SUB-SAHARA AFRICAN JOURNAL OF HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCE (SJHSS)
VOL 16 (6) SEPTEMBER, 2020 ISSN: 2316-7989
Sub-Sahara African Academic Research Publications,
Centre for African Development Studies, University of Ibadan,
P. O. Box 10108, U. I. Post Office. Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria, West-Africa.
ELECTORAL SYSTEM AND POLITICAL VIOLENCE IN NIGERIA: THE ISLAMIC VIEWPOINT ON MULTI-PARTY SYSTEM AND THE PANACEA
*MUHAMMAD HABIB ABUBAKAR; **IBRAHIM TIJJANI SABIU; ***HIZBULLAH ALHASSAN ALIYU
*Department of Islamic Studies, Al-Qalam University Katsina, Nigeria. **Faculty of Business and Management, Universiti Sultan Zainal-Abidin, Terrengganu, Malaysia. ***Department of Islamic Studies, Sule Lamido Kafin Hausa University, Jigawa, Nigeria.
Political violence has become a phenomenon in Nigeria as a heterogeneous country with various religions and ethnicities. Although, the use of violence in elections is not peculiar to recent and emerging democracies in the developing countries, but it is worse there due to the high rate of poverty, unemployment, and ignorance. Violence has been taken as a ride for destabilizing peace and creating conflicts mostly by potential losers at various stages of election. Act of violence includes threats, assault, murder, destruction of property, and physical or psychological harm. Exploitation of the ballot voting system is one of the major rides used by politicians in wrecking the election which results to incessant violence as well as ineffective government. Therefore, this paper examines current Nigeria’s electoral system from the Islamic viewpoint and opines that it is no longer feasible. There is need of correctng the weaknesses inundated the system. Data for this research was collected through secondary methods. Descriptive qualitative approach was employed for the analysis of data. Conclusively, the paper recommends the adoption of Khulafa’ul Rashideen electoral system as a substitute that would highly reduce eruption of violence during electoral processes.
Keywords: Electoral System, Multi-Party system, Violence, Nigeria, Islamic viewpoint
INFLUENCE OF ETHNIC CONSCIOUSNESS AND MEDIA NARRATIVES ON POWER RELATIONS IN NIGERIA
*PROF. AJILORE KOLADE; & **ONIFADE, OLUWAFEMI SUNDAY**
*Department of Mass Communication, Babcock University Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria; **Doctoral Candidate, Department of Mass Communication, Babcock University Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria
This paper interrogates the place of ethnic consciousness in the processes and outcomes of Nigerian politics. The study traces ethnic-motivated narratives and counter-narratives in Nigerian politics to the disagreements on independence among the leaders of the leading ethnic nationalities during the colonial days. Based on the foundations of McCombs and Shaw’s Agenda-setting theory, the study examines the place of the media in the promotion of ethnic politics in Nigeria through the manufacture and entrenchment of narratives that promote primitive ethnicity and protect the personal interests of the ethnic leaderships while suppressing the interest of the ethnic masses and the larger nation state. While dwelling on the complex socio-political realities existing in Nigeria, the paper also draws lessons from the experiences of other African countries like Egypt, Libya, Togo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and Botswana. Based on the historical patterns of political and media development in Nigeria, the study concludes that ethnic consciousness in Nigerian politics is unlikely to decrease soon due to due to imbalances in the distribution of political and economic resources in the country. It therefore, recommends a return to true federalism because it could promote healthy competition among the constituent groups like it was during the Nigerian First Republic. It also calls for greater social responsibility from media owners and managers that they should be more positive and less sinister in their promotion of political positions, candidates and ideas.
Keywords: Ethnic Consciousness, Nigerian Politics, Media Narratives, Agenda-Setting.
PUBLIC ASSESSMENT OF MEDIA EFFECTIVENESS IN ETHNO-RELIGIOUS CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF NORTH-WEST STATES
*DYADYA, MOHAMMED UMARU; **ABDULLAHI MUHAMMAD HASSAN; ***YAHAYA MOHAMMED; & ****CORDELIA F. CLAYTON
*School of Postgraduate Studies, Department of Mass, Communication, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. **Department of Mass Communication Fati Lamin Institute for Legal and Administrative Studies, Kpakungu, Minna, Niger State ***Department of Mass Communication, Federal Polytechnic, Bida Niger State ****Department of Mass Communication, Bingham University Karu Abuja
The media is a powerful instrument in shaping public perception about issues. That is why it is the belief that it can be used to build as well as to destroy human society. This study attempt to establish the inherent nature of crises in human society as well as the significant role media play in forming and shaping people’s perception of events or issues. The media helping in enhancing social interaction and can as well exaggerate violence through reportage. The survey method was employed with 364 questionnaires administered to respondents using purposive and accidental sampling method because of the sensitivity of the issue under study. The study result shows that the media play a significant role in peacebuilding, preaching tolerance, promoting harmonious working relationships and in creating understanding among the diverse tribes and ethnicity in Nigeria. The study recommends among others that; that there is a need to enhance the performance of media in the process of conflict management, reconciliation and reportage to enable a peaceful common future for all citizens. The Media practitioners are regarded as a purveyor of public safety and are expected to be responsible, accountable, fair, objective, accurate, balanced and professional in the exercise of their professional duty of reporting ethno-religious crisis.
