HONOURING THE PAST, TREASURING AND PRESENT, SHAPING THE FUTURE: POSITIONING SUB-SAHARA AFRICA FOR DEVELOPMENT IN THE NEW MILLENNIUM
22-23 JUNE, 2016.
UNIVERSITY OF GHANA CONFERENCE HALL, UNIVERSITY OF GHANA, ACCRA, GHANA.
PROCEEDINGS (NO. 1):
- STUDIES ON HEAVY METALS IN SOILS USING INSTRUMENTAL NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS (INAA)
1IDRIS M.C. AND 2 SEYDOU H.
1 Department of Physics, Sule Lamido University Kafin Hausa, Nigeri.2Department of Physics, Gombe State University, Gombe, Nigeria
Samples of soil were collected from three (3) different locations in Zaria, northwest part of Nigeria and the Geo-accumulation index () was used to check the level of pollution in the soil. The result shows that of the metals falls within the class of 0 and 1. Considering permissible levels of metals, this reveals that the soil in Zaria and environ is not enriched in these potentially toxic elements. Also the concentrations of the elements determined were compared to the range, mean, and median values of the World soil.
Keywords: Soil; Toxic Elements; Radioisotopes; Neutrons; Zaria
- PRODUCTION OF A GLASS-BASED ABRASIVE WHEEL
OJO, PETER ODESANMI, AJAYI, OLUMIYIWA BAMIDELE & AYO-AJAYI, OLUWAGBENGA OLAOLUWA
Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria
This paper presents the procedures and products of a locally manufactured abrasive wheel from locally sourced natural materials such as glass, coke, sodium silicate, silica sand and sawdust with glass (quartz material) as the parent material. Five local raw material substitutes were identified as listed above through pilot study and with the initial mix of the identified materials. Suitable mould was constructed; the materials were measured and input into the furnace for a required period. The produced abrasive wheel is of very high quality suitable for use in grinding operations such as removal of weld marks, imperfections, rust, paint and dirt.
Keywords:- Manufacture, Abrasive wheel, Grinding, Production, Materials, Glass, Optimal formulation.
- APPLICATION OF CONFORMAL MAPPINGS TO BOUNDARY- VALUE PROBLEMS
Department of Pre-ND and Remedial Studies, School of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.
We examine certain general problems of the employment of analytic functions in the solutions of boundary-value problems involving Laplace’s equation (i.e finding a solution in the boundary), considering Dirichlet’s, Neumann’s and Mixed or Gauss’s problems. Conformal mapping is used to map a given complicated domain onto a simpler one, where the solution is known or can be found easily. This solution is then mapped back to the given domain; this is the idea that works due to the fact that harmonic functions remain harmonic under conformal mapping. And we proceed to show that for a mapping to be conformal in any domain, it is necessary and sufficient that be analytic in that domain and that for all in the domain, and also shows that a mapping which preserves the magnitude of angles but not necessarily the sense is non-conformal rather Isogonal.
- HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY (HPLC) IDENTIFICATION OF HYDROLYSABLE TANNIN FROM LEAVES OF CHENOPODIUM AMBROSIOIDES LNN AND ITS ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY
YAKUBU S., COMFORT B. & JANNET W,
Department Of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria
The powdered leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides (L) were extracted in 70% acetone and concentrated using rotary evaporator at a temperature below 40oC. The extract was partitioned in diethyl ether and distilled water. The aqueous phase containing the tannins was separated and freeze dried. Column chromatography (CC) was performed using acetone toluene and formic acid (6:6:1) as the solvent system. Tannin fractions were isolated and spotted using CC and ferric chloride solution. The fractions were pooled based on Rf value similarities. FT-IR P800S system was used for the determination of functional group. The HPLC analysis was carried out using lab solution system equipped with UV detector and Pinnacle C18 RP column (150 X 4.6mm ) with injection volume of 20µl and the flow rate of 1ml/min. Acetonitrile and distilled water (80:20) were used as the mobile phase. The result of the extraction gave 8 spots with Rf values; 0.88,0.10,0.16,0.4,0.41,0.5,0.56, & 0.6. The tannin fraction gave one spot with Rf value 0.11 and the standards gave 3 spots with Rf values, 0.11, 0.2,& 0.3) The FT-IR analysis confirmed the presence of tannins functional groups. The HPLC result detected the presence of hydrolysable tannin (gallotannins) which was found to exhibit marked activity on E. coli, S. typhi, S. aureus and C. albicans.
