BERKELEY PUBLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT. (BJECM) (VOL. 12 NO. 4)
ISSN: 1933-5948 MARCH, 2020
Berkeley Research and Publications International,
Bayero University, Kano, PMB 3011, Kano State, Nigeria.
Nigeria, West-Africa. +234-708-717-3247
TRAFFIC CONGESTION AND PROPERTY DEMAND IN LAGOS; THE CASE OF APAPA
AJANI, U. Y.1, FATUROTI T. F.2 AND AKPAN, U. E.3
1 Department of Estate Management, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State. 2Department of Estate Management, Bells University of Technology, Ota, Ogun State. 3Department of Estate Management, University of Uyo, Uyo.
The causes of traffic congestion are diverse with resulting impact on the demand of properties. Based on the foregoing, the study examined traffic congestion and property demand in Lagos with a case study of Apapa. The target populations for the study were the practicing Estate Surveying and Valuation firms and the owners/occupants of properties in Apapa. Structured questionnaires were distributed to respondents while data retrieved were analysed using descriptive statistics, weighted mean score, Mann Whitney U Test, Factor Analysis and Correlation Analysis. The study further revealed that the level of demand for properties in the study area was dwindling leading to reduced occupancy rate and lots of properties being vacant. The study also showed that the major causes of vehicular traffic in Apapa includes inadequate pavement; poor road network; vehicular density; poorly designed junctions and road networks; improper planning of city development; poor traffic control management; inadequate road capacity amongst others. The result of the correlation analysis further showed that there is a significant negative relationship at a p value of ≤ 0.05 between traffic congestion and the demand for properties in Apapa which indicates that indicates that as the level of vehicular traffic increases; there is a significant decrease in the demand for properties. The study therefore concluded that adequate policies and action plans should be made in order to ameliorate the causes and effect of vehicular traffic and aid the development of the Apapa property market because the area is temporarily subjected to low return on investment and increased vacancy rates of properties.
Keywords: Road Transportation, Traffic, Vehicular Traffic, Traffic Congestion, Property Demand,
ASSESSMENT OF DURABILITY PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE PRODUCED WITH RECYCLE CONCRETE AGGREGATES
SANI. U. KUNYA1, LAWAL ZUBAIRU ADAM2, ADAMA LAMI KAWU3
Department of Building Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria
This research work assesses the durability of concrete produced with recycled concrete aggregate as total replacement of natural coarse aggregate with a view to determine the workability, water absorption, abrasion resistance and compressive strength of the concrete subjected to aggressive environment (acid and alkaline) and in clean water as control. The cubes were cured for 56 days. The results obtained from the tests shows that the cubes cured in acid are weaker in compressive strength than those cured in alkaline and both strengths (acid and base) are weaker than those in water (control). The targeted strength was. The highest compressive strength of the control (normal water) was found to be at 56 days and for the cubes in acid and base are and at 14 days respectively. Also, the results shows that the cubes cured in acid have higher water absorption than those in base and the control. The highest absorption of concrete in acid and base are 13.54% and 9.72% at 14 days respectively compare to that of water 6.86% at 14 days. And also cubes that were cured in water and base have higher abrasion resistance compare to those in acid. The highest abrasion resistance of cubes cured in acid and base were found to be 6.74% and 7.90% at 14 days compare to the ones in the control which was found to be 18.0% at 56 days. There are physical changes in the cubes cured in aggressive environment (acid and base) in which the cubes were decored (rusted). The cubes cured in acid were more rusted compare to those in base. The research was an experimental work and therefore the aggregates (fine & course) plus the cement and water were thoroughly mixed homogeneously and 100mm moulds were used in the production of the cubes. And the cubes were tested at 14 Days, 28 Days and 56 Days.
Keywords: Durability, concrete, recycled concrete aggregates (RCA)
THE EXTENT OF OCCURRENCE OF DESIGN ERRORS ON BUILDING CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS IN NIGERIA
NASIRU M.1,ZAKARIYA B.H2, MUKHTAR M.M3
1,3Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University. Department of Quantity Survey 2Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University.Department of Building Technology.
