed. Soliciting information about residential property owners’ willingness to pay property tax, using a 5-Likert scale of Strongly agree, Agree, Undecided, Disagree, Strongly disagree. Each of these was respectively assigned a value of 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1. Descriptive statistical tools were used in analysing the data obtained. The study found that the majority of the respondents were males (88%) and fall within the age group of 46-55 years of age (38.9%), majority was master’s degree holders (40%). The result has revealed all the factors identified affecting the WTP property tax except poor community school facility, and the factor maintained high RII this more average at 60% relative importance. The study concluded that residential property owners are willing to pay property tax whenever various factors are addressed and satisfied.
Keywords: Willingness to pay (WTP), Tax compliance, Residential property, Metropolis, Community services.
THE COMPETENCE OF ESTATE SURVEYORS AND VALUERS IN MANAGEMENT OF BUILDING CONSTRUCTION IN BAUCHI
*SANI GAMBO SANI; **ESV OYELEKE, OYEDIRAN OLUFEMI; ***ESV ADELEKE, MOSES ADEGBILE; ****ESV (MAL) BATURE ALI MUHAMMAD & ****ESV AMINA MUSA ALIYU.
*Department of Estate Management, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State. **Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Federal Polytechnic Nassarawa, Nassarawa State, Nigeria. ***Department of Estate Management and Valuation, the Oke Ogun Polytechnic, Saki, Oyo State. ****Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Nuhu Bamali Polytechnic, Zaria, Kaduna State.
The Estate Surveyors and Valuers’ role in building construction cannot be overemphasized as their involvements contribute greatly to economic and commercial values of such development. Regardless of their inevitable roles in the construction industry. However, their services are mostly neglected, unrecognized and unappreciated. This study brought into focus the competence of Estate Surveyors and Valuers in building construction and has empirically understudied the level of involvement of Estate Surveyors and Valuers in building construction. The study made use of a self- administered questionnaires distributed to forty (47) respondents in a bid to ascertain their competence. The population for the study included Estate Surveyors and Valuers, Project Managers and members of the building team. Data obtained from the self-administered questionnaires were retrieved and analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequencies and mean scores. From the findings of the research conducted, it was found out that the competence of Estate Surveyors and Valuers in project management function is more pronounced in their accuracy in dealing with contract documents with a mean score of 3.7021 and their ability to identify and mitigate technical and programmatic risk having mean score 3.6809 respectively. Although, these competences are requisite skills in project management, it was further revealed that the practitioners only engage themselves in the management of residential building projects and distance themselves from the management of micro and macro estate developments. The study therefore recommends that; practitioners should expand their involvements in construction of buildings as project managers as this will further consolidate their position in the building team as thus increase their exposure, practical skills and knowledge to undertake massive project works.
Keywords: Estate Surveyor and Valuer, Property Management, Building Construction, Bauchi, Nigeria.
VENTILATION, SOCIAL DISTANCING AND THE FUTURE OF ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
BABATUNDE GBENGA EZEKIEL & USMAN ABUBAKAR SADIQ
Department of Architecture and Urban and Regional Planning respectively
Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa
Adequate free flow of air into buildings can reduce the spread of infection in built environment settings. Natural ventilation is one of the harmonize effective environmental measures that reduce the risk of the spread of infections. The paper illustrated various means of ventilation which include Mechanical ventilation, Natural ventilation, and Mixed-mode ventilation systems that govern an effective system to control infection in buildings. These also lead to social distancing, Methods for calculating social distancing occupant loads, Other factors considered, Increased personal space in public spaces, private spaces. Creating Safe/Sustainable Spaces, and the expected change of buildings materials in post-COVID-19 safety and well-being. Sustainability in the future of architectural design and building materials explores the design Responses in Post-COVID-19, social distances, and description of the basic principles of designs, constructions, operations, and maintenances.