Keywords: Media, Ethno-Religious, Crisis, Management, Nigeria and North-West
ETHNO-NATIONALISM IN A HYPER PLURAL STATE: IMPACT OF NEW MEDIA AS NIGERIA SCRAMBLES FOR A NATIONAL IDENTTIY
ISHAQ ISA EL-QASSIM
Department of English and Literary Studies, Federal University Wukari
The new media, particularly the personal mobile channels, are some of the most spontaneous and most freewheeling of all forms of media. A great number of users, particularly in Nigeria, have unrestricted access to smart phones and relevant applications with which they produce impromptu contents (Harner and Thomas 2005), many of which may have the chance of going viral and incidentally lead, even to fatalities in the country. This study analyses two audio clips from 2015 and the 2019 presidential campaign periods relating to, arguably some of the most plural and crises-prone enclaves of northern Nigeria: Kaduna, Plateau and Taraba states. This paper attempted to assess the impacts of media contents relating civic nationalism or “Nigerianness” under the pretext of which the electoral politics itself takes place. The study did a critical discourse analysis of the texts on one hand, and on the other hand it conducted a covert conversational interview to gauge the extent of the social tension between civic nationalism and ethnic nationalism in relations to the WhatsApp voice notes under study. Social identity theory was used to explain prevailing circumstances which pertain to crowd psychology, stereotyping and fake news production, circulation and consumption. The study helped to provide insights into the challenges of the stretched, but seemingly futile quest for Nigerianness or an ideal civic nation rather than the ethnically fragmented Nigeria that is being grappled with – from the perspective of new media usage, particularly the WhatsApp instant messaging application.
Keywords: Ethno-nationalism – Nigerianness – northern Nigeria – WhatsApp – plural state
THE QUESTIONS OF ETHNICITY AND RELIGIOUS SENTIMENTS IN NIGERIAN POLITICS, CHALLENGES AND THE WAY FORWARDS
JIBRIN UBALE YAHAYA, PhD
Department of Political Science, National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN)
This paper examines ethnicity, religion, political sentiment in Nigerian politics and the questions of national unity and integration. Symbolic interactionism was adopted as the theoretical framework. Four hypotheses were formulated to guide the study.Cross-sectional research design was adopted. Multi-stage random sampling procedure was used to disproportionately select a research population from four major ethnic groups, 420 respondents used as the sample. A structured questionnaire was designed to elicit information from the respondents. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 was used in the data analysis. It therefore concludes that ethnicity, religion and political sentiment was the key foundation for social and governance related problems that breeds corruption, insecurity and nepotism in Nigeria’s democratic process which has led to political interest groups’ agitations that now threaten our national unity and peaceful coexistence of various ethnic groups in Nigeria. It recommended that: Nigeria should be restructured in a way that the entire federating units has equal share in political power and resources; Political appointments and allocation of resources should be done equitably amongst the federating units; Government should strengthen its National Orientation Agency and create a strategic political and peaceful initiatives that could give room for functional democratic leadership and accommodative peaceful environment that embraces the various religious and ethnic group to live in peace and harmony despite the differences of values and culture.
Keywords: Ethnicity, Religion, Political Interests, Politics of exclusion, National Unity
ROLE OF MASS MEDIA IN THE RECONSTRUCTION, REHABILITATION AND REMAKING OF SOCIO-ECONOMY AND POLITY OF NORTHEASTERN NIGERIA
ABUBAKAR SUFYANU SAIDU AL-SADIQUE1*, ABDU DAUDA SHAMSU2 AND ADAMKOLO MOHAMMED IBRAHIM3
1Department of Mass Communication, Bayero University, Kano, PMB 3011 Kano, Kano State, Nigeria; 2Department of Mass Communication, The Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. 3Department of Mass Communication, University of Maiduguri, PMB 1069 Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria [Department of Mass Communication, Bayero University, Kano, PMB 3011 Kano, Kano State, Nigeria.]
Mass media are known to be vehicles for the transformation of societies. Now the focus of governments, Non-Governmental Organisations and people in the Northeastern part of Nigeria which has been ravaged by insurgency is that of fashioning out plans of rehabilitation and reintegration of those people displaced by the insurgency. Using a review of some relevant literature in related areas, the study discovered that some of the major factors that have remained a hindrance to the development of the region can be addressed through reviewing the ownership structure and operations of the mass media in the sub-region.
