HONOURING THE PAST, TREASURING AND PRESENT, SHAPING THE FUTURE: POSITIONING SUB-SAHARA AFRICA FOR DEVELOPMENT IN THE NEW MILLENNIUM
22-23 JUNE, 2016.
UNIVERSITY OF GHANA CONFERENCE HALL, UNIVERSITY OF GHANA, ACCRA, GHANA.
PROCEEDINGS (NO. 2):
- FIRE INSECURITY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: AN ASSESSMENT OF 2016 KANO SABON GARI MARKET INCIDENT
MUBARAK HUSAIN MUHAMMAD
Sociology Department, Federal University, Dutse, Jigawa State, Nigeria, PMB 7156.
This paper is on fire outbreak, a phenomenon that despite great security challenge it poses, has so far received scarce research attention in Nigeria. The work explored how the March, 2016 Kano Sabon Gari Market inferno impacted on sustainable development. Relying on data generated from observation, interview and focus group discussion, (FGD) it has been established that, the fire adversely affected sustainable development; it will most likely drastically reduce both, tax generation and employment. Though, the cause of the fire has remained unknown and no life was lost, the disaster led to the loss of about 2.6 – 3 trillion naira, a figure nearly at least 40% of Federal Government of Nigeria 2016 budget, and the destruction of not less than 3/5 of the market shops. All hands must be on deck to avert the recurrence. Sticking to ideal market building plans; fire prevention programmes; and enough motivation for fire personnel will certainly go a long way in addressing fire insecurity. Government, organisations and wealthy individuals should come to the aid of these victims, so as to revitalize the decade known commercial vigour of the market, for proper repositioning of Kano State , and by extension Nigeria, for millennium sustainable development.
Keywords: fire outbreak, insecurity, Kano, Sabon Gari Market, sustainable development
- ISSUES AND CHALLENGES IN ATTAINING RESEARCH EXCELLENCE IN NIGERIAN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS: ENGINEERING FACULTY IN FOCUS.
*ENGR. GANA A.J & DR. THEOPHILUS TSADO
*Civil Engineering Department, College of Science and Engineering, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State. **Civil Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State.
Engineering Profession is dynamic in its own discipline and the only way by which the dynamism and new discoveries in Engineering Profession can stay alive is through research and development, which is meant to solve daily problems. This is the case with any countries of the world. When research cannot be used to tackle problems arising from our environment daily, it is no longer a research. This paper examines issues and challenges confronting research excellence in Nigerian tertiary institutions with a focus on Engineering faculty. The paper also proffered Recommendation in order to attained Research excellence in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions.
Keywords: Research Excellence, Challenges, Engineering Faculty, Nigerian Tertiary Institutions.
- THE IMPACT OF INCENTIVES ON ANTE-NATAL CARE AND DELIVERY IN BAUCHI STATE.
MOHAMMED U. HUSSAINI AND USMAN Y. DUTSE
Department Of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi-Nigeria.
As part of the project embedded in the subsidy Reinvestment and Empowerment Program (SURE-P), the Maternal and Child Health component initiated an incentive programme to bring would be mothers for ante and post natal care to the facilities especially child delivery by skilled birth attendant. This cash transfer was set up to ensure effective management of financial resources acquired from the removal subsidy from 2012 thereby reducing maternal and child mortality rate in line with Millennium Development Goals number four and five. Four Primary Health Care Facilities were chosen for the pilot programme in Bauchi. This paper conducted a research in all the four facilities so as to be able to identify whether the incentive yielded the desired result. Therefore the overall objective of the research is to undertake a study to see the impact the incentives has on ante natal care and delivery in all the four facilities in Bauchi State. The research made use of both primary and secondary data. The data collected were analysed by the use of descriptive statistics, with the aid of tables and graphs to show the significance of the incentives. The study found that a significant number of women were motivated by the incentives to avail themselves with the ante natal care and delivery by skilled Health worker available at the health facility, we however found delivery at the facility did not increase at the same rate with the ante natal care visits because of the presences of Traditional Birth Attendants in those villages, none Chalant attitude of the Health workers towards pregnant women and administrative bottle neck that resulted in late payment and lack of essential items needed for safe delivery. The research concluded by recommending that an effective payment mechanism be put in place, possibly increase the incentive amount, the Traditional Birth Attendants should be incorporated to be part of the skilled birth delivery attendant and prompt supply of all tools needed for safe delivery at the facility.
