SUB-SAHARA AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT (SJECM)
VOL 16 (4) SEPTEMBER, 2020 ISSN: 2292-7733
Sub-Sahara African Academic Research Publications,
Centre for African Development Studies, University of Ibadan,
P. O. Box 10108, U. I. Post Office. Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria, West-Africa.
USING BUILD-OPERATE-TRANSFER (BOT) APPROACH IN ENCOURAGING PRIVATE INVESTMENT IN NIGERIA UNIVERSITIES HOSTEL ACCOMMODATION DEVELOPMENT SCHEME
ZAKI, YAKUBU M.1 DR. MUSA-HADDARY, Y. G. 2 ZAKI, BLESSED M.,3 TIMOTHY MARCUS KOGI 4 SAMBO, BILKISU P.,5 GHIYASUDDEN, B.A.6
1Department of Quantity Surveying, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria 2Department of Quantity Surveying, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria 3Department of Architectural Technology, Nuhu Bamali Polytechnic Zaria 4Department of Quantity Surveying, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Zaria, Nigeria 5Department of Building Technology, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic Zaria 6Department of Building Technology, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic Zaria
Nigerian Universities are growing rapidly, leading to an increase in the demand for hostel accommodation. The development of these hostels has mostly remained the exclusive responsibility of the owners. Due to increasing demand, shortage of public funds and other factors the government is now seeking to share this responsibility with private investors. What is being proposed as a remedy is a privately financed infrastructure scheme in the form of the Build- Operate- Transfer (BOT) approach. The University Hostel Development Scheme (UHDS) is already adjudged a total failure and almost an abandoned scheme. There are numerous reasons why government policies usually fail; there could be political, social, legal or economic reason any of which could derail or halt a good vision. However, for investors, one cardinal reason for business failures is the economic viability of the investment. If the UHDS were economically viable, investors would flock to it with or without government facilitation. So this study looks at the economic viability of the UHDS (BOT option) in Nigeria and the need for private investors to participate in UHDS.The study measured the Net Present Value (NPV) to see if the scheme was economically viable or not, and Pay Back Period (PBP) of the scheme to see how long it will take the investors to recoup back their money using the conventional NPV and PBP formulae.The study concluded that while the scheme showed high net return on the investment (profit), the PBP were too long for the kind of investors (mostly short-term investors) the scheme had. The study therefore recommended measures such as changing the design of the hostels to reduce cost and consequently lower the PBP to a shorter and more acceptable period to the investors.
Keywords: University-Hostel; Development; Investment; Bot; Viability.
ASSESSMENT OF SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND ACCESSIBILITY OF PRIMARY HEALTH CENTRES IN ZURU L.G.A. KEBBI STATE
BALA JIBRIN ISAH* AND OHADUGHA CHUKWUDI BERNHARD
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal University of Technology, Minna
A Primary health centre (PHC) is the closest health facility to the community meant to serve everyone. The adequacy of PHCs depends on its close proximity to settlements which is also influenced by the spatial distribution pattern of the PHCs. This study aimed at assessing the spatial distribution pattern and accessibility of PHCs in Zuru. 6 wards were sampled out of the 10 existing wards in Zuru local government. Geospatial datasets which include geographical coordinates and existing road network datasets were used in this study. Average Nearest Neighbour, Euclidean Method and Network Analysis were used to analyse spatial distribution and accessibility respectively using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Result showed that the PHCs in Zuru local government exhibit a dispersed pattern of distribution with a p-value of 0.041876, z-score of 2.034746 and Average Nearest Neighbour Ratio of 1.284260. Using 5km walking distance as a parameter to analyse accessibility, service areas of each PHC was determined using both the Euclidean Method and the Network Analyst. Settlement within the service areas can access a PHC within 5km walking distance while settlements outside the service areas travel more than 5km to the nearest PHCs and as such are regarded as the deprived settlements. Some settlements in Bedi and Tadurga wards were identified as deprived settlements and as such are in need of a PHC in other to enhance accessibility to primary health care services within Zuru local government.
Keywords: Spatial, Accessibility and Primary Health Centre.
CIRCULAR ECONOMIC CHALLENGES IN THE NIGERIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
1JIBRIN IBRAHIM A. M., 2UMAR KABIRU M. & 3SHEHU MUHAMMAD A.
1Department of Construction Management, Nelson Mandela University, South Africa 2Department of Quantity Surveying, School of Environmental Studies, The Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State. and 3Department of Building Technology, School of Environmental Studies, The Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State.
The construction industry all over the world is shifting to Circular Economy (CE) which is associated with the need to implement innovative construction models, but the adoption of circular construction strategies in the industry has been limited. This paper investigates the level of awareness and challenges faced by the construction industry in implementing a circular construction model and the solutions adopted to overcome them. A quantitative research approach was adopted through the use of primary and secondary data, using a purposive sampling technique and structured questionnaire were distributed to 15 construction companies in Abuja- Nigeria. The result from the study indicates that, the most prevalent challenges considered among the practicing practitioners for the adoption of CE, is the Lack of CE knowledge as a result of the creation of the required incentives for training of the operators and which of course made the awareness level moderate. In conclusion, it is evidence that the knowledge of the practicing practitioners in the industry needs to be adequately intensify through training and retraining to meet the global challenge of the industry. Finally, the paper suggested the need for practitioners to develop an interest and acquaint themselves on the benefit of CE during the construction process in other to reduce the risk of financial expenditure during the offer of design and build process.