Keywords: Chenopodium ambrosioides, RP-HPLC, Tannins, antimicrobials activity
- EFFECT OF BAMBARA NUT SIEVATE SUPPLEMENTED EXOGENOUS ENZYMES ON HAEMATOLOGY AND SERUM BIOCHEMICAL VALUE OF FINISHER BROILER BIRDS.
E.O. AHAOTU1, V.N. OKONKWO2, K.C. OKORIE2 AND A. AKINFEMI3
1Department of Animal Production and Health Technology, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo, Nigeria. 2 Department of Animal Science and Fisheries, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria.3 Department of Animal Science, Nasarawa State University, Laffia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria
A total of 60 Anak strain broiler finisher birds of 28 days of age were used in a twenty eight (28) days feeding trial to determine the effect of bambara nut sievate fortified exogenous enzymes on the serum biochemical values and haematological assays of finisher broiler birds. Four experimental diets were formulated such that bambara nut sievate fortified exogenous enzyme was incorporated in the finisher broiler diets at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% dietary levels to replace soybean in the experiments in diets T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. The 60 finisher broiler birds were divided into 4 experimental groups of 15 birds per group and were randomly assigned to the 4 treatment diets and replicated three (3) times (5 birds per replicate). The haematological parameters such as Hb, PCV, RBC. and WBC increased with respect to control except in treatments 3 and 4. Furthermore, MCV, MCH and MCHC, were significantly different (p>0.05). Serum biochemical parameters such as urea, total protein cholesterol and globulin were significantly different (p<0.05) between the treatments, while creatinine and albumin were similar (p>0.05) between the treatment means. However, all the parameters of the WBC were not significantly different (p>0.05). All serum biochemical elements were significantly different (p<0.0) between the treatments. These results suggest that bambara nut sievate fortified exogenous enzymes could be included in the diet of finisher broiler birds up to 15% level without any harmful effect on the animal.
Keywords: Bambara nut sievate, exogenous enzymes, Broiler finishers, Serum Biochemistry, Haematology and Protein Source.
- RHF AND DFT THEORETICAL STUDY OF THE BENZENE AND HYDROXYL BENZENE MOLECULE GROUP IN GAS PHASE.
A. MUHAMMAD1, L .S. TAURA1 AND C.E. NDIKILAR2
1Department of physics, Sule Lamido University Kafin-Hausa, Jigawa State 2Department of physics, Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State.
The Benzene ring is an important example of conjugated molecule, and also an important building block of many organic semiconductors (OSC). However a single benzene ring is not yet large enough to bring the band-gaps Eg into the OSC regime. The molecular geometries of the Hydroxylbenzene group have been studied using ab-initio Quantum chemical calculations at the Restricted Hatree-fock (RHF) with 6-31G(d,p) basis set. Also Density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP have been carried out at the same basis set for inclusion of electron correlation. The electronic properties calculated are Bond length, Bond angle, total energy, energy gap, ionization energy, electron affinity, electrophilic index, Hardness and softness. Some of the properties computed like bond lengths and bond angles by DFT are in good agreement with experimental values but those computed from RHF over estimated the results. The energy gap decreases with the substitution of OH radical in the Benzene molecule. The study was performed using Gaussian 03W software.
Keywords: Benzene, Bond length, Energy gap and DFT, RHF
- STUDIES OF MOSQUITOES IN HADEJIA EMIRATE, JIGAWA STATE, NIGERIA
AHMED, U.A & SANI, ZAKARIYYA
Department of Biological Sciences, Sule lamido University Kafin Hausa, Jigawa State Nigeria.