- EFFECT OF POST BRAND EXPERIENCE AND ITS PERFORMANCE ATTRIBUTES ON SUBSEQUENT NEW BRAND ACCEPTANCE: AN APPRAISAL OF ENTREPRENEURIAL MARKETING OF NEW PRODUCTS
1ACHAMA GODWIN IKECHUKWU, 2 DR. OZO JOHNSON UBAKA 3 VITUS UGOCHUKWU IZUAZU
1.Department of Business Administration and Management Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo. 2.Marketing Option in the Department of Management, Marketing and Entrepreneurial Studies, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki. 3 Department of Animal Production and Health Technology, Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo
The paper focused on entrepreneurial marketing and product development with the intention to determine the effects of post brand experience and performance on subsequent new brand acceptance. The overall objective was to evaluate the effect of brand experience on consumer “intention to purchase attitude” towards acceptance of new products in the market. The study adopted the field studies research design, which invariably combines variants of both exploratory and explanatory designs. The Delphi technique, a variant of the panel design was particularly used to effect participation and product testing by test –takers (respondents) in order to effect a comparative analyses to generate primary data for testing hypothesis. Consumer preferences and acceptance of a new product was evaluated with an effective method of product testing (Round Robin test) in a panel of test takers. The questionnaire questions evaluated the test product on a 5-point scale and the t-test, multiple regression and ANOVA test statistic were adopted for analyses. The stratification sampling design was considered necessary to ensure good sample representative and increased desired statistical precision. The study revealed that the critical dimensions of product development which will ensure acceptance of new products are the products potential performance variables which consist of those intrinsic attribute of the product that are capable of creating satisfaction and subsequently, utility to the consumer. Among others, the study recommended that consumer acceptance of new product should always be subjected to comparing the new brand or product performance (both sensory effects and long term effects) against similar parameters of the market leader. Similarly, entrepreneurs as a matter of importance should undertake research to understand the needs and wants of consumers before developing or modifying the existing ones.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial marketing, Product attributes, Consumer intention, Total Product, Round Robin test, Expectancy.
- ENTREPRENEURSHIP COMPETENCIES REQUIRED BY BUSINESS GRADUATES FOR EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF SMALL SCALE ENTERPRISES
ABDULAZEEZ, KHADIJAH B.
Office Technology and Management Department, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria.
The study was carried out to determine entrepreneurial competencies required by business graduate for effective management of business enterprises. To achieve the objectives three research questions were developed and answered while three null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted survey research designed that made use of a 15 item structured questionnaire developed from the literature. The questionnaire was administered on Two hundred and eleven (211) respondents. The structured questionnaire was face validated by two experts. Copies of the questionnaires were retrieved and analyze using main while t-test was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed that all the 15 entrepreneurial skills were required by Business graduate for effective management of small scale enterprises.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial orientation. Entrepreneurial Skills, Small Scale Enterprises.
- AFRICAN TRADITIONAL FOLK SONGS AS DIALOGUE BETWEEN EDUCATION AND ENTERTAINMENT
KANU, IKECHUKWU ANTHONY, O.S.A., Ph.D
Augustinian Institute, Makurdi, Benue State
The study of African songs have moved beyond dispassionate inquiry and the antiquated perspective that considered it a subject fit only for speculation by idle minds. With the present development in the area of African renaissance, acknowledging and claiming the African cultural heritage, the occasion has arisen to once again study African traditional songs to see their contributions towards the development of education in Africa. The burden of this work is to study African traditional songs, its dimensions or types and its contribution, particularly, to the area of African traditional education. To achieve this, the phenomenological and hermeneutic methods of inquiry were employed. This research discovered that African traditional songs, handed down from one generation to another orally, permeates every facet of African life, and thus occupies a fundamental place in the African traditional educational heritage.