Keywords: Awareness, Challenges, Circular economy, Construction, Design, Implementation
ASSESSMENT OF SOIL AND GROUNDWATER QUALITY AROUND MAJOR DUMPSITES IN RIVERS STATE USING INDEX MODELS APPROACH
*OZOEKWE, V. E.; **GOBO, A. E.; **ABAM, T. K. S.; & **NGAH, S. A.
*Environmental Management and Control, Institute of Geosciences and Space Technology. Rivers State University, Port Harcourt. Nigeria. **Institute of Geosciences and Space Technology. Rivers State University, Port Harcourt. Nigeria.
Soil and groundwater quality assessment was conducted in order to determine the level and extent of contamination imposed from surface dumpsites cited within residential areas in Rivers State, Nigeria. Thirty soil and groundwater samples were obtained from dumpsite centers and surrounding residential areas for physico-chemical, heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons analysis. Sampling was carried out in the wet and dry seasons to reflect seasonal variations in soil and groundwater quality. The samples were analyzed using AAS and standard laboratory procedural guidelines. Pollution load index and water quality index were used to address soil and groundwater quality status in the area. The results of soil heavy metal pollution load ranged from 0.65 to 1.45 in the wet season and 0.74 to 1.55 in the dry season. Soil metal pollution load revealed all dump centres have deteriorated soil quality, while 20% and 87% of soils in residential areas have deteriorated quality for wet and dry seasons respectively. Groundwater across the entire area is very acidic in both wet and dry season with pH values < 5.0. Water quality index revealed only a single borehole in Igwuruta has unsuitable water quality, all other boreholes showed good to excellent quality across both wet and dry seasons. The study recommends groundwater in the area is treated with lime or carbonates to reduce its acidity before subsequent consumption.
Keywords: Water Quality Index, Pollution Load Index, Groundwater, Soil, Contamination.
DEVELOPMENT OF FISCAL OF CADASTRE OF BAP 7 LAYOUT AREA OF BAUCHI METROPOLIS, BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA
1YUSUF M. INUWA.; 1DR. MUSA, S. I.; 1ABDULMUMIN O. ABDULSALAM; 1DR. SHUAIBU, M. A.; & 2ABDUL AZIZ DAUDA.
1Department of Surveying and Geo-informatics, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi State, Nigeria. 2Department of Surveying and Geo-informatics, Abubakar Tatari Ali State Polytechnic, Bauchi State, Nigeria
The prospect of this project is to create comprehensive data base that will help to check, analyse, update and improve the standard of keeping records on land in Bauchi state. The basic objective of this project titled ‘Development of Fiscal Cadastral System’ is to provide an easy access to individual records and to safe guard information from unauthorised persons. This project also concerned with the conversion of analogue maps to digital format through coordinate geometry (COGO) using computer assisted drafting software while the attribute data will be structured using relational database management software and analysis through geographical information system software such as ArcGis10.0,
Keywords: GIS, Land Administration, Cadastral Information System, geo-spatial Database
ADOPTING LAND CONFLICT RESOLUTION FOR AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT IN THE 21ST CENTURY.
1SAKARIYAU, JAMIU KAYODE; 2ESV, MORADEYO, OLUWATUNMISE SAMUEL; 3HAFSATU, JIDERE BALA; & 4JOAB, SAJE KUMO
1Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. 2Department of Estate Management and Valuation, the Polytechnic, Ibadan, Oyo State. Nigeria. 3Department of Estate Management, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. 4Department of Estate Management, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.
African as a region is characterized by a very rich diversity of natural ecosystem resources, including soils, vegetation, water and genetic diversity. Together, this constitute the region’s main natural capital. It is from this asset that the provision of food, water, wood, fibre and industrial products, and essential ecosystem services and functions are derived. And they must be maintained in order to support African populations into the future. The account of Africa in terms of development is inundated with good and bad. Bearing it in mind that is a continent happens to be one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Therefore, it follows that Africa is seen as land of outstanding. Today’s high population growth coupled with climate change, natural disasters and large-scale economic globalization puts increasing pressure on land, which in turn becomes increasingly scarce and thereby subject to conflict – often boosted by fragile institutions, weak governance and gender gaps. The rush for land, global commercial pressures on land, land grabbing, involuntary resettlement due to large infrastructure projects, migration due to desertification, displacements due to violent clashes as well as boundary disputes between neighbours and inheritance result to conflicts over land between siblings. The scope of land conflicts is enormous. Land conflicts in Africa have multiple dimensions and most common form of land conflicts include inheritance conflicts among family members, boundary conflicts between neighbours, conflict between landless people and government authorities or local communities, conflict between land owners and tenants among others. Land conflicts can be as a result of deeper root causes (e.g. climate change, desertification, immigration, lack of legal recognition of land rights, need and greed etc.) and also be a source of broader conflict by itself. Solving land conflicts as well as addressing land issues responsibly in both conflict and post-conflict situations is key to Africa inclusive development, peace and stability and realisation of human rights. A system of management of land resources crisis is urgently needed; the one that will be able to respond in a systematic and integrated manner to African development and challenges in the 21st Century is land conflict resolution. This paper assessed the need for land resources conflict resolution as a tool to African development and offers key recommendations that will prevent or minimize grievances among people in relation to land in Africa.
Keywords: African Development, African Resources, Challenges of African development, Land conflict resolution, 21st Century.
EFFECTS OF ARTISANAL MINING OF GEMSTONES ON SOILS IN ANGWAN-DOKA, KOKONA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA.
MENWO UKECHI WILSON-OSIGWE; MOHAMMED BAKOJI YUSUF; TUKURA EJATI D. H.; ANITA H. PHILIP
Department of Geography, Faculty of Social and Management Sciences, Taraba State University, P.M.B 1167, Jalingo, Taraba State.