Tuker and Edmonson (2002) define design error as the carrying out of a task that is either unnecessary or incorrectly done. Design error is a deviation from a drawing or specification, also including omissions and ambiguities, the rate of occurrence of design errors on building projects is becoming alarming by the day, this have had several adverse effect on the construction industry such as cost overrun, in extreme cases and prolonged delay in the completion time of construction project. Although design error in construction project seems somewhat inevitable, the aim of this research is to determine the extent for the occurrence of design errors on construction projects. Sixty five professionals in Bauchi state of Nigeria were issued well-structured, the data were collected and analyzed using descriptive method of statistics (tables and chats), relative important index (RII). From the findings of this research lack of construction knowledge, Poor coordination between different design team members, Human error, Unclear scope of work were the factors that causes design errors
Keywords: Extent, Occurrence, Design Errors, Building, Construction Projects.
EFFECT OF URBAN RUNOFF AND HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON SOME PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF RIVER LANDZUN, BIDA, NIGER STATE, NIGERIA
NDAIJI MUHAMMAD & M.A EMIGILATI PhD
Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.
Urban runoff and human activities have become a major source of surface water pollution in most developing nations. Urban runoff is the flow of water that occurs within an urban area when excess storm water, meltwater, or water from civil construction failure over the earth’s surface. River Landzun one of the most prominent river in Bida located within latitude 90 and 90 North of the equator and longitude. 50 560 and 040 east of Greenwich meridian. This study assessed the effects of urban runoff and human activities on some physicochemical parameters of river landzun in Bida Niger State, Nigeria. The result of physicochemical parameters indicated the variations which was observed from points to points. These variations were attributed to runoff and human activities. Water samples were collected from 3 randomly selected points and analyzed following standard protocol. Data was collected through the use of structured questionnaires, interview, observations, reconnaissance survey and laboratory analysis which was analyzed using frequencies and percentage. The study revealed that 96% of the respondents indicated that river Landzun possess a lot of potential socioeconomic impacts. Pollution source of river Landzun was non-point-source which resulted into many water related diseases when consumed such as diarrhea, dysentery, cholera and typhoid. Water pollution can be difficult to determine because it is not always visible, so scientist use a variety of techniques and tests to measure water quality and the level of contaminants. Therefore, there is need for environmental education, public awareness and credible law enforcement agencies saddle with responsibilities to check and control environmental degradation and pollutions.
Keywords: Effect, Urban runoff, Human Activities, Physiochemical, parameters, rive Landzum, Niger State.
URBAN TRANSPORT EFFICIENCY AS STRATEGY FOR REFOCUSING NIGERIA DEVELOPMENT
1FASINA, S.O., 2AKANMU, A. A. 1SALISU, U. O., 3SANNI, S.M. & 4FALETI, C. A.
1Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye 2Department of Urban and Regional Planning, The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki 3Transport and Logistics Services, Ibadan 4Urban Development Unit, Demola Akanmu & Co. Ibadan
This study appraised urban transport efficiency as a strategy for refocusing Nigeria development. It examined commuters’ socio-economic characteristics and urban transit characterization; assessed the condition of urban infrastructural facilities and analysed the quality and challenges of urban transport services in Ibadan, Nigeria. 163 copies of questionnaires were systematic randomly administered on commuters along six (6) selected traffic corridors in Ibadan city. Both descriptive and inferential (Mean Weighted Value and Binary Logistic Regression) statistics were used for data analysis. Major findings revealed majority (about 40%) of commuters were civil servants and earn above #90,000 as monthly income. Mean Weighted Value results show that taxi (3.913) and motorcycle accounted for the most patronized modes. Similarly, availability (4.075), safety (4.000) and affordability were most-weighted factors influencing modal choice for commuting, while a trip to work (3.718) and market (3.200) are most generated trips in Ibadan. Meanwhile, adequacy of motorist (3.637) and safe driving accounted for most-weighted quality of transport operators, while peak/off-peak transit issues (4.050) and vehicular mechanical failure (3.487) were major challenges affecting urban commuting. Binary logistics regression results show that the condition of urban transport infrastructural facilities significantly influence overall satisfaction with urban commuting (p < 0.000). Cox & Snell’s R-Square (36%) and Nagelkerke’s R (70%) show that the model is relevant in predicting the relationship between independent and dependent variables. The study concluded that there is a need to improve urban mobility and accessibility towards refocusing Nigeria development. Hence, recommended among others, integrated transport system with smart information devices and improved conventional public transport scheme along major corridors in Ibadan.
Keywords: Cities, urban transport, efficiency, commuters and Nigeria.