Studies on Mosquitoes in Hadejia emirate, Jigawa State, Nigeria revealed the presence of eight species; 107 (16.09%) Aedes aegypti, 123 (18.50%) Ae. africanus, 41 (6.16%) Ae. albopictus, 60 (9.02%) Ae. furcifer, 76 (11.43%) Ae. taylori, 42 (6.32%) Ae. luteocephalus, 77 (11.58%) Culex decens, 31 (4.66%) Cx. dutton and 82 (12.33%) Mansonia Africana. Within the (8) Local Government Areas sampled, Hadejia has the highest member of mosquitoes obtained. Anopheles species were only reported from Auyo and Guri has the least number of Mosquitoes Aedes africanus was the most abundant while Anopheles funestus was the least. The mosquitoes identified in this study are of public health importance and there is an urgent need to control them by treatment of their breeding places and indoor residual spray.
Keywords: Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Mansonia, Mosquito
- THE SPECIES COMPOSITION AND DIVERSITY OF THE COASTAL WATERS OF ONDO STATE, NIGERIA.
JOSEF BAMIDELE BOLARINWA,
Department of Fisheries Technology, Lagos State Polytechnic, P.M.B 21606, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria.
A study of the icthyofauna resources of the coastal waters of Ondo State of Nigeria conducted for 18 months (June 2011-December, 2012) revealed the presence of 67 finfish species with the clariids(especially Clarias gariepinus and Heterobranchus bidorsalis) and cichlids(especially Oreochromis niloticus and Coptodon zilli) dominating the stock accounting for 42% and 16% respectively. Other predominant families were A high ’Claroitedae’(Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) with 9.2% contribution, ’Channidae’(Parachanna africana) with 8.7%, Osteoglossidae (Heterotis niloticus) with 7.1%, Gymnarchidae( Gymnarchus niloticus), Mugilidae (Mugil cephalus) and Clupeidae (Ethmalosa fimbriata). Lausanne Index of Abundance was 89.7% while Margalef.s index( a measure of species richness) was 5.18. The Length-weight relationships of these predominant fishes showed negative allometric growth pattern. A high level of heterogeneity of stock was observed as revealed by Simpson Index and Shannon-Weiner Index of General Diversity (H i) which were 0.13 and 0.35 respectively. A lot of similarity in species composition existed as revealed by Evenness Index(E) of 0.20 and Berger-Perker Index of 0.88. There was comparatively higher catches of fish in the dry season than the wet season probably due to reduced water volume which concentrated the fishes for easier catchability. The author recommends the need to protect the existing stock especially the monospecific families like the Osteoglosidae and Gymnarchidae through regular monitoring of the physicochemical parameters of the coastal waters which are highly susceptible to crude oil pollution, Ondo State being a crude oil-producing area. More funds should be committed by the government to researches on population dynamics and biomass estimate of our coastal waters.
Keywords: Species composition, diversity indices, coastal, allometry, Length-weight relationship, icthyofauna, predominant
- RHF AND DFT THEORETICAL STUDY OF THE HYDROXYL RADICAL ON THE MONO SILACYLOBUTANE MOLECULE.
*A. MUHAMMAD1, L .S. TAURA1 AND C.E. NDIKILAR2
1Department of physics, Sule Lamido University Kafin-Hausa, Jigawa State 2Department of physics, Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State.
The molecular geometries of the hydroxyl radical on the monosilacyclobutane molecule have been studied using ab-initio Quantum chemical calculations at the Restricted Hatree-fock (RHF) with 6-31G(d,p) basis set. Also Density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP have carried out at the same basis set for inclusion of electron correlation. Cyclobutane is the original Molecule before replacing one carbon by Silicon atom. This led/resulted in the study of three molecules. The electronic properties calculated are Bond length, Bond angle, total energy, energy gap, ionization energy, electron affinity, electophilic index, Hardness and softness. The result in this study show that calculated Bond length, Bond angle and total energy for cyclobutane have been found in good agreement with previous studies. For the other molecules, we have not found a reference data, so this study supplies a new data in this aspect. These calculations have been performed using Gaussian 03 package.