The effects of mining have been reported in Angwan Doka, Kakona Local Government Area, Nasarawa State. Mining generally deteriorates the environment in numerous ways especially soil. The data used for this study was derived from two sources- the primary and secondary sources. Primary data was collected from the field studies such as field observations and measurements of environmental variables. Data on soil properties such as soil texture, moisture content, total porosity, bulk density, organic matter, PH, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, S, Fe, Al, and CEC. Secondary data was gathered through the review of relevant literatures which include internet, maps, relevant Governmental Journals and extant work on artisanal mining activities. A reconnaissance survey was carried out in the month of January, 2019 at Angwan Doka Kokona LGA, to establish and confirm the most viable sampling technique to be used before collection of primary data and representative soil sample sites were selected and GPs was used to take the coordinates of the points which assisted in the subsequent sample collection at same point. The instruments that was used in sample collection include – Global Positioning System (GPS) used for taking coordinates of the study Area, filed Note book used for recording observations, auger and cone used for taking the soil sample, masking tape, maker and biro pen for labelling the collected samples and field note taking, sterilized bags collection of soil samples and field bags used to carry field equipments sample and lunch packs. A transact line method was used for collection of soil sample in the study area and total of five (5) soil samples were collected from points located at 60 metres interval within the study area and being the extent of the radius of the artisanal mining site, one soil sample was collected from undisturbed reference site 2km away from the mined site to serve as control for the study. This approach was adopted because undisturbed land was not common and the only visible plot was obviously very small in size. This is to ensure that soil cores are taken to represent the whole sampling area adequately. From each sample point, top soil samples were collected at a depth of 0-30cm considered being cultivated layer justified as the most significant of soil profile which provides the bulk of the plants nutrients Greenland and Kowal (1960). Soil samples were collected with the aid of an auger and cone that has been calibrated so as to collect soil at the required depth. Two (2) kilograms of soil samples were collected and placed inside well labelled sterilized bags and taken to the laboratory for routine analysis for physical and chemical properties of soils. The study shows that moisture content in the study area varies from 9.00% to 13.00% with a mean of 10.80% site value of 54%. Low value of moisture content in the study area can be attributed to the compaction of the soils in the study area by heavy machinery. Also low moisture content in the mine spoilt land can be attributed to lack of organic matter, higher stone content and sandy texture. The total porosity in the study area ranges from 23.00% to 35.00%, with a mean of 29.40% and SD of 5.03 and the control land site has a value of 39%. The gradual increase of total porosity as we move away from the mining site can be attributed to the top soil disturbance caused by the thin layer of particulates initially caused by mining as observed (Ibanga et al, 2005). The inverse relationships between total porosity and moisture content have been extensively discussed by many scientists.
Keywords: Angwan Doka, deteriorates, artisanal mining
DETERMINING EXTENT OF STRUCTURAL MATERIAL WASTAGE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION SITES IN EBONYI STATE OF NIGERIA
1JONATHAN CHINASA NWEKETE AND 2ERNEST ITUMA EGBA
Department of Technology and Vocational Education, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki. PMB 53, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
Structural materials constitute basic ingredients of building projects. There have been reports of abandoned building projects especially in the developing nations probably because of inadequate waste management practices in construction sites. Effects of uncontrolled structural material wastes in the building construction sites are periodic and financial project failures. This paper determines extent of structural material wastage in building construction sites to guide future studies on waste management in developing nations. The descriptive survey design was used for the study. The target population was all consultants and project managers that supervise building projects in Ebonyi state. A structured questionnaire in line with the formulated research questions was used to guide the study. The statistical mean, standard deviation, and t-test analysis were used to analyze the data. Findings of the study showed that cement mortar, Portland cement, nails, bracing and scaffolding members are structural materials that are wasted to very high extent in building construction sites in Ebonyi state. The paper recommended that personnel involved in material usage should be trained and motivated properly to ensure effective handling of the materials and minimize wastage in building construction sites. The findings of the study could be applied in building technology and engineering economics, and in waste management and control for sustainable building projects.
Keywords. Structural material, Material waste, Building construction, Waste generation, Construction site.
GEOSPATIAL MAPPING OF AREAS VULNERABLE TO FIRE INCIDENTS IN ABUJA METROPOLIS
ABDULMUMIN OZOVEHE ABDULSALAM
Department of Geomatics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Nigeria
Abuja Municipal Area council (AMAC) like major cities of the world is constantly faced with the problem of fire outbreak. From reports, domestic fire outbreaks have been on the increase. Fire disaster is known to be dangerous in man life, it has destroyed several properties worth millions of naira and many lives lost in Abuja and other part of the country due to fire outbreak. This research therefore aims to generate a geospatial model for fire vulnerability. A combination of questionnaire distribution and geospatial analysis were conducted. The geospatial analysis includes the distance away from filling station to residential building, fire station, population density and distance of heavy electrical structures to residential buildings. The filling station was buffer using multiple ring buffer of 150, 250 and 350m, fire service station was buffer with multiple ring of 500, 1500 and 2500m, the population density map of the study area was created using colours to depict the variation in high, low populated areas and the industrial areas were buffered by multiple ring buffer of 100, 150 and 200m. Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) was adopted in assigning weight to the parameters used to dictate their level of vulnerability. Results showed that detailed information about the causes of fire are usually unknown, since resident are not helpful in providing useful information. However, the residents themselves attributed the fire outbreak to carelessness, proximity to filling stations, over conjunction in the residence, inadequate fire stations in the study area, proximity of heavy industries to residential structures which can easily fuel any electric sparks in the study area etc.