Keywords: African, songs, education, traditional, societies, hermeneutics, value, educative.
- INFLUENCE OF SYNTHETIC PHONICS ON EARLY READING OF PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN PORT HARCOURT LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF RIVERS STATE.
INKO-TARIAH DOROTHY CHIKAODI (PhD)
Department of Educational Psychology, Guidance and Counselling, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt.
The ability to read fluently and understand what is read is a strong prerequisite for academic success in a country like Nigeria where English language is the lingua franca but not the mother tongue. The method of teaching the language becomes important if children are expected to speak and communicate effectively. The study hence assessed the influence of synthetic phonics (jolly phonics) on early reading among pupils in six selected primary schools in the area. The study adopted experimental design and a research question and six hypotheses were used to guide the it. Standardized jolly phonics materials were used on the experimental group while the control group were taught using the analytical (traditional) method. Stratified random sampling technique was used to draw a sample of 298 pupils who were assigned into experimental and control groups using a pre-test. Mean scores were used to answer the research question while independent t-test was used to analyze the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance . Results show significant differences in early reading between those taught with jolly phonics and those taught with the analytical method among male pupils, female pupils , pupils from private schools, those from public schools, those from urban areas and also those from rural areas. In all the cases, those taught with jolly phonics read better than those taught with the analytical method. Recommendations were made based on the findings.
Keywords: synthetic phonics, jolly phonics, analytical method, early reading.
- AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE PROBLEMS OF TEACHING ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SOME SELECTED PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN KANO STATE.
HADIZA LAWAN ISMAIL
Faculty of General Studies, Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State Nigeria.
English is a second language in Nigeria, a lingua-franca and a language of communication. It is the medium of instruction at all levels of education that is from primary to the tertiary institutions level, yet teachers find it difficult to teach it at all levels especially at primary school level. Hence, this research studies focuses on the investigation on the problems of teaching English at primary level selecting 6 samples out of total population of 10 primary schools in Tarauni local government, Kano state. Therefore, the main objectives of the study are (i) to investigate the academic qualification of English teachers, (ii) to highlight the problem of English among primary school pupil’s (iii) to find out if there are any problem encountered by teachers of English. To achieve these objectives, questionnaire was used for the teachers. The data collected was based on questionnaires administered to the respondents. The findings revealed that most of the teachers are not qualified to teach English language, but most of them are using teaching aids to supplement their teaching. It also finds that the students make use of library for English purposes. From this analysis it was discovered that, the factors contributing to poor performance in English language among primary school pupil’s include: inadequate number of teachers, unqualified teachers, mother tongue interference and students background. Based on the above findings, the following recommendations are offered: The schools should be supplied with adequate number of qualified teachers. School facilities such as library, language laboratory, infrastructural facilities and teaching aids should be provided to each school. English teachers should be made compulsory to submit the pupil’s progress sheets to the head of the school, so that the head will know how far the pupils are progressing and dictate what difficulties are being encountered by the pupils.
Keywords: Problem of teaching English, Primary school pupil’s, teachers, Mother tongue interference and Qualification of teachers.
- FACTORS INFLUENCING INTERNET MARKETING ADOPTION BY SMALL AND MEDIUM SCALE ENTERPRISES IN IMO STATE
ANUKAM, AMAOBI ISAAC & OPARAH PROMISE CHIKA
Department of Marketing, Faculty of Management Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka Nigeria
The internet has provided a rare opportunity especially for small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) in Nigeria. It moves the SMEs beyond the physical constraints of their traditional distribution channels and creates a worldwide virtual community in which small and medium scale enterprises can compete with large enterprises. The main objective of this research is to increase academic understanding as well as provide managerial implications in relation to identifying and examining the factors that determine online adoption for marketing purposes by small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) in Imo State, Nigeria. The methodology is empiricist/positivist and the design is survey. In investigating the relative importance of the factors that determine the different levels of online adoption in the context of a developing country, existing theories and models provided patterns which the study followed. The contributions of this research is a synthesis of Resource-based View of the firm (RBV) with Roger’s innovation adoption model and others to produce a revised conceptualization for the adoption of innovations which is empirically tested for developing country SMEs like Nigeria. It provides an empirical contribution by studying the SMEs as an example of goods and services marketing. The major findings of this research are that management factors are important for the initial adoption decision by firms whereas marketing capabilities are important for more sophisticated adoption. As for perceived innovation attributes, relative advantage and complexity were found important for the initial adoption decision whereas perceived risk was found important for more sophisticated adoptions. This suggests that different factors affect the different levels of adoption. The implications to marketing firms are that first, innovation attributes are not the whole story when studying firms’ adoption of the web, firm resources also affect adoption decision. Secondly, different factors affect different levels of adoption thus when studying innovation adoption by firms, it is important to consider the adoption process as a continuous process that consists of different levels rather than a dichotomous process of adopt (online) versus non-adopt (offline).