Keywords: Mass Media, Reconstruction, Rehabilitation and Remaking of Socio-economy, Northeastern Nigeria
TEACHERS AND STUDENTS SOCIAL DILEMMA IN SCHOOLS: FOCUS ON MULTI-RELIGIOUS, CULTURAL AND SOCIAL STRATIFIED NIGERIAN SOCIETIES
AWWALU MUHAMMAD INUWA PhD
Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education and Extension Services, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto Nigeria
The paper acknowledges the fact that school environment and its teaching and learning activities were primarily designed for social unification of ideologies in Nigerian societies. Presently, both teaching and learning in Nigerian schools were challenged by risen mistrust, sceptical relationship emanating from historically social doubts of ideological complexities. These are multi-religious, cultural and social class paradigms created by historical fraction and sustained by colonial amalgamated politics. The existence of these factors created social dilemma (social mistrust) within and between teachers and students of schools in Nigeria. Therefore, the goals of education, socialization, innovation and human development cannot be achieved in an educational institution that is tied centrally to social differences of religion, culture and class, which Nigerian schools are experiencing. This position argues that educational philosophy in all societies can only be achieved in an objective and socially free environment that is not associated to complex social dilemma of societies. Therefore, schools in societies of Nigeria should pursue the spirit of national interest and make all schools to accord value to progressive interaction that will be free from social flux, bound of religious, cultural and social class paradigm differences.
Keywords: Social Dilemma, Multi-Religious, Multi-Cultural, Socially Stratified, School environment
SILENCE ON THE SALIENT? AN APPRAISAL OF MEDIA’S COVERAGE OF GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE AND IT’S IMPLICATION IN NIGERIA.
*BELINDA ANYANWU; AND **GODWIN NATHANIEL UDOH
*Department of Mass Communication, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna. **Department of Mass Communication, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria
The study focuses on media’s coverage of violence against women in Nigeria and its implications. One of the objectives of this study is to understand press coverage of violence against women and ascertain the implication of the coverage on the societal ill. Related studies on the concept of violence, causes and types of violence were reviewed. The study is anchored on the Social Responsibility Theory. Content Analysis and In-depth interview were employed as research methodologies. The study population comprises 180 editions of Daily Trust and The Sun Newspapers, out of which 90 formed the sample size of the study. An In-Depth Interview was also conducted with a gender expert. The categories content-analyzed are: Editorial Items published, Perspective of Presentation of Stories on Violence Against Women and Placement of Stories. Findings reveal that women in Nigeria suffer rape and outright killing the most. This is closely followed by sexual assault and physical abuse. The study concludes that despite the exposition on these issues, one of the implications of press coverage of violence against women is that it helps victims get justice and also help discourage the practice of violence against women. It recommends that the Nigerian media should devote more space in exposing, reporting and covering cases of violence against women. Also, media should open a special channel or desk where community members can lodge complains on violence against women.
Keywords: Media Coverage, Violence, Women, Content Analysis
REFORMING AFRICA FINANCIAL SYSTEM: AN ISSUE FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH
*ILIYA BAWA, PhD; **NYIKYAA, MIRIAM NGUAVESE; AND **HELEN OLUWATOYIN ADEBAYO
*Department of Business Administration, Federal University Lokoja Kogi State – Nigeria **Department of Accounting, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa – Nigeria
In Africa, almost after a decade of adopting the World Bank and IMF policies, financial reform appears to have affected the economies of some Africa countries. In this regard, the study aim at investigating into the extent of which the drivers of economic growth specifically the financial sectors have been able to improve the present level of economic growth. The study used secondary data sourced from World Development Indicators (WDI) for the period of 37 years which span from 1980-2017. The research investigate the link between financial system and economic growth with emphasis on selected 46 sub-Saharan African countries. The data obtained were subjected to Harris-Tzavalis panel unit-root test for the identified variables and also standard deviations and means of the variables were examined. The findings revealed that broad money supply (BMS), number of commercial bank branches (NCBB), bank deposits (BD), interest rate spread (IRS) and stock market capitalization (SMC) present very high deviations from their average values. Bank credit to private sector (BCPS), economic growth index (EGI), the indicator of financial system (FS) and that of financial liberalization are not too spread or far away from their average values as their deviations are small. The study recommended that there is need for policy reforms in the context of the financial system and this should be implemented along with other strategic policies towards reducing and curb down unemployment, policy towards curbing inflation rates and policy to reduce budget deficits.
Keywords: Economic growth, Financial system, Financial stability, M-S model, Pagano model
PRIVACY ON FACEBOOK; AWARENESS, CONCERN AND ONLINE BEHAVIOUR
*BASHIRU USMAN; AND **ABUBAKAR TUKUR LIMAN
*Department of Mass Communication, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria **Department of English Education, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria
It is an indisputable fact that social networking sites have redefined communication and penetrated virtually every sphere of human endeavours, connecting the world in an unimaginable manner. In a spur of a moment the technology gained popularity across continent and countries faming the world with surreal communication experiences. However, shrouded in the shines of the digital interaction is a multidimensional security and privacy issues that can subject the social media users to stinking consequences. Facebook being one of the social networking sites, and the most popular platforms for that matter, has its peculiar and general challenges. Therefore, this paper explores the general security/privacy issues on social networking sites with more emphasis on Facebook. The researcher applied qualitative approach to review the content of extant studies conducted in the area to determine the social media users’ awareness and concern about the challenges with view to gauge the extent of the concern vis-à-vis the prevalent security and privacy challenges to ascertain users’ readiness to quit Facebook. The essay concludes that, though the users value their privacy and wary of security threat there on, they prefer available precautionary to completely quitting the social networking sites. Finally, the paper recommends ameliorative steps at individuals, apps developers and states levels to mitigate threats and ensure safety and fair play on the platform.