Keywords: Geospatial, Mapping, Areas Vulnerable, Incidents, Abuja Metropolis.
AN ASSESSMENT OF RISK FACTORS AT THE DESIGN STATE OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS IN KADUNA STATE
OLALEYE YETUNDE OLANIKE, NAZIF AMINA & MUSTAPHA KAZEEM AMINA
Department of Quantity Surveying, College of Environmental Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic
The effectiveness of the design stage in construction has a great influence on the success of subsequent processes in the construction of projects. Despite its importance, relatively little attention has been paid to risks at the design when compared to construction and hence the resulting problems of Poor communication, lack of adequate documentation, unbalanced resource allocation, lack of coordination between disciplines. This study assessed risks at the design phase of construction projects. A structured self-administered questionnaire was administered to 328 consultants in Kaduna state. 203 (56.7%) were completed returned and analyzed. SPSS 22 was used to analyze the data collected. Factor analysis was carried out and the risks were classified into four components: Technical Risks, Management Risks, Clients Risks and financial Risks. The results of the descriptive statistics show that Management Risks ranked the highest with a grand mean of 4.06 while financial risks ranked the lowest with a grand mean of 3.88. Risks exist at the design stage of construction at various degrees and management risks are high. The study recommends that All stakeholders involved in managing the design process should be made to understand in details their roles and responsibilities in the bid to increase the transparency and improve the communication between the actors.
Keywords: Consultants, Design Stage, Risks, Risk Management
AN ASSESSMENT OF THE LEVEL OF COLLABORATION BETWEEN PRINT-BASED INDUSTRY AND PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES IN NIGERIA.
MAXWELL E. ROBERTS; IBRAHIM F. CHRISTOPHER; & IBRAHIM SULEIMAN UBAM
Department of Arts & Industrial Design Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa, Nasarawa State.
The study is established on the assessment of the level of collaboration between Print-based graphic design industry and public universities in Nigeria, as it intends to encourage productive knowledge acquisition after graduation by the students of Graphic Design. The right machines and equipment should be provided by the Universities authority, in the 21th century, design schools should be equipped in preparation for inclusive participation in the Nigerian Print industry. The following objectives were considered. (i) Assess the level of collaboration between Print-based industry and public Universities in Nigeria. (ii) compare the teaching facilities in Nigerian universities and those of the print-based industry. Descriptive survey method and percentage analysis were employed for the study, Primary data was gathered from 4 federal universities; Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria; Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi; Federal University of Technology, Akure and Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola and from eight graphic design companies; two from each location. Findings from the study show that the Print Based industry has more state of- the art- printing facilities, as such; graduates need re-training/internship programme to be able to function properly in the print-based graphic design industry. The level of collaboration between print-based graphic design industry and public universities in Nigerian is important but does not exist. Recommendations are, (i) to create mechanism that will foster the relationship between university and industry which will help to impart relevant knowledge and will be sustainable in the changing conditions. (ii) University management should initiate ways of sourcing fund for the acquisition of machines and equipment, for better quality of graduates.
Keywords: Print based, graphic design, machines, equipment, public universities
SOURCES OF LAND POLLUTION AND RESIDENTS’ WELLBEING IN BIDA, NIGERIA
*FUNKE JIYAH; AND **JOSHUA JIYAH
*Department of Urban and Regional Planning, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Nigeria **Department of Architecture, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Nigeria
Land is required for various uses in both the urban and rural areas and it requires adequate planning and control to ensure harmonious development and functional efficiency of these uses. However, the rate of natural resource consumption and production of human waste products is now so great that the health and well being of all ecosystems on the planet is affected. This study examined the activities that cause land pollution and assessed the health effects on residents of Bida, Nigeria, with specific reference to those residents in close proximity to contaminated sources. The survey-based research used primary and secondary sources of data. Primary data were collected through a structured questionnaire, direct observations, open-ended conversation and field measurements. A total of 40 households were selected using the multi-stage sampling method. Soil samples were taken from a dung hill in the study area. Parameters that were determined include appearance, odour, and the level of concentration of lead, cadmium and nitrate. The study reveals a very high concentration of lead (360.46mg/kg) and cadmium (3.864mg/kg) in soil samples. The sources of contamination were waste discharges from open landfills, fertilizer, herbicide, household and commercial wastes and cow dung. Residents identified the major health effects of land pollution as diarrhea, gastroenteritis, malaria and yellow fever. The paper recommends effective waste collection and management, and conversion of the waste to organic fertilizer for increased food production and improved public health.
Keywords: Land, Pollution, Health effects, Bida.
CHALLENGES OF AFFORDABLE HOUSING IN MADANYA, MUBI SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, ADAMAWA STATE
GIDEON JAFIYA; JAMES JESSE SHINGU; & STEPHEN JOSEPH
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi
Housing is one of the basic need for man after food and water, and its beyond the reached of the people in the study area. It was discovered during the survey that high population growth rate, overcrowding, inadequate planning and development, high cost of land and construction materials are the major challenges to affordable housing. Others are poor implementation of good policies on housing, dilapidated structures, lack of drainage and sanitary system, housing conversion etc. the survey also revealed that houses in the area are in bad condition, they are rented houses and that 3-5 people lived in each room. Individual developers are the major stakeholders in housing delivery in the area and financing the project through personal savings. The research also found out that more people spend more than 30% of their monthly income to paying rent and other utilities, and finally recommendations were given to achieve desire goal.