Keywords: Internet, Online, Web, Digital, Bricks and mortar.
- RATIO ANALYSIS OF TESCO PLC FINANCIAL STATEMENTS BETWEEN 2010 AND 2014
*ADEJUMO WAHAB ADEWUYI & **ABDULWAHAB SALAWUDEEN OLORUNNSORO
*Department of Insurance, the Oke Ogun Polytechnic, Saki, Oyo State. Nigeria **Bursary Department, The Oke Ogun Polytechnic, Saki, Oyo State. Nigeria
Ratio analysis is a method of assessing and comparing the performance of a company in a particular year to previous years’ performance and possibly with other companies in the same industry. This paper aims at analyzing the financial performance of Tesco Plc between 2010 and 2014 and compare it with the performance of both Morrison and Sainsbury. The paper intends to make use of financial statements of Tesco, Sainsbury and Morrisons from 2010 to 2014. From the data analysis, it was discovered that as at 2010, the financial performance of Tesco Plc is not improving. The Shareholders’ wealth has been decreasing. Not only that, the Gross Profit, Return on Capital Employed, Dividend payment, Share prices, etc. have been reducing from year to year. The consequence of this is that Tesco Plc may run into loss in the nearest future if not in 2015. The paper recommended that Tesco need to adjust his business activities so as to improve and regain their lost glory in business.
Keywords: Profitability ratio, Liquidity ratio, Efficiency ratio, Tesco Plc
- A MULTI-DISCIPLINARY BASIS FOR THE DISCUSSION OF LINGUISTICS
Department of English, Nasarawa State University- keffi
This article is a documentary account of the multidisciplinary relationship between the study of language and several other areas of study. The discussion recognises, in part, the ever-flowing importance of language as well as the applications of its study to a number of disciplines. The other part of the discourse acknowledges the varied intellectual contributions made to the language studies. Particular attention is paid to varying notions both within and outside the linguistic discipline on the historical origin of language. It also uses psycholinguistics as evidence for the claim that the discipline of language has really attracted several other disciplines, whose champions have considered it a fertile ground to have their contributions cultivated. Mention is made, for instance, of psychology, philosophy, computer and medicine, from where scholars are seen to have phenomenal contributions. Having in mind the different kinds of readers even outside linguistics or English language, come clarifications have been made on the idea of linguistics and the extent to which we speak of the subject matter.
- PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND TOXICOLOGY OF SECURIDACA LONGIPEDUNCULATA FRESEN (POLYGALACEAE)
Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, P.M.B. 1144, Aliero, Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria.