NON-CORPORATE CLIENT PATRONAGE OF ESTATE SURVEYORS AND VALUERS SERVICES IN NIGERIA: BAUCHI METROPOLIS VIEW POINT
MUHAMMAD UMAR BELLO, IBRAHIM ILIYASU, AHMED IBRAHIM KUNA, IDRIS IBRAHIM & MUHAMMAD USMAN ADEKUNLE,
Estate Management & Valuation, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi
Estate surveyors and valuers profession plays a vital role in ascertaining actual value of properties. It has come to the knowledge of the researchers that Surveyors’ were experiencing low patronage. The research study make it boldly that the causes of low or lack of estate surveyor and valuers patronage in the study area was due to various reasons, among which the key issue was lack of clients orientation. Professional competence is a prerequisite or prerogative ability of a surveyor to carry out valuation for sales, mortgage, rent or probate and so on. Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers (NIESV) is the recognised institutions empower to induct an estate surveyor and valuer in Nigeria. The surveyors’ are responsible for preparing valuation report in the country. Non corporate clients are the targeted population of the study. Non probability sampling was adopted because of the researcher experienced of the nature and categorised of the respondents. Judgmental sampling was adopted as the sampling techniques of the study. 364 questionnaires were produced and only 297 respondents were able to be met within and during the data collection process. The study revealed that educational background causes lack of patronage of estate surveyors’ services in the study area. The research study concludes that estate surveyors need to persuade their clients by advocating the benefits of their services to the general public. It’s also concludes that proper advertisement of their roles in the property market should be spelt out openly, the study recommended that government should regulates all transactions of land and landed property in the study area. Regulatory body concerns with property market should be put in place to monitor dealings pertaining lands, generality of individuals should be enlighten about to security of patronising estate surveyors and valuers. Future researches should dwell on the contemporary issues pertaining estate surveyors’ and valuers services in the built environment to focus on other aspect of non corporate clients demand.
Keywords: Professionals, Estate Surveyors’ and Valuers’, Valuation, Patronage, Services,
A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON URBAN EXPANSION AND IT’S SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT IN AWKA AND ONITSHA, ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA
NWOZOMMUO CHUKWUDI AND PROF. A. A. OKHIMAMHE
Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology Minna
Urbanization is believed to be a driving force of an economy which facilitates the transfer of surplus labor from the rural agricultural sector to the urban industrial sector and contributes to economic development. However, unplanned urbanization can at times boomerang, exerting negative impacts that not only adversely affect the economy but also stimulate environmental degradation. This study examines a Comparative Study of Urban Expansion and Its Socio-economic Impact in Awka and Onitsha in Anambra state. Data used in this study were derived from Satellite images, questionnaire survey, key informant interviews, government and published sources. The method of analyses used in mapping Land use and land cover involves the use of satellite images of LandsatTM of 1988, ETM of 2003 and OLI of 2018. On the basis of this finding, make a projection for the future growth by 2030 using Geospatial Techniques. Also, to ascertain the socio-economic impact of urban expansion in the area, and identifying appropriate measures for sustainability, data were collected from field survey through the administration of questionnaire and was analyzed using descriptive statistics for presentation of results in form of tables and bar-chart for pictorial view. Results indicate that in Awka, the land cover (Vegetation) reduces from 70.08 (KM2) (40.98%) in 1988 to 55.21(km2) (32.31%) in 2018 as a result increase demand for land due to increasing population. Also the built up area was observe to be in increasing order from 12.0276 km² (7.03%) in 1988, 29.8719 km² (17.47%) in 2003 and 52.4673km² (30.70%) in 2018. Comparatively in Onitsha, the land cover (Vegetation) reduces from 8.39 (KM2) (29.14%) in 1988 to 3.99(km2) (13.88%) in 2018. Also the built up area was observe to be in increasing order from 5.74 km² (19.96%) in 1988 and 11.99km² (41.65%) in 2018. The study observed that the location of educational establishment in Awka is a major driving force behind the growth of the city and the market centers in Onitsha, while residential expansion of low income earners at the periphery of the city account for the spatial expansion. The study observes that the Business District and the core areas continued to be dilapidated while the decay in infrastructural facilities worsens. The new areas were also discovered to lack portable water supply, electricity, as well as motorable roads. The study recommends regular monitoring of urban growth and its direction using integrated remote sensing and GIS approaches to determine the pattern of land use/cover as well as guide the provision of urban services and infrastructures to enable sustainability. In addition, the government should subsidize the peri-urban farmers so as to empower them in order to compete in the market and utilise its opportunities.