Keywords: Ventilation, Social distance, Architecture, Design,Building
ASSESSMENT OF ENFORCEMENT OF KADUNA STATE URBAN PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT AGENCY (KASUPDA) DEVELOPMENT CONTROL GUIDE IN UNGWAN PAMA, KADUNA
*SAMUEL ACHILE OGU; **ASMA’U SHEHU USMAN DANTUDU & ** MANSUR BELLO
*Joachim Opara Associates, Estate Management and Valuers, No. 28 Imam House, Ahmadu Bello Way Kaduna, Nigeria **Department of Urban and Regional Planning, College of Environmental Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria
This study aimed at assessing the level of enforcement of the KASUPDA Development Control Guide on residential land uses of Ungwan Pama, Chikun Local Government area of Kaduna State. To achieve the aim, the research question on the level of enforcement of KASUPDA development guide in the study area was answered. The data for this research was collected through primary and secondary methods. The sampling frame for the household and physical observation survey consists of 3,956 households. In the case of institutional survey, the sampling frame constitute all the institutions/agencies that are responsible for the monitoring and regulation of development in Kaduna Metropolis. A census was conducted for institutional survey and the sample size for household/compliance survey was calculated to be 98 households using the Yamane Taro’s 1967 sample size formula. Systematic sampling technique was used to administer the questionnaires during the household and compliance survey. The findings from KASUPDA revealed that they usually embark on development control activities in the study area on a weekly basis by the development control officers attached to the area. The control officers usually look for developments without building permit, upon which enforcement notice is issued to defaulters. If the defaulters fail to comply with the requirement of the authority after 21 days, a stop order is issued. After this, demolition occurs. However, the interviewee noted that development control activities is suppose to be twice a week but due to poor funding and equipments, it is now on a weekly basis. Using the Kerg model for assessing the level of enforcement of planning standards on existing development in Ungwan Pama, it was found that 18%, 55%, 23% and 4% of the respondents said that the level of enforcement is absent, partial, moderate, and full respectively. It therefore requires collective action of the public and private sector of the state to work together in providing development control duties. The paper recommended for new and relevant bye laws, edict, acts and regulations to channel the new course of challenges in the planning profession so that the gains associated with the discipline can be appreciated by all.
Keywords: Assessment, Enforcement, Urban Planning, Development
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING: A CLARON CALL TO INCLUSIVE CITY RESILIENCE IN NIGERIA
*AYADU KOFFI & **IDIBEKE EKOTT
*Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot Ekpene. **Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Cities all over the world are currently facing physical development challenge crisis due to rapid population growth and the rate of urban expansion. As this continued unabated, the frequency and intensity of physical development is increasing, giving an impetus to the estimated population of the half of the world population that are currently living in urban area. In Nigeria just like other countries, our cities are currently facing increasing environmental, social and economic challenges that together threaten the resilience of urban areas and the inclusiveness of the residents who live and work there. As these populations are frequently cripple by the fact that our cities are currently facing an unprecedented risk of global health pandemic and natural hazards compounded by serious governance challenges, it becomes imperative that this paper examined Nigeria’s prospects of achieving the SDG11 via a better Physical development planning that will make our cities more inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. The study is empirical and adopted exploratory research approach to examined the concept of inclusive and resilience city. The paper revealed the need for the adoption of inclusive and resilience city strategies for physical development of Nigerian cites as there are many benefits derivable. Based on the findings, it is concluded that conscious effort and strong commitment are needed to make our cities inclusive and resilient. Thus, development of resilient cities should be positioned around reducing resource consumption, integrating social and environmental criteria alongside economic interests in decision-making, and mitigating and adapting to climate change.
Keywords: Physical Development, Planning, Inclusiveness, City Resilience, Nigeria
ANALYSIS OF FLOODING ON HOUSING DEVELOPMENT IN OWODE/AJEGUNLE COMMUNITY IN IKORODU METROPOLIS OF LAGOS MEGACITY
1ENIOLAWUN, S.O; 2KOSOKO, R.A.; 3SALVADOR, K.A.; & 4OLAITAN, P.A.