Keywords: affordability, Challenges, Housing, condition, stakeholders.
EFFECT OF DEVELOPMENT CONTROL MECHANISMS OF KADUNA CITY CENTRE ON THE PERI-URBAN AREAS
MOHAMMED BABANGIDA USMAN; ABOK GALADIMA; & JAFARU MAIGIDA
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna
The research is aimed at examining the effect of development control mechanisms on the development of peri-urban Kaduna with a view to making recommendations for improvement. The first objective of the study is to examine the determinants for residing in the peri-urban areas of Kaduna Metropolis, while the second is to assess the nature and challenges of residential densities in such areas. The research design adopted for the study is the case study approach. The estimate population of the study area is 1,412,974 people as projected from (NPC 2006) using a constant growth rate of 2.5%. The peri-urban areas in Kaduna metropolis and the household heads in such areas constitute the sampling frames for the study. Six peri-urban areas were purposively selected viz; Rigachikun, Rigasa, Rafin Guza, Narayi, Gonin Gora and Unguwan Muazu/Kabala West. The proportional stratified random sampling was employed in selecting the respondents in each settlement and questionnaires were administered to them. The analysis of data was done using the descriptive statistics in terms of frequency distribution and percentages. The data were presented in tabular and textual forms. The research findings show that there is improper land use allocation in the study area, easy access/cheap land is the major determinant for building houses in the area, rresidential densities in terms of plot sizes, plot ratios and building setbacks are below the desirable standards. It is recommended that there should be effective implementation and enforcement of planning and development control mechanisms in the state and local government areas for effectiveness integration of peri-urban areas and sensitization programmes should be organized to create public awareness on the activities of planning in the state. It is also recommended that the ongoing regularization of informal settlements and land tenure system should be strengthened and sustained.
Keywords: Development Control, mechanisms, Impacts, Development and Peri-urban
FACTORS ENHANCING CONSTRUCTION PROJECT SUCCESS CRITARIA: AN APPRAISSAL
ISIYAKU MUHAMMED; SALISU HASSAN; & ADAMU ABDULLAHI
Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa
Each construction project have unique characteristics influencing the factors that enhances the success criteria. Thispaper identified through literature and expert opinion the essential factors that enhances the construction project success criteria and analysed the degree of severity of these factors from the perspectives of the consultants and the contractors in Nigeria.Ten consultants organisations and ten contracting organisation were studied in this work.A survey questionnaire was administered toelicit information from contractors and consultants based on their experiences with identified factors enhancing construction project success criteria.The datawereanalysed from the perspective of the targeted respondent as well as conducting mean analysis from the responses of the respondents. The analysis of twentyseven factors identified and considered in the questionnaire survey using relative important index revealed that tendering and procurement method used, effective communication system, timely involvement of project stakeholders’, timely provision of data to key players, project team leader experience, technical skills of the project team leader are the leading factors enhancing construction project success criteria from the consultant perspectives while timely involvement of project stakeholders’, tendering and procurement method used, Effective communication system, timely provision of data to key players, Technical skills of the project team leader are the leading factors from contractors perspectives. The mean analysis revealed a significant level of agreement between the contractors and the consultants on these factors. Analysis using spearman rank correlation with obtained value of +0.97 confirmed the high level of agreement between the contractors and the consultants on the factors enhancing construction project success criteria. Hypothesis formulated were tested resulting to the acceptance of the alternative hypothesis: there is a significant degree of agreement between consultants and contractors on the critical factors enhancing the construction project success criteria with t-calculated less than the t-tabulated. The paper concluded that both consultants and contractors generally agree on the ranking order of the factors enhancing the construction project success criteriaand recommended among others that contractors and consultants should give more attention to the critical factors that influence the construction project success criteria in order to achieve cost effective and value for money of any construction project.
Keywords: Construction project, Success factors, criteria, appraisal
ANALYSIS OF LANDUSE AND LAND COVER CHANGE CASE STUDY OF BAUCHI METROPOLIS
*ABAH OCHEPO SUNDAY; *AHMED BABAYO; *MOHAMMED OSHOMA KASHETU; & **JAMES DANFULANI
*Department of Surveying and Geo-Informatics, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi **Department of General Studies, the Federal Polytechnic Bauchi
Land use and land cover change is driven by human actions and changes that limit availability of products and services for human and livestock, can undermine environmental health as well. Therefore, the aim of this research was to produce land use land cover map of Bauchi metropolis. The following data were used; Landsat (7) Thematic Mapper (TM) with 30m spatial resolution of Landsat (7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM +), with 30m spatial resolution and Landsat (7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM +), Landsat (7) Thematic mapper (TM) with, Lansat (7) Enhance Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), which covered the period between 1999 to 2019. ArcGIS version 10.3 were used for the analysis. The LANDUSE and land cover distribution was determined by classifying the land Use and land cover maps into built-up land, rock outcrop, settlement, vegetation land, bare surfaces and water body using cluster unsupervised classification technique. The results obtained of the landscape change in land use and land cover of the vegetation Land Use and Land Cover status of the area. In view of the above study recommends among other things, the periodic monitoring, control and evaluation of the Land Use and Land Cover (LULCC) of the area in order to checkmate harp-hazard developments or modifications that may be detrimental to the inhabitants.
Keywords: Land Use, Land Cover, Imageries, Map and ARCGIS
HOUSING CONDITION AND RESIDENTS’ SATISFACTION OF IN-HOUSE FACILITIES IN NIGERIA.
*ADEKUNLE, LUKMAN OMOTAYO; *ALABI, FOLAMI MUNTA AND **OGUNKUNLE, OLUWAYEMI ADEYEMO; AND **OGUNKUNLE TAIWO OLUWABUKOLA.