Keywords: Ab-initio, Cyclobutane, DFT, Bond length, silicon.
EFFLUENTS AND THEIR IMPACTS ON WATER QUALITY OF RECEIVING RIVER NGGADA, MAIDUGURI, NIGERIA.
DEBORAH J.MALGWI1, AHMED .T.GUBIO1, ZARA K.KOLO1,FANNA.A.KYARI1 AND A.Y SANGODOYIN2
1Department of Civil Engineering, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Nigeria 2Department of Agricultural and Environmental Resources Engineering, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
An evaluation of abattoir effluent, waste generation and management operations on receiving stream of Maiduguri main abattoir (Kasuwan Shanu) Borno State , 2013. Water samples were taken from water sources in the abattoir and were assessed for Biological and chemical analysis, Using the standard methods of examination of water and waste water (APHA,1992). The biological and chemical parameters range between 2 – 18mg/l DO, and 10 – 45mg/l BOD5 98 -789mg/l CL, 29.8 – 855mg/l SO4, 3.50 – 19mg/l PO4 for different sampling point in the study area and were above the WHO Standards for effluent discharge from industries. The rise and fall pattern of Do and BOD confirms the process of self purification of the receiving stream with distance. The result implies that no sufficient measures or facilities to treat abattoir wastewater for environmental safety in Maiduguri abattoir. Thus, the need to treat this wastewater rather than discharging it to the environment is needed.
Keywords: effluent discharge, self purification, river Ngadda
- SAFETY ASSESSMENT, IN–VIVO ANTI-TRPANOSOMAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOL ROOT EXTRACT OF SECURIDACA LONGEPEDUNCULATA IN MICE INFECTED WITH TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI BRUCEI
*HARUNA, Y 1., C.M. ELINGE 2
1,2 Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, P.M.B. 1144, Aliero, Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria.
Securidaca longepedunculata is a savannah shrub commonly used by traditional medicine practitioners in Nigeria; the plant is reputed to have over one hundred medicinal indications. The study aims at assessing the safety of the plant which is 2.8 mg/kg, and its trypanocidal activity using Swiss albino mice of both sexes: The animals were randomly selected and divided weight dependently into groups of 5 mice each, consisting of three methanol extracts groups of 5%, 10%, and 20% of the extract’s LD50 which is equivalent to (0.14, 0.28, & 0.56 mg/kg) respectively, and also a standard control drug (diminazene aceturate 3.5 mg/kg), infected and not treated group and no infection no treatment group. Except the no infection no treatment group, all other groups were infected with T. brucei. Invariably, each animal received inoculums of about 1.0 x 107 parasites per gramme body weight through needle passage and produced parasitaemia in the mice. On commencement of the medications the methanol root extract of S. longepedunculata was given to the three groups in divided doses for seven days and the diminazene aceturate was given at a therapeutic dose of 3.5 mg/kg just once. All the drugs were given through intra-peritoneal routes after confirming parasitaemia.
Keywords: Drug, mice, Securidaca longepedunculata, Parasitaemia, Treatment.
- A REVIEW OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN IMPROVING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE: IMPLEMENTATION OF PRACTICE AND CHALLENGES
A. B. ABUBAKAR, 2Z, U, JIDDA, 3S. ABUBAKAR
Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
The concept of opting for Total Quality management in both manufacturing industries as well as human services sector, lead to a greater competition among their peers to win consumers satisfaction and needs by providing quality products/services. With the emergence of TQM philosophy in the mid-20th century under Deming’s guidance. A lot of models and theories resurface to developed TQM and its implementation in organizational performance to deal with current challenges in quality improvement with utmost efficiency and effectiveness. Total quality implementations meet numerous challenges in improving performances. This paper reviews the concept of performance practice and implementation. Recommendation will be provided to overcome these challenges.