Securidaca longepedunculata is a tree that is most commonly found in the tropical and subtropical areas of Africa. It is a relatively small tree, measuring 6 – 12 metres high. There are many different medicinal uses for this tree used all around Africa. It can be used to treat sicknesses as small as headaches or as severe as arthritis. The use of S. longepedunculata varies immensely. The roots of the tree can be used for treatments to human ailments such as coughs, chest complaints, toothaches, gout, fevers, constipation, diabetes and microbial infections. It also possesses anti-inflammatory properties that help to reduce arthritic pains. Uses of this tree vary across different countries. This study established the LD50 for both aqueous and methanol roots extract using oral and intra-peritoneal routes respectively, investigated the anti-malarial and the anti-trypanosomal effects of the plant in mice. Swiss albino mice (19-23 g) of both sexes were used to perform a four day suppressive standard test and employing chloroquine sensitive P. berghei NK 65 strain. Thin smears of blood films were obtained from the tail end of each mouse on day 4 after infection and treatments. The smears were placed on microscopic slides, fixed with methanol and stained with 10% Gemsa at pH 7.2 for 15 minutes, and examined under the microscope at X 100 magnification to assess the level of parasitemia. For anti-trypanosomal screening, thirty healthy Swiss albino mice of both sexes were randomly selected and divided weight dependently into groups of 5 mice each, consisting of three methanol extracts groups of 5%, 10%, and 20% of the extract’s LD50 which is equivalent to (0.14, 0.28, & 0.56 mg/kg) respectively, and also a standard control drug (diminazene aceturate 3.5 mg/kg), infected and not treated group and no infection no treatment group. Except the no infection no treatment group, all other groups were infected with T. brucei. Invariably, each animal received inoculums of about 1.0 x 107 parasites per gramme body weight through needle passage and produced parasitaemia in the mice. On commencement of the medications (i.e. at peak parasitaemia) the methanol root extract of S. longepedunculata was given to the three groups in divided doses for seven days and the diminazene aceturate was given to the standard group at a therapeutic dose of 3.5 mg/kg just once, while the infected not treated and the no infection no treatment received no treatment, all the drugs were given through intraperitoneal routes after confirming parasitaemia.
- RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEMOCRACY AND DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE OF NIGERIA
*VEN JONATHAN CHIDOMEREM EGESI *ALANEME JUSTINA C. &**DR. OKECHUKWU ANYAOHA (Ph.D)
Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo-Ohaji, P.M.B 1472, Owerri. Imo State, Nigeria. **Imo State University, Owerri, Imo State Nigeria.
Democracy which is a system of government that guarantees full rights and privileges of citizens, freedom of speech and expressions among others for a few decades now have been adopted by different countries in Africa and beyond, Democracy have had series of advantages since it inception and adoption though there have been some short comings associated with it too. Development which can be taken for an event constituting a new stage in a changing situation also have its root in democracy. The synergy or relationship existing between democracy and development is not question. The reason is that democracy provides citizens the opportunity and privileges to make contributions in decision makings, policies and programmes that directly or indirectly lead to development. Democratic platform is the direct opposite of what is obtainable in other systems of government, while democracy is favourable, other systems of government are considered unfavourable. This research enterprise is occasioned by the abuse of ideal democratic leadership in today’s developing nations like Nigeria. The research adopted several techniques in putting for indepth analysis and discussions. The techniques included oral interviews, the use of questionnaires, other sources included the use of newspapers, journals, textbooks, periodicals, magazines and the internet. The work concluded with the researchers calling on all and sundry to embrace democracy systems of government with its own benefits.
- THE EFFECT OF TELEVISION ON THE PURCHASE AND CONSUMPTION OF LOCALLY PRODUCED RICE IN EBONYI STATE. A STUDY OF AKAEZE RICE, IN IVO LG.A.
IWUNZE FIDEL CHIBUOGWU & VEN EGESI JONATHAN C.
Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo-Ohaji, P.M.B 1472, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.
The major aim of this was to demonstrate the effect of Television Advertisement on purchase and consumption of locally produced rice in Nigeria with Ebonyi Rice as case study. The researcher defined Television Advertising as an effective means of reaching customers who have access to television. This study reveals the relevance of television as tool of advertising a firm’s product and services in order to attain the firm’s objectives The researcher adopted survey method as the methodology. The data for the research work was sourced using questionnaire, and was presented and analyzed . The findings reveals that Television Advertising increases the volume of input and output of the firm’s products, especially on the purchase and consumption of locally produced rice in Ebonyi: Finally, the researcher recommended that companies which tends to grow and gain loyalty from customers especially in this stiff and sophisticated competitive market, should engage in using steady advertising tools which television is one of the fastest means of advisement in reaching customers.