*Department of Urban and Regional Planning, **Department of Architectural Technology, the Oke Ogun Polytechnic, Saki
This study examined housing condition and residents’ satisfaction of in-house facilities in Nigeria, because housing does not only provides shelter, but is the cornerstone of community life, the centre of family activities, and a reference point for societal esteem, as well as the most important financial asset most households will ever acquire. Challenges associated with housing in Nigeria are enormous, because global estimates have it that one billion people are living in either houses lagging in-house facilities, slums or squatter settlements, and this includes one third of the world’s urban population. In other to achieve the aforementioned, relevant theories and literatures were reviewed in the study. Result revealed that many (70.0%) of the houses in Nigeria Cities/Towns covered between 51 and 75% of their residential plots, one-fifth (19.0%) of the houses covered over 75% of their plots while one-tenth (9.0%) of them covered 26% – 50%. Majority (74.2%) of the houses surveyed had no in-house facility, a quarter (24.0%) has some facilities in the house, small proportion (1.8%) of the houses had their building plans disapproved, by the Development Control Unit and in good Condition. On the whole, most of the houses (73.30%) are not in good condition. Base on this the study conclude that majority of the houses are not in good condition in the area under study. The study recommends for conserving and maintaining availability of water resources; Providing housing opportunities for a range of family and income types; and Maximizing efficiency in public infrastructure investments to promote the other goals, which includes: Adequate water supply, Assured electricity supply, Sanitation, including solid waste management, Efficient urban mobility and public transport, Affordable housing, especially for the poor, Robust IT connectivity and digitalization, Good governance, especially e-Governance and citizen participation, Sustainable environment, Safety and security of citizens, particularly women, children and the elderly, and Health and education. This will undoubtedly control resident satisfaction of in-house facilities and housing discrepancies in Nigeria.
Keywords: Housing, Satisfaction, Facilities, Resident, Condition
SIMULATIONS AND DECISION-MAKING IN GEOGRAPHY.
1MAIKANO, S., 2YAHAYA, U. F., 3OKECHALU, S. O., 4LIKITA, M. S., 5LAPKAT, L. G., 6BAKO, A., 7ADEMOLA, T. O., AND 8A. S. POPOOLA
1Forestry Technology, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State. 2Agricultural Extension, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State. 3,5&6Horticulture and Landscape Technology Department, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State. 4Basic Science Department, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State. 7Agricultural Technology Department, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State. 8Forestry Technology Department, Federal College Forestry, Jos Plateau State.
Decision making in Geography is a routine activity that is common to different phenomena. Spatial decision making problems are multi-facetted challenges. Not only do they often involve numerous technical requirements, but they may also contain economical, social, environmental and political dimensions that could have conflicting objectives. Solving these complex problems requires an integrative use of information, domain specific knowledge and effective means of communication. The paper gave an highlight on decision making process and simulations in handling geographical problems.
Keywords: Geography, Simulations, Model, decision-making, spatial problems.
IMPACT OF HOUSING FINANCE ON SELF BUILT DWELLINGS IN A FORMAL SETTLEMENT: A CASE STUDY OF KABAMA LAYOUT, ZARIA.
AMINA ADAMU; ABDULLAHI SADAUKI; MUSA MUSTAPHA DANRAKA; ZAKI, BLESSED M.; ABUBAKAR MU’AZU ALIYU
Department of Architecture, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Zaria. Kaduna State. Nigeria
Housing finance is what allows for the production and consumption of housing. Therefore adequate finance is the first requirement for successful and effective housing delivery in any nation. This study therefore assessed the access to housing finance and how the availability or non-availability of this finance has impacted on the quality and character of self-built dwellings of formal settlements in Nigeria by using Kabama residential settlement in Zaria to get a better insight of the situation. The research adopted a descriptive survey approach, and the main instruments for data collection was the questionnaires but it also included secondary sources and interviews. Result from the study indicated that most respondent’s income level had a direct implication on the type of dwelling and duration to build and the major source of finance for housing developments was from monthly personal savings and cooperative loans. The challenges of accessing housing finance was due to the lengthy and cumbersome process it involves and the inability to access finance impacted on the quality of building appearance and finishing, comfort level and building strength and stability. In conclusion, the inadequacy of government’s previous policies to address affordability issues is the bane of the housing finance sector. It is recommended Policies and programmes of government should be aimed at the low income segment focusing on assisting them to acquire, build or improve their homes through easy accessibility to land and securing of title documents. Also, government should provide mechanism for regulation of lending rates in the private sector and also intervene and complete the mortgage sector reforms and provide incentives that will expand the scope of delivery of the cooperatives.
Keywords: Housing Finance; Self-built Dwellings; Kabama Residential Settlement; Zaria
THE EFFECTS OF CROWN CORKS ON THE STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE
1ALABI, J.O., 1SANNI, J.E., 1ASHIRU, M.A., 1YUSUF, M.J. AND 2ADEOYE, A.S.
1Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa, Nigeria 2Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Nigeria
Crown corks are metal bottle caps used in covering the bottles of drinks. They are the second most littered items after cigarette butts. They are non-biodegradable and highly destructive to the environment. As a way of finding suitable alternative to dumping of this waste in landfills, this paper considered the effects of crown corks on the strength properties of concrete. Slump and Compressive Strength properties of concrete produced with waste crown cork were investigated. Concrete was produced using mix ratio 1:2:4, 0.55 water-cement ratio and replacement of coarse aggregates at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40% with crown cork. From the experimental analysis carried out, it was found that the workability of the concrete was decreasing as the percentage replacement ratio of the cork crown was increasing. The twenty eight days compressive strength of the concrete which was 28.85N/mm2 at 0% replacement reduced by 1.77% to 28.34N/mm2 at 5% replacement, it further reduces by 19.90% to 23.11N/mm2 at 10% replacement of coarse aggregates with crown corks, and the strength reduced further by 76.12% to 6.89N/mm2 at 40% replacement. This paper concluded that optimum strength was obtained at five and ten percent replacement of coarse aggregates with crown cork.
Keywords: Aggregates, Crown cork, Compressive Strength, Environment, Landfill
ASSESSING THE ADOPTION OF EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE AS BUILDING MATERIAL IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
MARYAM BABA MAIRAMI; MUINAT OMOLARA SANNI; & NASIRU SABO JIBRIN
Department of Quantity Surveying, School of Environmental Design, College of Environmental Studies, Kaduna Polyechnic, Kaduna
Housing provision has become a global issue as the need for affordable housing kept increasing in Nigeria. This has emerged due to various economic, socio-cultural, and environmental factors which have increased pressure on conventional building materials, thereby leading to the invention of alternative building materials. This paper investigated the adoption of expanded polystyrene (EPS) for building construction. Expanded polystyrene is a thermoplastic material obtained from the polymerisation of styrene and used as packaging material. The methodology adopted elicited information through a structured questionnaire which assessed the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, their level of awareness of EPS as a building material. Strategies in reducing the cost of construction of EPS buildings, advantages of using polystyrene, factors hindering its adoption for building and the remedies to factors impede the adoption of EPS for building construction were also elicited. Structured questionnaires were used for the data collection and subsequently analysed. The study revealed that EPS demonstrates fast construction time, flexibility, reduced heat transfer, high strength and stability and environmental friendliness. The outcome of this research shows that perceived high cost and lack of awareness were the key hindrances to the adoption of EPS for construction and if strategies such as cutting production costs, reducing supply expenses, lower financial expenditure etc. can be adopted the material will be highly suitable in construction.
Keywords: Adoption, Building Construction, Expanded Polystyrene, Sustainability, Cost Reduction
CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH EXECUTION OF PUBLIC HOUSING ESTATE IN IKORODU LAGOS, NIGERIA
OLADOJA ISMAILA OLAWALE
Estate Management Department, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin, Nigeria.
Earlier studies investigation public sector housing in Nigeria has not explicit considered the level of implementation of housing projects despite the facts that housing policies dictate the nature of development of housing in the country. This research work therefore examines the various issues involved in public sector housing programmes in Nigeria. Using some kind of methodology which questionnaire were administered to the ministry (15 questionnaire) and developer (12 questionnaire) in housing sector in lagos Nigeria which the total are 27 questionnaire. The systematic random sampling technique where adopted in administered of the questionnaire to receive vital information. A detailed of the research review the existing housing policies, identifying the various problems militating against the achievement of the goals of public sector housing projects and suggesting possible recommendations towards addressing the problems.
Keyword: Execution, public housing, growth, development, project management
PLACE OF FACILITIES MANAGEMENT PRACTICE IN AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT IN THE 21ST CENTURY.
1ABUBAKAR IDRISS MOHAMMED; 2ESV OYELEKE, OYEDIRAN OLUFEMI; 3MUHAMMAD MUKHTAR MUAZU; & 4OLANIYI KAFILAT JUMOKE.
1Department of Estate Management, Mai Idris Alooma Polytechnic, Geidam Yobe State, Nigeria. 2Department of Physical Planning, Federal Polytechnic of Oil and Gas, Bonny Island, Rivers State, Nigeria. 3Department of Estate Management and Valuation, School of Environmental Studies, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.4Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Federal Polytechnic. Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria.
Africa’s opportunities are vast, and its challenges are persistent. Home to the world’s largest free trade area and a 1.2 billion-person market, the continent is creating an entirely new development path, harnessing the potential of its resources and people. Development refers to the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function. It typically characterizes technical structures such as housing, roads, bridges, tunnels, water supply, sewers, electrical grids, telecommunications, and so forth, and can be defined as “the physical components of interrelated systems providing commodities and services essential to enable, sustain, or enhance societal living conditions. Several long-standing challenges remain and are holding back progress. Around 640 million people currently live without electricity in Africa – 210 million of which are in fragile and conflict-affected countries. Public debt levels and debt risk are rising, which might jeopardize debt sustainability in some countries; the availability of good jobs has not kept pace with the number of entrants in the labor force; fragility is costing the subcontinent a half of a percentage point of growth per year; and gender gaps persist and are keeping the continent from reaching its full growth and innovation potential. More than 416 million Africans still live in extreme poverty. However, all these coupled together can bring about the provision of good and affordable housing necessary for the smooth operation of a nation. Infrastructure development has always played a key role in integrating economies within a region. Well developed and efficient infrastructure is essential for a regional economic development and growth. Infrastructure development has always played a key role in integrating economies within a region. Well developed and efficient infrastructure is essential for a regional economic development and growth. Infrastructure development is at its lowest ebb in developing nations because of dearth of fund. Among the challenges of African development is lack of proper actualization and implementation of facility management practice. Facilities Management practice when implemented will transform developing economies into self-sufficient developed nations in the 21st Century. The benefits of increased and rapid infrastructure development are evident in the successful economic development of the newly-industrialized nations of China, India, Mexico, South Africa and Brazil. It thus become vital for the less industrialized, third world communities to ensure increased investments in infrastructural development in order to bridge the economic gap from the highly industrialized and developed nations of the globe. However, given the widespread fiscal constraints in the wake of the global financial crisis, it will require innovative steps to boost productivity in the Africa development. The impact of shortage of infrastructure in Africa nations can be reduced by through the adoption of facility management. African nations must see facilities management as a tool for development and conscientiously embrace it. This paper assessed the roles of facilities management in development of Africa nations.