Keywords: Social media, Facebook, Privacy, Awareness, Concern, Online Behaviour
AN EVALUATION OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT CAMPAIGN ON SELECTED BRC FM RADIO STATIONS IN BAUCHI NORTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT.
ABUBAKAR BABA GARBA,
Department of Mass Communication, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.
Many has the belief that Radio is an intervention strategy which presents diverse range of choices for deepening participation in actualizing motives of the attainment of community development goals. This belief is widely held and it has been a key rationale for its eventual adoption by many agencies and institutions to aid community development campaign in Africa especially Nigeria. In Bauchi state, as it can be seen, the main stream BRC station is located inside Bauchi city and it is observed by many that majority of the rural communities were excluded from its various community development programmes. Now that many BRC FM stations were established across different localities of Bauchi state, and that they were all adopted for transmitting community development programmes like ‘Akoyi Sana’a’, ‘Himma dai matasa’, ‘Kula da lafiya’, ‘A koma gona’, ‘Me aka girka’, ‘Don Makiyaya’, ‘Mu kare muhallinmu’ and ‘Reta sa’a Hulbe’, using the local languages of the host communities; this paper would attempt to evaluate their performance in facilitating community development projects specifically in Bauchi north senatorial district of the state. Methods adopted were survey and content analysis. The result reveals that the people of Bauchi north senatorial district were not only satisfied with the community development programmes transmitted by BRC FM stations, or that the programmes were capable of creating greater community development awareness to the people of the area, but the people’s behaviour and attitudes were also well influenced through the programmes towards community developments efforts and activities. It also shows that using local languages of their host’s communities the stations have provided diverse range of services, meeting community needs in ways unmet by the major public and commercial stations. It is thus recommended that community based radio of this kind shall be supported appropriately to help in this direction nationwide for attainment of community development goals in Nigeria.
Keywords: Radio, Community Development, Evaluation and Campaign.
APPRAISAL OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF NATIONAL POVERTY ERADICTION PROGRAMME (NAPEP) IN TARABA STATE
*ADAMU BASHIR; AND **R.N. KADALA
*Department of Public Administration, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State- Nigeria. **Department of Cooperatives Economics and Management, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria.
Poverty is a ‘curse’ and a big obstacle to development. On this understanding, subsequent governments in Nigeria at different time and level came up with different programmes/policies directed at eradication of the menace of poverty in the country. This study appraised the implementation of National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) in Taraba state, particularly in Sardauna, Wukari and Jalingo local government areas; the study specifically examined the extent to which NAPEP implementation improved on the socio-economic well-being of people and the challenges faced in the programme implementation. The data were mainly sourced through questionnaire from a sample of 300 respondents. However, out of the 300 questionnaires administered, 260 were returned. Both descriptive and inferential statistical tools were used in analysing the data collected. Based on the analysis, it was found among others that NAPEP implementation in the study areas has encouraged skill acquisition, and self- reliance and have to an extent enhance the socio-economic well-being of the people. The implementation of NAPEP was characterized by large scale fraud and corruption, political interference, failure to focus on the target audience and poor programme execution. In-line with the findings, we recommend that the government through legislation strengthen the powers of the anti-corruption agencies in the country,
Keywords: Implementation, NAPEP, Programme, Taraba State, Nigeria
INDEPENDENT NATIONAL ELECTORAL COMMISSION (INEC) AS AN ORGAN REGULATING POLITICAL PARTIES IN NIGERIA: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
*EBOJELE AKHERE PATRICK; *ODARO-EKHAGUEBOR, KELLY; & **AGBOH CHIOMA CHARITY
*Department of Public Administration, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi **Department of Mass Communication, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi
The Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) is the electoral umpire responsible for the conduct of general elections and other related electoral activities in Nigeria since the resurgence of democratic rule in 1999. INEC is also the organ regulating political parties in Nigeria as provided in the Nigerian Constitution and the Electoral Act 2010 (as amended). The electoral commission is faced with series of challenges in the management of the electoral processes due to the fact that the number of registered political parties by the commission are growing astronomically. Obviously faced with the challenges as observed, the electoral body no doubt, has to prove beyond all capabilities that it can hold political parties and by extension their agents to be accountable to the people by obeying electoral laws. The paper examines the challenges of Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC).It however showed that, INEC has not lived up to its responsibilities of conducting electoral processes in the country as enshrined in the statute. It recommends amongst others that INEC should assume its unbiased role by sanctioning, deregistering and proscribing any party, agent or individual from taking part in general elections if found to have violated any section of the electoral laws.