- PERFORMANCE OF PULLET GROWERS FED FEATHER MEAL SUPPLEMENTED WITH FISH MEAL.
IHENACHO, R.A1, AHAOTU, E.O2 AND AYO – ENWEREM, C.M2
1Department of Agriculture, Extension and Management, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo, Nigeria. 2Department of Animal Production and Health Technology, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo, Nigeria.
Two hundred and fifty (250) eight weeks old shaver brown pullet birds were randomly allotted to five experimental treatments in a completely randomized design. The birds were further sub-divided into three replicates of 16 birds each. The birds were offered: the experimental diets: 0.0%, 2.5.0%, 5.0% 7.5% and 10.0% fish meal substituted with corresponding levels of feather meal in five treatments. Body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, carcass characteristics and internal organs were used as criteria of response. Inclusion of feather meal at 10% significantly (p<0.05) improved daily feed intake, body length and leg length. Higher levels of feather meal intake had no significant (p>0.05) influence on the feed conversion ratio, daily weight gain, wing length and body height.
Keywords: Grower pullets, Feather meal, Fish meal, Performance and Carcass Characteristics.
- ANALYSIS OF THE RESPONSE OF NIGERIAN 330KV MEDIUM TRANSMISSION LINE
ONYEGBADUE IKENNA A1, UKAGU STEPHEN NWACHUKWU2 , UGADA CHUKWUEMEKA MARTIN3, GUIAWA MATHURINE4,
Department of Electrical Electronic Engineering, Igbinedion University Okada, Edo State, Nigeria. 1,2,3,4
This research work analyses the behaviour of the Nigerian 330kV medium transmission line network to controlled signals. To carry out this work successfully, the medium transmission line network was modelled using Laplace transform in the S-domain. The state space equations for the lines in the network was also obtained. The network was tested for stability using the Eigen values for the state variables. The Unit-step signals and the Impulse signal were injected into the medium transmission line network. The response of the network was obtained. The work was based on the effect of varying shunt capacitance on the medium transmission line. It was observed that for a capacitance of 0.0000015pu on the medium transmission line, the settling time was 0.059sec and the steady state time was 0.08sec.this was the best time recorded.
Keywords: medium transmission line, unit step signal, impulse signal, shunt capacitance.
- CRITICAL THINKING FOR SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA DEVELOPMENT IN THE NEW MILLENNIUM: THE REVIVAL OF ENGLISH LITERATURE STUDIES IN NIGERIAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
General Studies Department, College of Administrative and Business Studies, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola.
The gradual waning of critical thinking in Nigerian secondary school curriculum has left a gaping hole in the moral orientation of our youths. This has given rise to a lack of independence of thought, judgment and decision which leaves the youth vulnerable to social misfits who use them as cannon fodder for social unrests such as religious, ethnic and political wars and many other vices. English literature, which has the capacity to stimulate critical thinking and imaginative capacity of the individual, is seen by this paper as a means to rescue the society from near total moral collapse through the revival of the subject in our secondary schools for Sub-Saharan Africa change. The paper undertook a three year situation study of the patronage of Literature in English in Adamawa State with focus on Hayatu Iyawa College, Yola. The corpus used consisted of Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE) registration and results from the college for three consecutive years: 2012, 2013 and 2014. The method of data analysis was simple percentage. The study reveals that there is a massive apathy towards the subject by students despite its importance in nation building and other aspects of human endeavour. The analysis shows that a very little number of students offered it as a subject and sat for it during the examinations within the three years under study. The paper offers recommendations on how to fast track the restoration of English literature studies at the secondary school level.
Keywords: Critical Thinking; Literature in English; Secondary school; Nigeria; Sub-Saharan Africa Development.
- PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF FINISHER BROILERS FED BREWER’S DRIED GRAIN SUPPLEMENTED WITH EXOGENOUS ENZYMES.
*E.O. AHAOTU1, V.N. OKONKWO2, IHENACHO, R.A3 AND EBOCHUO, V.C4
1Department of Animal Production Technology, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo, Nigeria. 2Department of Animal Science and Fisheries, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria. 3Department of Agriculture, Extension and Management, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo, Nigeria. 4Department of Fisheries and Marine Technology, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo, Nigeria.