1,2,4Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu 3Department of Building Technology, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu
Against the background of incessant occurrence of flood and its devastating impacts on residents, this paper examines the impact of flooding on housing development (construction) on Owode/Ajegunle communities in Agoyi-Ketu Government Area of Lagos State. A total of ninety-three (93) questionnaires was randomly administered to the respondents in the study area. The study found that the major cause of flood in the study area is because of the table water that is high in the study area of which it’s caused some level of damages and loss of properties. Also, high rainfall and building in a flood-prone environment and close to canal or water bodies have contributed to the regular occurrence of flood in the area. Hence, this blocks the drainage systems, preventing the free flow of water. The study recommends enforcement of environmental laws that will restrict residents from building close to the water body and sponsoring public awareness and educative programmes on how man’s activities have contributed to flooding occurrence. Also, the repair and construction of drainage system and canal should be sponsored by the government at a various level as well as proper channelization of river bodies to prevent overflow during a heavy downpour.
Keyword: Analysis, Flooding, Housing Development, Ikorodu Metropolis, Lagos Megacity
AN APPROACH TO ACHIEVE TRANSFORMATION OF AFRICAN CONTINENT THROUGH UNLEASHING REAL ESTATE POTENTIAL IN SUB- SAHARA AFRICAN REGION. NIGERIA IN FOCUS
1ESV OYELEKE, OYEDIRAN OLUFEMI; 2ESV ADELEKE, MOSES ADEGBILE; 3ESV OTUNOLA, ABDULAKEEM OLASUNKANMI; & 4OLATUNJI OLAREWAJU SAMSON
1Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Federal Polytechnic Nassarawa, Nassarawa State, Nigeria. 2Department of Estate Management and Valuation, the Oke Ogun Polytechnic, Saki, Oyo State, Nigeria. 3Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Federal Polytechnic Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria. 4Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin Kwara State, Nigeria.
This paper assesses the role of exploring real estate potentials to achieve the Africa transformation. The Transformation Agenda is a development initiative adopted in third world communities under the context of the Vision 2020, based on a set of priority policies which when implemented will transform developing economies into self-sufficient developed nations. Several Studies had revealed that about $57 trillion will be required to fund global infrastructure to aid sustainable GDP growth by 2030. However, given the widespread fiscal constraints in the wake of the global financial crisis, it will require innovative steps to boost productivity in the global infrastructure development. Communities throughout developing nations are facing an unparalleled economic, social, fiscal and environmental trial which makes their infrastructures inadequate. Nigeria is in economic tumult due to lack of political will on the side of government and individual to explore real estate potentials, high rate of corruption and over-dependence on oil and gas incomes among many others. Real Estate has the potential of providing the much needed fund for its transformation. An approach is urgently needed; the one that is able to respond in a systematic and integrated manner to this key developmental goal is unleashing real estate potentials. The authors make use of literatures relevant to the study. The study revealed that exploring real estate potentials therefore is the solace to achieving Africa transformation. Finally, the study recommends among others, that right reforms and political will should be imbibed toward real estate sector.
Keywords: Africa, Transformation Agenda, Real Estate, Real Estate Potentials, Nigeria.
RISK ASSESSMENT OF PROPERTY DEVELOPMENT IN IKEJA, LAGOS, NIGERIA
*VICTORIA OLUWAFUNMIKE ODUNFA; ** SAMSON OLUSEUN & OJEKALU *** MORUF YUSUF ADIO
* & *** the Polytechnic, Ibadan, Department of Estate Management and Valuation. ** Lead City University, Ibadan. Department of Estate Management.