Keywords: Facilities Management, Africa Development, 21st Century.
SUITABILITY ANALYSIS AND SITE SELECTION FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL IN NASARAWA TOWN, NASARAWA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, NASARAWA STATE.
CHINDO, MUSA MUHAMMAD1; MUHAMMAD, ASADULLAH2; ANIKAJOGUN, BIBIANA OMETERE3
1Department of Survey & Geoinformatics, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, Nasarawa – Nigeria 2Nigerian Customs Services, Abuja – Nigeria 3Department of Urban & Regional Planning, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, Nasarawa – Nigeria
Selecting a suitable location for municipal solid waste disposal is a complex process due to the technicalities involve. However, with advance in geospatial technology, this process has been made less strenuous. Thus, using GIS and remote sensing method, this complex process was successfully achieved for Nasarawa town. Using ArcGIS 10.5 and Envi 4.2, and remotely sensed data, five locations along Nasarawa – Abaji and Nasarawa – Loko roads axis’s totaling about 84.907848 Ha were found to be most suitable for municipal solid wastes disposal in Nasarawa town, based on their land use land cover and elevation characteristics, proximity to the streets and distances away from water bodies.
Keywords: Suitability, Analysis, Selection, Municipal, Solid Waste.
AN EXAMINATION OF TAX EVASION AND AVOIDANCE IN NIGERIA PROPERTY TAX SYSTEM. A CASE OF FAGGE LOCAL GOVERNMENT, KANO STATE, NIGERIA.
OREKAN, ATINUKE ADEBIMPE
Department Of Estate Management, College of Environmental Sciences, Bells University of Technology, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria.
The study examined the level of tax compliance amongst property owners in order to assess the level of tax evasion and avoidance amongst tax payers in Fagge LGA of Kano State. To achieve this, questionnaires were administered to all heads of property Management Units in all the 37 registered Estate Surveying and Valuation firms in Kano State, out of which 30 were retrieved. Also 31 number questionnaires were also administered to all the senior level cadres of 5 departments that were found useful for this study at the Kano State Board of Internal Revenue Services and all the questionnaires were retrieved. Descriptive analysis with the use of table and bar-chart were used for the analysis. The study revealed that review of tax laws for enforcement, accountability and the provision of public infrastructure by the government are necessary to reduce tax evasion and avoidance amongst tax payers. In conclusion, the priority of any government should be to improve tax administration policy to boost optimal revenue yield from property taxes.
Keywords: Property taxes, Tax Evasion, Tax Avoidance, Fagge LGA, Revenue.
AFFORDABLE-SUSTAINABLE-INNOVATIVE HOUSING TECHNOLOGIES AND SOLUTION FOR NIGERIA
KABIRU ZAKARI; DAUDA ALI MADU; & OGWUCHE HENRY AUDU3
The Department of Architectural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. P.M.B. 0231, Bauchi Nigeria.
The rapid rate of urbanization, economic and population growth in Nigeria, estimated at 2.6% per annum are the key factors that have put a lot of pressure on housing demand and investment. Consequently, the housing deficit has recently been estimated to be up to a backlog of about 22 million units. In order to attain a sustainable economic development in the Nigeria housing sector, this study is aimed at developing an affordable/sustainable pedagogical framework for innovative housing delivery. The study adopts a mixed method approach, as well as, using a case study of an existing model. The result of the framework is a model for affordable housing delivery with 30% savings that can be used towards the provision of affordable water and electricity. The significance of this model is its uniqueness as the Siamese triplet of achieving affordable housing in Nigeria with modular system of construction, using 3 in 1 components of fibre glass + concrete IBS for columns, beams and Walls.
Keywords: Development, sustainable, innovative, urbanization
ASSESSMENT OF WATER SUPPLY IN STUDENTS HOSTEL (A CASE STUDY OF WAZIRI UMARU FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC, BIRNIN-KEBBI
SULEIMAN HARUNA RASHEED, ABDULKARIM ABDULMUMIN MANGA AND MUHAMMAD YUSUF
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin-Kebbi. Department of Science laboratory Technology, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin-Keb
This research was carried out to assess the water supply in students’ hostels (male and female) of Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, with the view of identifying the impact of students population on water supply, the following methods were used. Assessment of sources of water supply, assessment of student’s hostel accommodation, administration of structured questionnaires, descriptive analysis tool (charts), map and satellite imageries. From the results there were two major sources of water supply, pipe borne water (9.30%) and underground (90.70%) the average daily water volume used by a student was 60 litres when compared to 120 litres which is the recommended standard. The recommended standard in both male and female hostels accommodation total is 576 and the existing population in both male and female hostel was 864. On the average 52.14% of the respondents agreed that water supply is inadequate, the assessment of the efficiency of water maintenance of the main sources was carried out, were 67.44% respondents strongly disagree with the maintenance level, this also contribute to the inadequate supply of water. From the above findings, it is evident that overcrowding and improper maintenance has a negatively impacted students living conditions which if not attended to may lead to social disorder, improper hygiene standard and gross environmental pollution. It is against this background that adequate infrastructural planning must be ensured.
Keywords: Assessment, water supply, overcrowding, accommodation and students’ hostel