Keywords: Total quality management (TQM), manufacturing, organizational performance, challenges,
- THE FUNDAMENTALS OF AFRICAN TRADITIONAL ETHICS
KANU, IKECHUKWU ANTHONY, O.S.A., Ph.D
Augustinian Institute, Makurdi, Benue State
Scholars of the colonial era have argued that Africans have no ethics, and as such cannot distinguish between good and evil, and that even if they give considerations to issues of this kind, it is always savage in character. This perspective was born from the racist mentality of the time that relegated the African to the background of insignificance. This research, therefore, studies this perspective to understand if there was the possibility of an African ethics in African traditional societies. This research reveals that African traditional societies had their own ethics. It further explored its ontological foundations, the link between the African community and ethics, and the nexus between African ethics and religion.
Keywords: African, Ethics, Traditional, Fundamentals, Ontology, Foundations, Religion.
- MODELING STOCK PRICES WITH EXPONENTIAL WEIGHTED MOVING AVERAGE (EWMA).
ADEJUMO WAHAB ADEWUYI
Department of Insurance, the Oke Ogun Polytechnic Saki, Oyo State. Nigeria
Volatility is an important parameter for financial risk management and it is applied in many issues such as option pricing, portfolio optimization, VaR methodology and hedging, thus the forecasting of volatility or variance can be regarded as a problem of financial modelling. The objective of this paper is to forecast FTSE 100 Stock Prices of top 100 companies listed on London Stock Exchange by using the Exponential Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) Model. The data for this model is directly obtained from the UK FTSE 100 Index. In this research paper, we have examined the daily returns of FTSE 100 Stock Prices of top 100 companies listed on London Stock Exchange from the thirtieth day of June 2009 to the first day of December 2014 and equally forecasted the daily returns from the first day of December 2014 to the fifth day of February 2015 with the Exponential Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) Model. We found that there is a very high possibility that the stock prices will start to fall as from 5th February 2015 downwards.
Keywords: EMWA, ARCH, GARCH,
- ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION METHODS FOR CROP FARMERS IN IKWERRE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA.
HARRY, A. T.* AND SMART, E. B.**
*Department of Agriculture and Applied Economics/Extension, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, PMB 5080, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
The study assessed the extension methods for crop farmers in Ikwerre Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. Data were randomly collected with the aid of a structured questionnaire administered to 120 respondents who were crop farmers. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics, frequency and percentage and T-test to test the hypothesis. The results showed that the mean age of crop farmers was (40.6 years), findings also shows that (66.7%) of the farmers were males while 33.3% were females, household size of respondents which falls between 7 and 9 had a majority of (39.2%); (37.5%) with a mean of (8.2 per household) earned a monthly net income of 10000-20000 naira; (35.8%) also agreed that they were visited by extension agents once in three months; 60.8% of the farmers welcomed the improved cassava variety innovation, while 58.3% accepted the use of fertilizer technology. Crop farmers preferred the method demonstration and result demonstration of extension methods with 62.5% and 52.5% respectively. Constraints faced by extension agents in the use of extension methods were illiteracy level of the farmers (66.6%) and insufficient funds (53.3%). Findings also show that there is no significant difference between the extension agents and crop farmers in the extension methods used when the hypothesis was tested. This study therefore recommends an enhanced education and improved credit facilities to crop farmers in the study area.
Keywords: Agricultural extension; extension methods; crop; farmers; Ikwere.
- ENTRENCHING CORPORATE GOVERNANCE, THE CHALLENGE TO THE NEW MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA
RUKAIYAT ADEBUSOLA YUSUF
Department of Accounting, Kaduna State University.