Keywords: Inec, Regulatory, Politicall Parties
IMPLICATION OF GENDER DISCRIMINATION ON PERFORMANCE OF LOCAL GOVERNEMENT STAFF
*BASSEY MOSE IGWE; & **FOLARANMI JULIUS
*The Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (Niser), Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria **Institute of Peace and Strategic Studies, the University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
The local government is popularly referred to as grass root government because it’s the closet to the people. However, over the years, it has failed to live up to the purpose of its establishment leading to many people calling for its abolishment. One of the factors that have continued to affect the performance of local government staffs is the issue of gender discrimination. The study looked at the implication of gender discrimination on employee job performance among staffs of Atisbo Local government area of Oyo state. The paper adopted the Descriptive Survey; the populations of this study were 456 staffs working in Atisbo local government (Local Government Service Commission, 2019). A Sample size of 50 respondents, purposively drawn participated in the study. The paper also used both primary and secondary data. The quantitative data were the 50 questionnaires administered on LG staffs while the qualitative data are three Key Informant Interviews (KII) conducted on head of departments in the local government. The secondary data are: books, internet materials journals, articles, newspapers consulted. The paper concluded that although there are no clear cut differences between the work performance of both male and female, the later are usually marginalized. The paper recommended that women and men should be given equal opportunity to participate fully in the economic activities, by making the LG liberal for all gender to participate fully as improved job performance will lead to rapid economic development.
Keywords: Gender, Discrimination, Performance, Workers and Atisbo LG.
CAUSES OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY AND WAY FORWARD IN MAIDUGURI, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA
1BABA GANA ALIMI; 2BINTU KACHALLA GALADIMA; 3AHMED GARBA; & 1HASSAN SULEIMAN
1Department of Social Services, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri 2Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Maiduguri 3Department of General Studies, Taraba State College of Agriculture, Jalingo
This paper examined the causes of juvenile delinquency in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. Juvenile delinquency has been an issue of major concern, receiving attention of all stakeholders at all level, including government, parents, community and other related concerns personality. Despite the efforts from different angles to minimize the challenges of anti-social behaviour of children below the aged of 18 years old proved abortive. In view of that series of studies were conducted by researchers to find lasting solution to the phenomena of delinquency in our society. This paper is central to the phenomena of juvenile delinquency. Qualitative random interview and focus group discussion (FGD) was conducted in some selected areas of Maiduguri, Borno State. Relevant empirical literatures, journals, articles and oral opinion was mingled together to form the study data. Fifty (50) respondents were used as a study samples. A statistical method of simple frequency distribution and percentages addition with chi-square was used to distinguish the respondents’ opinions. The findings of the study coincides with the study hypotheses that poor parental supervision, peer group, poverty, hunger, broken homes, or family separation amongst others are the key factors motivating the youths engaged in anti-social behaviour.
Keywords: Causes; Juvenile; Delinquency;
TERRORISM AND SOCIAL-POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS ON NATION-BUILDING IN NIGERIA
ADMIN NZADENO KOLA GIDILY
College of Administrative and Business Studies, Numan Campus, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola
A country that is self reliant is believed to proceed with Development Norms that will lead to Nation-building which is necessary and a stage by stage intended process rather than playing a greater role for leadership option that leads to Nation-building. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the Social-political impediment, problems on Sunah Lid-dawat Wal-Jahad, popularly known as Boko Haram sect that has its headquarters in Maiduguri, Borno State. The paper went further to study the activities of the Boko Haram sect, its effects, consequences and anti- theses of the nation building. The paper concluded that the dreaded Boko Haram terrorists have succeeded in posing imposing threat to lives, property and economy of Nigeria, especially, the North East. Recommendations were made based on the challenges posed by Boko Haram.
Keywords: Terrorism, Nation-Building, Community-Buiding, Balkanization, Boko-Haram,
EFFECT OF PERFORMANCE BONUS ON EMPLOYEE RETENTION IN SELECTED DMBs IN MAIDUGURI METROPOLIS, BORNO STATE
ELIZABETH LUKA MUSSA; ALHAJI MODU MAINA; & HADIZA USMAN KYARI
Department of Business Administration & Management, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri
This study examined the effect of Performance Bonus on Employee Retention in Selected Deposit Banks in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State. The population of the study was 198 respondents with a sample size of 132 respondents obtained using Yamane’s formula. Data was collected using structured questionnaires administered to the respondents. The data collected was analysed using multiple regression analysis with the aid of statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS). The major findings of the study revealed that, there is significant effect of performance bonus on employee retention in the study area. The study concludes that monetary reward offered to employees’ in banking sector leads to performance and plays a vital role in determination of their level of retention, where as inadequate monetary reward is percept as major setback to employees retention and this would brought about low performance and high employees’ turnover. Therefore, study recommends that management should endeavour to shows the present of fairness in their monetary rewards as employees are agents who are affected by the performance bonus, management should also try as much as possible to adopt good and positive retention strategies to increase the morale of the workers toward performance.