Keywords: Urbanization, Remote Sensing, Land use Change, sustainability
AN ASSESSMENT OF ROAD EXPANSION ON THE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT OF LAFIA, NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA
*EMANKHU, SUNDAY ETEMINI **MOH’D .K. DAHIRU PH.D & ***MUA’ZU SHAMAKI
*Urban and Regional Plannning, Nasarwa State Polytechnic, Lafia **Geography Department Nasarawa State University, Keffi ***Geography Department University of Sokoto
Roads are central to interaction, the construction of a new road, or the widening of an existing road, may well cause disruptions to local interactions. Increasing level of traffic congestion is an inescapable result of strong economic activities and life in urban areas and a challenge to the planning authority and government. This study assesses the Lafia- UAC road expansion work in Lafia. Methodology used was participant observation, oral interview and administration of questionnaires through simple random sampling technique to traders along the Lafia- UAC road Lafia. Findings revealed that traders in building materials along Lafia-UAC road were adversely affected by the road expansion work done by the Nasarawa State Government in 2018 in terms of loss of customers, reduction in profit and unpalatable temporary structures for once booming business premises and poor compensation for displacement among others. Recommendations include provision of accessible and affordable shopping complexes for the traders and speedy completion of the road work to enhance assess to customers in reaching the business area.
Keywords: road expansion, development, central business district, spatial planning
PARTICIPATORY APPROACH FOR FLOOD VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT; THE CASE STUDY OF SELECTED COMMUNITIES DOWNSTREAM OF JEBBA DAM NIGER STATE, NIGERIA
MUHAMMAD, ABDULKADIR DANLAMI & AISHA ABDULKADIR (Phd)
Geography Department, Federal University Of Technology, Minna
The aim of this study is to map the vulnerability of certain communities downstream of Jebba dam of flood hazard by using participatory geographical information system approach. The primary data for the study were collected using Global Positioning System (GPS), focus group discussion (FGD) and high resolution satellite image downloaded from Google Earth. Participatory sketch mapping method combined with Field surveying and GPS points taken with geo-referenced satellite image through step-by-step approach to record information on spatial extent of flood in the community to obtain valid exposure to flood map was adopted, GIS and remote sensing techniques is used to classified the terrain of the study area to produce flood vulnerability map based on elevation and to map the community infrastructure to generate flood vulnerability map based on distance. The produced sketch map from participatory community mapping showed local knowledge on flooded and non-flooded areas, flood channel, direction and flood entrance points that support the exposure to flood where identified. Exposure to flood Map results showed that in kosogi community the flooded area is 16.2hectre and not flooded is 17.84hectre, 48% of the area is flooded. In Lwafu community the flooded area is 25.5hectre, not flooded building area is 9.72hectre, 70.655% of the area is flooded. In Sunti community the flooded area is 9.72hectre and not flooded area is 4.05hectre, 62.505% area is flooded. Results show that participatory approach (PGIS and PMAPPING) can be useful to record local spatial knowledge on flood vulnerability that supports the development of vulnerability reduction measures. By helping community members understand and manage vulnerability, this approach has the potential to become an important mechanism to support vulnerability reduction in Jebba dam downstream.
Keywords: Flood Hazard, participatory mapping, vulnerability
VEGETATION RESPONSE TO RAINFALL VARIABILITY IN THE SUDANO SAHELIAN ECOLOGICAL ZONE OF NIGERIA
*AKANDE S.K. AND USMAN M. T
Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology Minna.
Rainfall variability is an important driver of vegetation shift or dynamics. However, the changes are symmetric and have great multiplying effects on the ecosystem and the general livelihood of man. The study examines the vegetation response to rainfall variability in the Sudano Sahelian ecological Zone of Nigeria. Rainfall data from the Cliamte Research Unit (CRU) and the Unitesd State Geological Survey for satellite imageries for the study areas (Sudano Sahel Ecological Zone of Nigeria) was acquired for the period of 1980-2018 (38 years).the Interseasonal Rainfall Monitoring Index was used to compute the actua onset and cessation of the raining season, The Monsoon Quality Index was also used to determine the moisture quality in the study area and the Perpendicular Vegetation Index (PVI) for the analysis of the satellite images at the IR and and the NIR. The results revealed that rainfall in the region is highly variable across the ecological zone between the lowest average rainfall is Nguru with an average rainfall of (536mm) and the highest average rainfall is Yelwa (1090.65). The Average Length of Raining Season (LRS) was between 120-140 days, Monsoon Quality Index (MQI) was calculated to determine the quality of rainfall, rainfall in the region ranged from good with value <0.005 and to extremely poor with value >0.02. Satellite imageries analysis shows a change in vegetation dynamic over the years under review. The Normalize Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to determine the vegetation index, i.e. the vegetation vigour of the region; they were ranked from areas with poor, moderate and healthy vegetation, Maiduguri, Nguru have NDVI value of around -0.2 which signify poor vegetation with average annual ranfaill of less than 600mm, Kano and Gusau with NDVI value of 0.0564 which signify moderate vegetation with average annual rainfall of around 800mm and Yelwa and Bauchi has NDVI value of around 0.826whcih shows healthy vegetation with average annual rainfall of more than 1000mm. from the research it was deduced that rainfall is a function of vegetation growth, vegetation can respond positively or negatively to increase or decrease in the amount rainfall received in a region.