Numerous studies have analysed risk management in different investment media such as stock and share among others but studies on risk associated with property development in Lagos, Nigeria is scanty. This paper therefore focused on risk associated with property development in Nigeria. The study examined the types and analytical methods adopted by estate surveying and valuation firms involved in property development in the study area. The Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers directory (2018) indicated that there were 379 estate firms practicing in the study area. Using convenience sampling technique, 90 firms of estate surveying and valuation were sampled and data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics. The study found that appropriate modern appraisal method was not adopted by most estate surveyors and valuers (ESV). The study found that the most commonly used investment appraisal method is the risk analysis and management of projects (RAMP) method. The type of risks commonly associated with property development in the study area is economic risk with a mean value of 2.78 and followed by political risk while the least type of risk associated with property development is operation risk with mean score of 1.39. In conclusion, the practitioners need to be abreast of more sophisticated techniques for informed investment decision rather than relying on intuition and crude method of risk analysis especially with the degree of flexibility and uncertainty associated with property development.
Keywords: Risk, analysis, development, property, valuers
THE IMPLICATION OF INCLUSIVE GROWTH IN SUB-SAHARAN COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ANGOLA AND NIGERIA.
ANYANWU IGNATIUS UZOMA
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Abia State Polytechnic Aba, Nigeria.
Over the years, African economies have undergone considerable transformation, with consistent and robust growth, in sharp contrast to decades of slow or even negative growth, which characterized the 1970s into the 1990s. While the region’s economies slowed down from an average of 5.6% during the period 2002-2008 to 2.2% in 2009, in the wake of the global financial crisis; Africa promptly recovered, with an average growth rate of 4.6% in 2010 and 6.2% in 2012, as well as 4.0 and 4.3% for 2013 and 2014, respectively. In Sub-Saharan Africa, economic growth is even more robust, averaging about 6% over the past decade. This development has made the region to be acknowledged with the second highest economic growth in the world in recent times. However, contemporary economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa is largely unaccompanied by employment generation or increased livelihood opportunities. Consequently, poverty levels across the region remain relatively high, at 48% of the population. The challenges posed by lack of inclusive growth are particularly evident in Angola and Nigeria, countries that feature economies driven by the petroleum industry. Therefore, the major objective of this paper is to shed light on the challenges associated with lack of inclusive growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. The paper employs empirical data to analyze Angola and Nigeria case studies, which reveal both countries as resource-rich economies featuring relatively high economic profiles, devoid of widespread employment opportunities, with grave consequences for endemic poverty. Consequently, the paper presents a policy framework, grounded in poverty reduction strategies, enterprise development and capacity building aimed at promoting broad-based economic growth as the cornerstone of African economies.
Key words: Comparative Analysis, Implication, Inclusive growth, Sub-saharan Africa, Angola and Nigeria
CHALLENGES OF COORDINATES TRANSFORMATION PARAMETER IN NIGERIA
YILKUTDI DAMWA YINANG
Department of Surveying & Geoinformatics, School of Environmental Studies, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida
Transformation parameters are those parameters obtained by couvertary positions from one daline to the other mathematically. With the increase demand for geographic information on positions determinations both locally and globally, there is need for an acceptable coordinates transformation parameters in Nigeria. However, this need for coordinates transformation parameters has remained within the space of scholars and researchers who are struggling with the complex mathematical models in two and three dimension. However, the people that suffer from the lack of coordinates transformation parameters most are the surveyors and geospatial users of the transformation parameter. To some of these users, the modalities of the determination coordinate transformation is necessary because local geodetic data were usually based on a non-geocentric (not centered on the earths center of mass) ellipsoids with prescribed ( a and f ) as the best felting surveyed figure of thre earth in the region being surveyed and mapped. The major problem of coordinates transformation parameters is that non of the researches carried out on coordinates transformation has been adopted. Although there is a publication by the office of the surveyor general of the federation as regard to coordinates transformation as an interview report from the team of experts the usage has not been enforced and this shows down accurate position location of trans boundary surveyor on different geodetic dala.
Keywords coordinates transformation parameters and delaine.