Keywords: Performance bonus, monetary reward, employee retention, Deposit Money Banks
“MY DEAR COUNTRY MEN AND FELLOW NIGERIANS”: PRAGMATIC STUDY OF (LATE) GEN. ABACHA AND GEN. ABUBAKAR’S MAIDEN BROADCASTS
AREMU, MOSES ADEBAYO,
Department of English, the College o Education, Lanlate, Oyo State, Nigeria.
This paper examines the pragmatic features in the maiden broadcasts of Gen. Sanni Abacha of November, 18, 1993 and that of Gen. Abdulsalami Abubakar of June 9, 1998 with a bid to find out the differences in the pragmatics of the two speeches. Out of 52 sentences in Abacha’s maiden speech, 25 which have explicit performatives were selected for analysis. Also, from Abubakar’s maiden speech which has 20 sentences, 17 were randomly selected for our analysis. Pragmatic concepts of speech acts, context and mutual contextual beliefs were employed for analysing the sampled data. Simple percentage statistical tool was used in analysing the data. The paper attempts to fill the existing gap in pragmatics study since scanty work exists on the pragmatic study of the maiden speeches .Our findings revealed that Abacha’s maiden speech is full of verdictives and assertives because it is a para-coup speech made to assert his ascension into power, while Gen. Abubakar’s maiden speech is characterised by commissive and expressive acts because the speech was made not only to condole Nigerians about the demise of Gen. Abacha, but it was also used to promise a better life for all citizens. Also, Abacha’s maiden speech reflects bald on record impoliteness that characterizes autocratic military rule ,while Gen Abubakar’s use of deceptive politenees was a tool employed to stabilize his dictatorship on the masses.
Keywords: Speech act, Meaning, military in politics, inaugural address
EVALUATING WOMEN PARTICIPATION IN LEISURE AND TOURISM ACTIVITIES WITHIN BAUCHI METROPOLIS, NIGERIA
*ELDAH EPHRAIM BUBA; *SANUSI ABUBAKAR SADIQ; AND **FLORENCE ELMA LAGASI
*Department of Leisure and Tourism Management, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi. **Department of Hospitality Management, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi
Bauchi town is the capital of Bauchi state which is located in the North Eastern part of Nigeria. The city is multi-cultural consisting of over twenty tribes of indigenous and non-indigenous tribes. Because of the cultural believes there are certain occupation, places and activities that women are not allowed to participate. In northern Nigeria, which Bauchi metropolis is part, women are seen as people that are supposed to be at home to take care of the kids. They are mostly not to be seen in some places where men are. This study evaluates women participation in leisure and tourism in Bauchi metropolis and identified areas women participate in tourism and examines the influence of family life on the choice of tourism or leisure activities. 120 survey questionnaires administered out of which 112 were returned. The women were categorized into married, unmarried, those with kids and those without kids. Findings show a pattern in the participation of the leisure activities. Those married and those with kids choose same leisure activities. Those not married and those without kids go for almost same too. Women married and with kids participated in less leisure and tourism activities. The natures of the leisure activities they choose are mostly passive. While those without kids and those not married go for active leisure activities and travel for tourism. Factors that hinder their participation are lack of travel mobility, disposable income and free time. Other factors are insecurity, lack of facilities for women alone, religious reasons, too many children and family restrictions. The study area is a conservative area where culture and religion excludes women from freely interacting in the public. This contributed to the women inability to take on tourism activities of their choice. The government should make available recreational facilities for women so that there will be freedom of participation. Tourism cannot take place without the available income and time to travel to a place of interest. As such, employees should try to raise pay of their workers as the current minimum wage is not enough to take care of the family and with that, it is impossible to have disposable income. Women groups should try to enlighten women on the need to have leisure time and to participate in tourism. Such groups can organize such activities for its members too
Keywords: Evaluating, Women, Participation, Leisure and Tourism.
THE CHALLENGES OF NIGERIAN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS GRADUATES EMPLOYABILITY: THE WAY FORWARD
EGWU DAVID; ABBARETT F. MICCAH; & EZEADIM .O. GABRIEL
Department of Social Sciences and Humanities, Federal Polytechnic, Offa Kwara State, Nigeria
Our aim in this paper is to contribute to the debate on Nigerian graduates employability with respect to the yearning gap between Higher Education graduates profile and the prevailing challenges of the labour market. However, against the backdrop of the problem of unemployment which shall dominate our discussion here, question like “what are some of the burning issues in Nigerian graduate unemployment?” And “what link is there between the issue of unemployment and curriculum writing? Shall be given due attention. Because Nigeria is yearning for a need-oriented tertiary education curriculum, this paper posits that employability is the quintessential factor that should influence the Nigerian curriculum.
Keywords: Graduate, employability, unemployment, Nigerian graduates’ employability
EFFECT OF STORE MANAGEMENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF PUBLIC CORPORAION
1BELLO DOGOJI ADAMU, 2YAHAYA MUHAMMAD ADAMU, 3SAMUEL BADI AND 4LAURATU MUSA YAHAYA
1&2Department of Business Administration and Management, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. 3Department of Marketing Management, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. 4Department of Office Technology Management, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.