Keywords: Vegetation, Response, Rainfall, Variability, Sudano Sahelian, Ecological Zone Of Nigeria.
IMPACT OF ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES ON WATER QUALITY AND ITS HEALTH IMPLICATION IN MINNA METROPOLIS AND ENVIRONS, NIGER STATE, NIGERIA
*1YUSUF, A. A. AND 1MOHAMMED, B. Y. P.hD
1Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology, Minna.
The study analyzed physicochemical and bacteriological parameters of water from various sources which include Boreholes, Hand Dug Wells and Water Vendors. The study collected twelve water samples of which the parameters analyzed were pH, Hardness, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Phosphate, Ammonia, Nitrate, Nitrite, Escherichia Coli (E.Coli), Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus Aureus and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa. The study equally evaluated the health implications of consuming contaminated water. The study used simple frequency percentages for and summary statistics such as mean and range for analysis. The results showed that the pH for all the water sampled were within both NSDWQ and WHO range of 6.5-8.5. Seven water samples out of twelve had hardness values above the 150mg/l NSDWQ threshold, while five were within the limit. BOD and DO in all the water samples were below both WHO and NSDWQ threshold of 10mg/l and 5mg/l for DO and 6mg/l and ≥6mg/l, respectively. All the water samples had Nitrate values below the WHO 50mg/l. Nitrite value in all the water samples were however, above the NSDWQ limit of 0.2mg/l. E. Coli ranged from 0cfu/ml-TNTCcfu/ml. Salmonella typhi ranged from 0cfu/ml-TNTC, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ranged from 0cfu/ml-6cfu/ml, while only Staphylococcus aureus recorded 0cfu/ml in all the water samples and thus, the only bacteria within both WHO and NSDWQ permissible limit in drinking water. The residents enjoy adequate access to domestic water supply in the study area. This was however attributed to proliferations of alternative water sources such as Boreholes and Hand dug wells. The results also showed that there is prevalence of water-borne diseases as revealed by both respondents and hospital records. Hospital records revealed that 344 cases of typhoid, 1294 diarrhea, 1882 dysentery and 25 cases of ringworm were reported and recorded in 2018. . Owing to contamination of most of the water sampled by bacteria, it was concluded that most of the water sources are not safe for drinking.
Keywords: Anthropogenic Activities, Water quality, E. Coli, Water access, Water-borne diseases.
ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE FUNDING USING THE PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP PPP VIA THE ROAD TAX FUND MODEL RTF
MUSA D.B, MONDE J, AND OLOGUN S.
Nigeria Building and Road Research Institute
Roads are vital assets of any nation, aside transportation, roads also provide avenue for service apparatus as water-pipes, electric-poles, communication cables and sewages etc., thereby serving as a tool for socio-economic development. The needs for development of road infrastructure, as a very significant factor of economic growth, have equally increased in the developing and the developed countries The call for sustainability on road infrastructure in a nation like Nigeria with governments’ budgetary allowances are mostly insufficient to allow keeping pace with these needs hence the government approved the establishment of Road Tax Fund (RTF) as a scheme under the PPP “to incentivized private sector involvement in construction of roads for a tax credit”. The aforementioned gave birth to this research to “investigate the causes, effects and remedies to poor funding of roads”. Therefore 120 questioners were distributed at the largest industrial estate in Nigeria Agbara Ogun state, to sample road users and companies’ management staff opinion in regards to roads funding. From the questioners distributed 111 (89.2%) answered were returned and they formed the data of these research, it was analyzed by Relative Important Index (RI I) an SPSS tool. From the result obtained; 75% of the companies are willing to fund roads, 15% remain undecided with only 10% saying no to it. The option of toll was also sought. It is hoped that this study will be a spring board for further research work in these new scheme of RTF to improve on road funding across the country.