A total of 60 Marshal Strain finisher broiler birds of 28 days of age were used in a twenty eight (28) days feeding trial to determine the effect of brewers spent grain supplemented exogenous enzymes on performance, carcass and internal organs characteristics, hematological and serum, biochemical parameters of finisher broiler birds. Four experimental diets were formulated such that brewers spent grain supplemented exogenous enzymes was incorporated in the finisher broiler diets at 0%, 10%.20% and 30% dietary level to replace maize in experiments (T1,T2,T3 and T4) respectively. The 60 finisher broiler birds were divided into 4 experimental groups of 15 birds per group and were randomly assigned to the 4 treatment diets which were also replicated into three (3) times of 5 birds per replicate. However, all the haematological and serum biochemical parameters were significantly different (p<0.05) among the treatment means. However the FCR was best in treatment 3 and as well T3 had the least fed cost per kg weight gained (N). The cost benefit analysis revealed that the cost per kg was highest (p<0.05) in the control diet (T1) and lowest (P<0.05) T4. Costs per kg of the experimental diet were N79.46, N76.68, N73.18 and N69, 68 for T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. These results suggest that brewers spent grain supplemented exogenous enzymes could be included in the diets of finisher broiler birds up to 30% level without any harmful effect on the animal.
Keywords: Marshal Strain Finisher Broiler Birds, Brewers Spent Grain, Exogenous Enzymes, Haematological and Serum Biochemical Parameters.
- CONVEX ANALYSIS AND MEASURABLE MULTI-FUNCTIONS
*ISA YAHAYA & **DR. SALIH YOUSUF MOHAMMED SALIH
*Department Of Pre-ND And Remedial Studies, School Of General Studies, Federalpolytechnic, Bauchi.**Department Of Mathematics, University Of Bakht Al-Ruda, Ed-Duem Sudan Republic.
The measurable multifunctions (Liapunov’s theorem) with generalized gradients which establishes a correspondence or multi-valued mapping are studied. The interesting questions in consideration were classified under four major headings : measurable selections, Liapunov’s theorem, differential inclusions, generalized gradients. The multifunction Г will not be lower semi-continuous; however, continuity is enough to make it upper semi-continuous (see  for an excellent treatment; believers in catastrophe theory might find  to their liking). The upshot is that applied mathematicians, at a very early stage, have abandoned all hope for continuous selections, and have turned to measurable selections. Convex analysis has developed methods for solving optimization problems in Banach spaces and convex analysis will provide conditions for optimality in terms of F and they will have to be translated in terms of ƒ to become practicable.
Keywords: Measurable Multifunctions, Lower Semi-Continuous (l. s. c), Upper Semi-Continuous (u. s. c), Differential Inclusions and Banach Space.
- THE IMPACT OF AUTOMATED TELLER MACHINE ON EFFECTIVE BANKING SERVICE DELIVERY. (A CASE STUDY OF FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC BAUCHI)
MOHAMMED U. HUSSAINI, GABRIEL OKPE AND PAUL E. OLEABHIELE,
Department Of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi-Nigeria.
The Nigeria banking sector over the year has experience noticeable innovation and changes in the products and service delivery. The advancement in information technology has brought about changes and other products such as automated teller machine [ATM]. Which was aimed at enhancing effective service delivery by bring money to the door step of customers 24 hours a day seven days a week. Its one of the component that make up for electronic banking (e-banking). Automated Teller Machine is described as an electronic machine that enable customer to primarily withdraw paper money or carry out other banking transaction. This research primary objective will be to assess the effectiveness of ATM in providing efficient and reliable banking services specifically at Federal Polytechnic Bauchi where some of the ATM is sited. The research made use of both primary and secondary data in conducting the study. The data collected was used to test the hypothesis postulated: that ATM has no significant impact on banking service delivery using chi- square. The result of the study indicates that ATM to some extent has enhanced banking service delivery but not fully. The study recommends the need for proper maintenance of the machine, regular and prompt of restocking cash and encouragement to go cashless etc.