In the life of organizations, store management is a key that require attention in order to achieve the optimum utilization of its resources. The study examines the effects of store management inFederal Polytechnic, Bauchi. Data used in this study were obtained from primary and secondary sources. A structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data for the study. Descriptive statistics technique was employed to analyze the data collected from the respondents. The research revealed that; the appropriate store management techniques that fit the operations of Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi are: material requirement planning, economic order quantity, forecasting approach and strategic supplier partnership method; it was observed that organization agreed that store management practice contributes greatly to the performance of public corporations The study concluded that store management is very instrumental to the operations of any organizations. The study suggested that; the organization should adopt scientific techniques of store management; All staff of the store department should be trained to have thorough knowledge of store management as this will enable them to work towards stock protection and cost minimization; The organization should strengthen the supplier relation to the level of partnership and also stop the habit of transacting business with only one supplier in order for the failure of one supplier to slow down operation process; The management should prioritize on the proper inventory techniques and measuring of efficiency deviations to expose the weaknesses in the process of managing stocks.
Keywords: Store, Management, Organization, Performance
EMPLOYEE CREATIVITY IN PUBLIC TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS OF NIGERIA: LESSONS FROM THE LITERATURE
MOHAMMED RABIU MOHAMMED,
The Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi,
Creativity is a basic tool for progress in any country which stressed it importance. Tertiary educational institutions uniquely have vastly professionalized employees with high knowledge as such the need to effectively and efficiently harness the creativity of it employees for national development. The aim of this paper was to examine the importance as well as challenges of harnessing and developing employees’ creativity in public educational tertiary institutions of Nigeria through the details conceptual investigation. In this study quantitative and explanatory, as well as sample survey design was adopted as the research design method, data was sourced from brainstorming via Whats Application group chart created by the researcher which contains 210 employees randomly selected from tertiary educational institutions in Nigeria. Based on the finding of this study, employee creativity in public tertiary institution has not been efficiently harnessed due to administrative and leadership inadequacies. The main challenges of enhance creativity of employees are internal politics, new bread versus old bread syndrome and rough criticism of ideas. This paper recommend that the management of tertiary institutions should foster creative climate which refers to a friendly atmosphere promoting the development of new ideas, incite positive behavior in their employees by motivating them and equally.
Keywords: Creativity, Employee, Innovation, Tertiary institutions, Leadership.
THE IMPACT OF INTER-GOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENTS IN NIGERIA
IGIEKHUME MOHAMMED NURUDEEN
Department of Public Administration, School of Business Studies, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo State.
This paper examined the impact of inter-governmental relations on the performance of local governments in Nigeria. Intergovernmental relations (IGR) provide a platform for series of legal, political and administrative relationships between levels of government with varying degrees of autonomy. In the study, the concept of intergovernmental relations and the administrative mechanism for managing intergovernmental relations, and local government administration in Nigeria were examined. The study was anchored on power theory while secondary data constituted the major source. The study concluded that the unhealthy rivalry and cold war between local government and other levels of government arises as a result of undue interference of the state government in the affairs of local government administration which tends to impede on their performance as an entity. It is recommended amongst others that; effort should be made to ensure that all tiers of government adhere to fiscal transparency; the issue of joint-state-local government account should be discarded and there should be direct disbursement of federation allocation to all the levels of government.
Keywords: Inter-Governmental, Relations, Performance, Local Governments Nigeria, Impact.
CHALLENGES AND PROSPECT OF YOUTH ENGAGEMENT IN CULTURAL AND TRADITIONAL FESTIVALS
*AHMAD SABO & **SIRAJO ALIYU
*Department of Public Administration, School of Business Studies, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi **Department of Banking and Finance, School of Business Studies, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi
Festivities are significant catalysts for construction and reconstruction of image of the hosting community as well as branding and re-branding them into national and global tourism market. Cross societies festivities evolve into local and national tourism product, attracting visitors as tourists and increase economic prospect of the hosting communities. Emergence of events at worldwide sphere with significant economic and socio-cultural impacts on hosting society nonetheless, research seldom pay attention on the impacts of such events on youth. Traditional and cultural events, which are part of the deep-rooted and rich cultural heritage of a number of ethnic groups in Bauchi State is faced with the challenges of distortion, recognition and perhaps extinction. Adopting the use of secondary data, the paper explored barriers, challenges as well as prospect of youth engagement in traditional and cultural festivities in Bauchi. Major of the findings highlighted impediments including lack of legal, institutional and structural frameworks; inadequate teaching-learning mechanism for transmission of traditional and cultural practices, and seeming discord between culture/tradition and emerging religious teachings. The prospect lies in attendant economic, cultural and social impact of the cultural events on youth in particular and the hosting community that include job creation, improved income; increased participation; community cohesion and combating social exclusion and social vices.