Keywords: Infrastructure; Concessions; Public Private Partnership & Road Tax Fund
ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF ARTISANAL GOLD MINING IN GIDAN MAI WAYO COMMUNITY, NIGER STATE, NIGERIA
1YAHAYA MOHAMMED SHAFII AND 2EMANUEL TANKO UMARU
1&2Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal University of Technology’ Minna.
There are many challenges facing rural areas in Nigeria which are obstacles to the livelihood and wellbeing of the rural dwellers. One of the common obstacles is informal Gold mining. Gidan Mai Wayo settlement experiences environmental degradation due to the activities of Artisanal Gold miners, the community depends on surface and ground water located around the Gold mining sites which may have negative effect on their health. Consequently, this study assesses the impact of gold Mining on Gidan Mai Wayo community and its environs. This study would adopt both qualitative and quantitative approach in data collection and analysis. Boreholes and wells where the residents access their domestic water from would be sampled. A set of questionnaires would be administered to the residents on their perception of gold mining and their socioeconomic activities. Another set of questionnaires would be administered to the Miners to determine the techniques used in Mining and processing. Mapping, satellite image classification, descriptive and multiple regressions would be adopted to analyze the effect of gold mining on the environment and its effects rural development in the study area. The study would therefore make conclusion and recommends a sustainable Gold Mining practice in the study area.
Keywords: Gold, Mining, Rural, Livelihood, Environmental Degradation.
THE ROLE OF ESTATE SURVEYORS AND VALUERS IN REVENUE GENERATION ON LAND RESOURCES
ESV ALLI KEHINDE ABDULRASHEED, LAWAL SIMIAT BUKOLA, AJIBADE RASHEED KAYODE AND OLATUNJI OLANREWAJU SAMSON
Dept of Estate Management, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin, Kwara State.
Resources are the valuable items that could be gotten or tapped from something else. Land on the other hand is the top most soil layer of the earth crust. Land be viewed in so many perceptions. It could be viewed from the physical, economical, legal, religion and political concept. To an expert on land management and administration, land goes beyond the solid part of the earth on which we walk on or build our roads and houses. It comprises whatever that is above and beneath the earth crust. That reminds us of the legal maxim which says “quic quid plantator solosolo cedit” meaning, whatever that is attached to the land permanently is part of the land. In a nutshell it means that he who owns the land owns anything thereof. When we talk of revenue, we mean monetary income. How do we now generate income from land? Land could be owned by individual, cooperate or government bodies. With this, whether government or private land, resources can still be tapped from it legally in form of tax i.e. property tax. One thing that needs to be emphasised on is that the subject of taxation is property. Property tax is a tax levied mainly on the real properties i.e. land and building. In Nigeria, Estate Surveyors and Valuers registered under the Act No 24 of 1975 is an expert on property and land matters, property tax inclusive. Hence, the essence of this paper is to examine the roles already assigned and those that should be assigned to the Estate Surveyors and Valuers in property tax administration in the country. To accomplish this task and in addition to the introductory section, this paper will examine types of property taxes and why they are good sources of internally generated revenue and finally the concluding part where challenges or problems inhibiting the smooth administration of property tax and continued relevance of the role of Estate Surveyors and Valuer in property tax administration in the country will also be discussed.
Keywrds: Role, Estate Surveyors and Valuers, Revenue, Generation, Land Resources.
ASSESSMENT OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE ACCURACY OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS COST ESTIMATES
JOSEPHINE OWOJO OLANIYI & BLESSING SIMON OMEJE
Quantity Surveying Department, Kaduna Polytechnic
This research work was carried out with the aim to assess the factors affecting accuracy of construction cost estimates. The study identified factors affecting the accuracy of construction cost estimates and also examine the effects of these factors on the accuracy of construction cost estimates. The study sample employed the use of probability random sampling techniques which was used to administered questionnaire on Quantity Surveyors. Descriptive statistic method (mean, standard deviation, frequency and percentile) was used to analyze the data collected with the use of SPSS 20 (Statistical Package for Social Science) and presented in tables showing the different level of perception. A total of 60 questionnaires were distributed while 54 were retrieved. In order of ranking, inaccurate and unreliable cost information, Unavailability of design information and Unforeseeable changes in cost of materials among others, are the major factors affecting the accuracy of construction cost estimates. The study recommends that, Estimates be based on up-to-date information on the current market conditions, from manufacturers and suppliers of building materials, components and systems. Clients should endeavor to engage the services of all relevant professionals or specialist required for a particular project type, at inception stage to advised on all specialist works or construction.
Keywords; accuracy, construction, cost, estimates, factors.