Africa to a large extent has continue to remain a paradox. Apart from the landmass and its huge population, it has varieties of both solid and mineral resources. Yet a greater percentage of its people live in abject poverty. The level of development in Africa vis-à-vis other continents, particularly the industrialized nations of the world has been a great concern to scholars and the international community which led to the millennium development goals (MDGs). However, the inability of most of the countries to meet these goals has brought to the front burner the factors responsible and ways of overcoming them. This paper situate corporate governance as a critical factor in the development of the continent, investigates available literature on the challenges of development in Africa and conclude that lack of corporate governance in both private and public sector is a setback. It looks at the MDGs and some prominent theories on corporate governance, examining the various challenges in Africa in this regard and concludes that for effective growth and economic development of the continent entrenching effective and qualitative corporate governance is of great significance. This will lead to all round effective leaders, thus redeeming business image, attracting more funding and increasing inflow of investment both within and outside its continent.
Keywords: Corporate Governance, Africa, New Millennium, MDGs, Economic Development.
- TRANSPARENCY AND ACCOUNTABILITY IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT: EFFECTIVE MACHINERY FOR NATIONS DEVELOPMENT
Department of Business Management Education, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria
The purpose of the paper was to determine the effect of transparency and accountability in nation’s development. More often, people found the application of transparency in their mindsets as a struggle force difficult to overcome especially in the developing societies. The earning desires or expectancy for nation’s development is largely a mechanism in their capability and self conscious to give adequate account of their resources entrusted in their custody or disposals of the accounting people. This paper was written with the aim of delivery into the process of encouraging all sectors to handle procure items i.e. goods, works, services and consultancy in their possession in such a manner that accountability will be achieved. It was also anticipated that it will assist the general public to contribute and monitor strategically the syndrome of high level corruption in the developing countries. The paper ample solution and recommendation’s to solicit all that matters in acquiring resources for the development of nations.
Keywords: Transparency Accountability Public procurement Corruption National development
- KEY DRIVERS OF DEFORESTATION IN PEHANG PENINSULAR MALAYSIA, A THREAT TO CLIMATE CHANGE
MANDE, K. HA., ABDULLAH, A. MB., GUGONG K. BC., NGHAI E. SD., BALA DE., SHAMANG KF., BABARINSA DG, BAJI JH., GABRIEL EI., SABO D. DJ.
ag,h&jDepartment of Environmental Managment, Faculty of Environmental Science, Kaduna State University, Nigeria bDepartment of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Studies, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. cDepartment of Accounting, Faculty of Art, Kaduna State University, Nigeria d&fDepartment of Architecture, Faculty of Environmental Science, Kaduna State University, Nigeria dDepartment of Geography, Faculty of Sciences, Kaduna State University, Nigeria iDepartment of Urban and Regional Planning, P.M.B 704, FUT Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
Increasing human population and the growing economy is often associated with various environmental disturbances which have been altering the natural earth ecosystem. The need for more spaces for numerous land development activities has made the existing forests suffer deforestations. The aim of the research is to ascertain the drivers of deforestation and to stabilize the GHG concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate. Pahang currently has only about 1,562,902 ha of forests, which cover the inland forest, peat swamp forest and mangrove forest. These forests have declined in terms of forest cover between 2002 and 2010 due to conversion of forests to other land uses. Identifying drivers of deforestation as a major cause of carbon emission into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide (CO2) is crucial to combat climate change issue, maneuvers future development and sustainable environment. Pahang, which is the largest state in Peninsular Malaysia has the largest forest cover and was selected as the study area. The period of the research was between 1990 and 2010, where variations of drivers of deforestation were quantified spatially and temporal. In this study, Landsat-TM and SPOT-5 satellite images between years 1990 and 2010, with 5-year interval, land use map and ground truthing were used to estimate forest cover and forest cover changes. The images from the satellite and the information on land use map were assessed to determine the rate of deforestation based on permanent land use changes that occurred within the periods. Magnitude of land use changes has been quantified and drivers of deforestation were identified indicating commercial agricultural such as palm oil plantation and rubber plantation was the main proximate drivers for the deforestation in Pahang.
Keywords: Deforestation, landsat, landuse, Forest, Drivers