Keywords: Festival, tourism, cultural and traditional events, youth engagement, ‘Sara-Suka’, Bauchi,
EFFECTIVENESS OF INSTRUCTIONAL SUPERVISION ON PRIMARY SCHOOL IN MAIDUGURI METROPOLIS, BORNO STATE
Department of Public Administration, Ramat Polytechnic, P/M.B. 1070, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
This is a survey study carried out in Borno State to find out the effectiveness of instructional supervision in primary schools in the state. The samples of the study were drawn from teachers, head teachers, supervisors and educational secretaries. Three research questions and three objectives were formulated for the study. Questionnaire and pupils’ academic performance in the NCEE for the period of three years were used to collect relevant data for the study. The result of the analysis showed that instructional supervision in primary schools was not effective as at the time of the study because it does not improve the critical areas of teaching/learning process and pupils’ academic performance is below expectation. The result of the analysis reveals a significant difference between the views of the teachers and supervisors on the effectiveness of instructional supervision in primary schools. Teachers felt that instructional supervision was effective because it was supervisors who visited schools regularly to give advice to teachers and write report to government on problems concerning the schools. The result also listed the criteria used in assessing the effectiveness of instructional supervision. Finally, recommendations were based on the findings of the study that there is need for better inspectorate services for all primary schools as one of the ways of improving quality education, government should provide enough teaching/learning materials, adequate furniture and quality of teachers should be improved by advising teachers to go for in-service training programmes.
Keywords: Effectiveness, Instructional, Supervision, Primary, School .
POLITICAL TRENDS AND ITS IMPLICATION ON SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN KADUNA STATE
DANIEL KELVIN JOHN
Department Of Public Administration, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic Zaria
The study entitled political trend in Nigeria and its implication on socio-economic development focused specifically on kaduna state ascertain the effect of political element or principle on socio-economic development on state from 20172018 on the basis of s hypothetical statement that there is a significant relationship between socio-economic development and political opportunities. Both primary and secondary data were used and the former were analyzed using frequency tables as well as subjecting them to test as they relate to the hypothesis this was done through the person’s correlation statistical tool of analysis The study discovered that ethnicity is a major element of political parties and Nigerian political system coupled with self-identification with place of origin as a way of promoting socio-economic development However, there are minority groups who are often cut off from the process of development by this trend of politics. Hence the study recommended that the world best practice that entails that politics and political positions be used for the generality of the people in terms of equitable sustainable economic benefit.
Keywords: Party Politics, Ethnicity, Development, Political Opportunities
IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE ON ECONOMIC DEVELOMENT IN NIGERIA
AMINU ALABI OPOTU; YAHAYA ADAMU BABADOKO; AND ALFA MOHAMMED DANLAMI
Department of Socail Sciences, Federal polytechnic, Bida, Niger State
This paper analyses the impact of government expenditure on economic development between 1986 and 2019 in which we categorize government expenditure into total government capital expenditure and total government recurrent expenditure while economic development is proxy by per capita income as foreign direct investment and gross fixed capital formation serve as control variables, using dickey fuller unit root test and autoregressive distributive lag model some of the result are, total government capital expenditure and total government recurrent expenditure are positive and statistically significant in both short and long run whereas the control variables are positive but statistically insignificant in both short run and long run leading to recommendation that government should increase total capital expenditure and encourage savings by increasing the interest on savings among others.
Keywords: Impact, Government, Expenditure, Economic, Develoment.
A CRITICAL NARRATIVE ANALYSIS OF ELICITED ACTS FROM A HOMODIEGETIC RAPE NARRATIVE
*OGAMBA, CHISOM PAULA; & **IDOWU, OLUBUNMI A. (Phd).
*Department of Languages and Literary studies, Faculty of Education and Humanities, School of Postgraduate studies, Babcock University, Illisan Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria **Department of Languages and Literary studies, Faculty of Education and Humanities, Babcock University, Illisan Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria
Social media is dependent on Language and language is subjective to societal volatility. Undoubtedly, the advent of social media has not only resulted in the creation of a new variety of linguistic texts but also influenced the nature and components of research data of various disciplines. Thus this paper explored the relationship between the tools of critical narrative analysis in linguistics and the homodiegetic rape narrative. The mixed method design of research where the data was analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively was utilized. The quantitative analysis focused on the mode of the cohesive devices and linguistic features of spoken discourse used and they are 8, 3, and 11 respectively. While the qualitative made a conclusion that indeed the individual’s ideology was embedded in her narrative, this ideology was influenced by religion and culture and the effects of rape on the victim was also elicited.
Keywords: Social media, Language, Homodiegetic, Rape, and Critical Narrative analysis
REGISTRATION OF INSTRUMENTS AND THE DOCTRINE OF NOTICE IN NIGERIA
Department of Business Administration and Management, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi
Registration of instruments is an important aspect of land administration in Nigeria and there has been difficulty by the parties to land transaction on what are land instruments and the problems of determining title to land. This paper shall discuss instruments as those documents which are the very mean by which a right or title to, or interest in land is conferred, limited charge or extinguished in favour of another party which are within the ambit of the Act and have to be registered. The paper shall also look at doctrine of notice which prevents the holder of a superior title for using it for purposes that are inconsistent with good faith and honest dealings.
Keywords: Registration, Instruments, Doctrine, Notice, Nigeria.