THE ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH EFFECTS OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION IN DAMATURU, YOBE STATE NIGERIA
TPL. (DR) IKPE, SOLOMON T.
Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu. Department of Urban & Regional Planning
The use of Solid fuel is becoming more popular, but many of the users are not aware of the adverse implications. Even those who may not be comfortable with it might not have known the health consequence or lack the will, technology or finance to adopt alternative to this traditional method. Exposure to household pollution has led to diverse health problems of acute respiratory infection in children under five; ischemia heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer in adults. If indoor pollution has assumed this magnitude of adverse effects, investigations into it is needed to secure the vulnerable like the children and women that are always exposed to open fire kindling and cooking respectively. Also, burning of traditional fragrances, mosquito-repelling substances and heating of houses with fire during cold are common practices without sufficient investigation for awareness of the health implications. This study aims at investigating the effect of indoor pollution to document its health and environmental implications, create awareness of its adverse effects and seek to suggest alternative methods that will reduce the vulnerability of the susceptible groups to improve the health-risk and environmental degradation in Yobe State. The survey research design adopted a purposeful sampling of housewives in its questionnaire administration. The sampling elements were selected from the four major zones of Damaturu and a sample size of 5% was used to administer questionnaires on every sampled street in each of the four zones. The findings show that the use of solid fuel is exerting significant negative effects on the human and environmental health. The paper recommends the need to scale up awareness campaign and the use of clean fuels such as biogas, ethanol, or natural or liquefied petroleum gas by government and within the reach of the lowest-income households.
Keywords: Environmental, Health Effects, Indoor Air Pollution, Damaturu
ASSESSING THE CAUSES OF URBANIZATION AND ITS IMPACT ON HOUSING QUALITY IN CITY OF LAGOS
1AKINYEMI SAHEED O., 2HADIZA AHMED MUSA & 3SALAU L. T.
1Dept. of Estate Management and Valuation, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi. 2Dept. of Estate Management, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna 3Dept. of Estate Management and Valuation, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.
The phenomenon of urbanization is a consequence of population increase and migration from rural to urban areas and growth-centres. The urban growth rate in Nigeria today is put at 5.8% per annum (Draft NUDP, 2004). Rural economy is principally agrarian. But, under conditions of increasing population and diminishing rural resources, some contingent of rural population migrates to urban areas for helpful job security, higher education, higher income, better health and stay alive. However, in spite of multitude of generalizations in urban theories, little is known on the housing quality of this area. This study will therefore, examines the characteristics of the urban settlement with a view to maintain sustainability on the housing quality of residential buildings in the study area as measured by the physical, socio-economic and environmental conditions in the city of Ikeja-Nigeria. The research employed qualitative method, making use of secondary data due to the nature of information required and the time frame required to conduct the study, this is to say the researchers are of the postpositivist methodological philosophy of research. The data were sourced from journals, textbooks, online daily newspapers and other online publications and field survey.
Keywords: Assessing, Urbanization, Impact, Housing, Quality.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF LEAST SQUARES ADJUSTMENT OF HEIGHTS FOR EFFECTIVE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
ZAKARI, DANLADI & ADAMU MAKAMA PINDIGA
Department of Surveying and Geo-informatics, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria
Leveling operation was carried out with a digital level in order to determine the reduced level of points. BM223 was used as the bench mark whose reduced level is 605.155. This reduced level was collected from the Ministry of Lands and Survey, Bauchi State, which was used as a reference point. The level circuit consists of six (6) points including the bench mark and ten (10) independent lines which were repeatedly measured and recorded as described in Figure 1. The reduced level of ZK1, ZK2, ZK3, ZK4 and ZK5 was determined and the distance between the bench marks were measured and recorded. The height differences were deduced from the observed reduced level which was used in the least squares adjustment. Each line in a circuit was measured five (5) times and their most probable values, standard deviations and variances were computed and tabulated in Table 2 and the reduced level of the points are showed in Table 1. This research compared three methods of least square adjustment which includes; least square principle, observation and condition equation by the application of programmable calculator. The results obtained from the three methods are the same as showed in Table 4. The adjusted reduced level of the point might be useful in civil engineering, building project, environmental monitoring and geodetic application etc.
Keywords: Comparative, Analysis, Least Squares, Adjustment, Heights.
ASSESSMENT OF STAKEHOLDERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT AGENCIES IN TUDUN-WADA ZARIA
¹TPL. RABIU MOHAMMED USMAN ²TPL. KABRU LAWAL TUNAU ³BATHON NUWAIRI
¹& ² Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria ³ Department of Environmental Science and Industrial safety, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria
Municipal solid Waste Management is a major responsibility of local governments, typically consuming between 20% and 50% of municipal budgets in developing countries. It is a complex task which depends as much upon organization, cooperation and coordination between households, communities, private enterprises and municipal authorities. The current institutional arrangement for solid waste management in Zaria lacks a comprehensive policy in the form of institutional structures, functional strategies, coordination and tariff setting for waste management. The inability of local governments to provide basic environmental services in Nigerian Urban centers often results in the involvement of other actors in Urban sanitation and solid waste provisioning, such as Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), Community-Based Organizations (CBOs) and private companies. Although NGOs and CBOs are becoming increasingly engaged in urban service provisioning, little systematic knowledge exists on the kind of activities they take up and the results of these activities. Similarly, the agencies responsible for solid waste management within Tudun-Wada Zaria do not seem to work in a coordinated way, and despite the fact that stakeholders like house-holds, informal waste collectors and Community Based Organizations play major roles in solid waste management within Tudun Wada; they are still not included in the management set-up. However, this study focused on assessment of the practices of the agencies responsible for solid waste management in the study area so as to find out the obstacles to stakeholders participation. A total of 60 questionnaires were administered within the study area which represents 0.15% of the average number of households and 10 questionnaires were administered to the members of CBOs. On the Likert Scale, all the variables rated were below 3.0 which is the acceptance level. This implied that the inter-relationship between agencies and stakeholders is not effective and this indicated that solid waste management system in Tudun-Wada Zaria is not well coordinated. Recommendations proffered include information exchange, consultations, and collaboration among agencies, households, and Community Base Organizations as this will help in providing a comprehensive framework for management, avoiding overlapping of roles, conflicts of functions as well as policy inconsistencies.
Keywords: Solid Waste, Management, Responsiveness, Transparency, Participation.
HURDLES TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES IN LAGOS METROPOLIS.
1MURITALA, AFEEZ OLANIYI, 1AJIBADE, NURUDEEN ADEYEMI, 3ADEPOJU, SEFIU ADEMOLA, 2ONIFADE, ADEKUNLE OLANREWAJU
1Department of Estate Management and Valuation, The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki 2Department of Architectural Technology, The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki 3Demola Adepoju and Company, Mokola area, Ibadan, Oyo State.
Any construction activity is liable to result one form of danger or the other, which readily threats human environment. In an attempt to prevent or reduce these adverse effects, the need to resort to sustainability in construction has become necessarily important. Construction industries around the world are expected to be built in a way that no havoc is done to the immediate environment, and to be the bases for future generation development. However, sustainable construction (SC) practices adoption, has been observed to be low in most developing countries. It is based on this knowing that this study assessed the hurdles to SC practices in Lagos Metropolis. The study adopted stratified, purposive and random sampling techniques to survey construction professionals within Ikeja, Lagos Island and Lagos Mainland. Questionnaires were used to obtain information from the respondents while data were analyzed with the aid of descriptive statistics. Findings revealed that the major hurdles to SC practices in Lagos Metropolis are; fear of higher investment costs, Unavailability of local green certification, unstable government policies and lack of financial incentives. The study recommends continuous training for construction clients and other stakeholders on the overall life-cycle cost benefit of Sustainable Construction.
Keywords: Construction projects, Sustainable Construction, Construction environment.
EXPLORATION OF WOOD ASH AS MEDIUM OF EXPRESSION IN FINE ARTS THROUGH RECYCLING
OSIBOYE OLUWASEUN OPEYEMI
Department of Fine and Applied Arts, Federal College of Education (Technical) Bichi, P. M. B. 3473. Kano-State, Nigeria.
The aim of the study is to explore wood ash as medium of expression in Fine Arts. While the objectives is to produce wood ash paste from wood ash, to conceptualize visual images with wood ash paste, in other to unveil the inherent qualities in it for visual appeal in sculpture and painting and also to produce mixed-media artworks from wood ash. The study therefore made use of a studio base methodology through exploratory method of research, while the descriptive research method of analysis was used in the analysis of artworks produced during the studio exploration. The exploration lead to the production of Coloured Ash Paste and finishing of artworks such as Save for the Raining Day, Xylophone, Evil Mask Men: Terrorist. It was concluded that wood ash should be identified as raw material rather than abandoned. The writer also believes that this research work will inspire other artist alike also serve as a source document to other scholars.
Keywords: Waste Materials, Wood Ash and Coloured Ash Paste