SUB-SAHARA AFRICAN JOURNAL OF RENEWABLE AGRICULTURAL TECH. RESEARCH
VOL. 28 NO. 1 JUNE, 2023.
SUB-SAHARA AFRICAN ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS,
Centre for African Development Studies, P. O. Box 10108, U. I. Post Office. Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria.
EFFECT OF CATTLE DUNG IN THE BIOENHANCEMENT OF INDIGENOUS FUNGI FOR THE BIOREMEDIATION OF USED ENGINE OIL CONTAMINATED SOILS
1* EGHOSA OSAZEE; 2 MATTHEW OMONIYI ADEBOLA,
1Department of Biological Sciences, SuleLamido University, Kafin Hausa, Nigeria. 2Department of Plant Biology, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State.
Used engine oil (UEO) contaminated soils were collected from five mechanic workshops located in Minna. Non-oil contaminated soil samples were collected from Biological Garden of the Department of Plant Biology, Federal University of Technology, Minna. The fungi were isolated from the mechanic workshop soils using dilution plate method in mineral salt medium. The experimental design was arranged in a split-plot in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with seven (7) levels of treatments in each main plot and five (5) in each sub-plot. The germination toxicity test was carried out using germination and growth parameters. All the fungi were identified based on macroscopic and microscopic features of the fruiting bodies, spores and hyphal mass. A total of fifteen (15) fungi were isolated from the five mechanic workshop soils. Standard suspension (10.02 104CFU/L) of each of the five best performing pure fungal isolates (Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporium and Trichodermal harzianum) among all the fungal isolates were added to the pots and thoroughly mixed with each of the 5ml of UEO contaminated soil. The populations of A.niger and F. oxysporium counts in all the soils amended with the various weights of cattle dung were higher compared to that of un-amended control pots. The highest enhancement was observed in CD75 which was able to enhance A. niger and F. oxysporium for optimum remediation when compared to other treatment options like CD100 and CD125 which were lower as showed in the THC with decreasing order of treatment CD75 > CD125 >CD100 > CD50 > CD25. The effect of the residual UEO on the germination of Vigna unguiculata showed that the plant grows successfully in all the negative control pots as well as CD75 treated pots but decreased in all other treatment options where retarded growth was observed.
Keywords: Enhancement, Toxicity, Remediation, Germination, Biostimulant
FIELD SOIL DETERMINATION ASSESSMENT FOR PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION
AWONIYI, G. O1., ABDULRAHMAN N1., ADENIRAN, K. A2., AWONIYI, K. P3.
1Department of Agricultural and Bio-environmental Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria. 2Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, University of Ilorin, Nigeria. 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.
Sieving method of particle size distribution is practically most common in laboratories but most times, silt and clay are always lumped together and not distinctly separable. Besides, clogging of soil would definitely result in errors in the finest soil particles of soil composition therefore the method is better used for more coarse sizes rather than finer ones. Soil particles distribution is largely dependent on its solubility (suspension) in appropriate solution (suitably chemical basic). Distinct particles that are made up of soil were found to be dependent of settlement time, colloidal forms and their visual clarity in solution. This research work was conducted at University of Ilorin main campus, Ilorin, Nigeria. The institution lies on the latitude 80 301 N and longitude 40 351 E at an elevation of about 340 m above the sea level. Both sieving and sedimentation hydrometer methodology were adopted for the site soil assessment. The experiment was conducted using Latin Square Design of four samples with four replications. Results from sieving indicated that 96%, 95%, 96% and 96% of soil samples are finer than 2 mm with approximately 10%, 9%, 9 % and 8% finer than 0.075 mm for experimental soil sample I, sample II, sample III and sample IV respectively. Sedimentation hydrometer assessment confirmed that the field soil contains 28.6% clay-silt, 13.22% clay, 71.23% sand and 15.52% silt on an average. Textural class of the experimental soil was found to be sandy loam. Analysis of the soil sample inferred 0.98, 0.96 and 0.2 for R2, adjusted R2 and Mean Square Error (MSE) respectively.
Keywords: Particle size, Sieving, Sedimentation Hydrometer, Sample Analysis, Soil Determination
EFFECT OF INORGANIC MANURE AND FARMYARD MANURE ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF ONION (ALLIUM CEPA L.) IN DAMATURU, SUDAN SAVANNAH, YOBE STATE, NIGERIA
ABDULLAHI B.1, MUHAMMAD B. A2
Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe State.
This experiment Was carried out to determine the effect of inorganic manure and farmyard manure on the growth and yield components of onion (Allium cepa L.) at the Federal Polytechnic Damaturu Teaching and Research Farm in the year 2022/2023 with the objective of evaluating the effect of Farmyard manure and inorganic manure on the growth and yield of onion (Allium cepa L.), as well as determining the most effective in terms of onion yield. The manure was applied at the rate of 24 tons/ha, the experiment consist of four (4) treatments which are. NPK fertilizer, Poultry manure, Cattle dung, Control. Laid out on RCBD Randomized Complete Block Design replicated three times. The result shows that there is significant difference among growth and yield parameters with poultry manure T2 giving the highest growth and yield parameters, plant height (37.91 cm), total yield per plot (30.1 kg) and bulb diameter (6.99 cm). In conclusion, from the results treatment 2 (poultry manure) performs best in terms of growth and higher yield than other treatments under the present study.
Keywords: Farm Yard Manure, Inorganic Manure, Growth, Yield, RCBD, Allium cepa L.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INORGANIC FERTILIZER AND ORGANIC FERTILIZER PRODUCED FROM COW DUNG USING AN EXISTING BIO-DIGESTER
ALFA, A.Y.; AND YAKATUN. A.A.
Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria.
The effect of inorganic fertilizer on natural soil has led to shift in researches in the direction of alternative option which can be developed from natural sources. Therefore, this research work is on the production of biofertilizer from cow dung and the comparison of water holding capacity of soil using biofertilizer and chemical fertilizer. This was achieved by composting 2 kg of mixed cow dung for 29 days and thereafter jatropha cake was incorporated with fermented 0.2 kg solution of brown sugar in the reactor, where pH, moisture content and temperature were monitored. The average moisture content, temperature and pH values of the composting system were 54.4 %, 35 0C and 6.8 respectively. The effect of inorganic fertilizer and organic fertilizer on water holding capacity of soil was observed to be 3.12% and 5.55 %. This shows that bio fertilizer soil replicate does not only have a better water holding capacity than the commercial inorganic fertilizer soil replicate, but also had an improved water retention capacity from the initial value of 3.26 %, which translated to 41.26 % increment. Also, the 96.74 % water loss recorded from the initial condition of soil before application of fertilizers was improved in bio fertilizer soil replicate after application, recording lower water loss of 94.45 % when compared with the commercial inorganic fertilizer soil replicate with an average water loss of 96.88 %. The water holding capacity of bio fertilizer soil replicate was reduced by 4.49 % from an initial average value of 3.26 % to 3.12 %. The active microorganisms identified in the product were Bacillus SP, Aspergillus Niger, Aspergillus Fumigatus, Aspergillus Versicolor and Penicillium SP with pH value of 7.1 and moisture content of 40 %. The physiochemical analysis of the produced organic fertilizer shows: Organic carbon 2.75%, Nitrogen 0.28%, Phosphorus 0.0099%, Potassium 0.048% while the inorganic fertilizer are Nitrogen 15%, Phosphorus 15% and Potassium 15% respectively. The results from this research shows that cow dung can be converted through anaerobic biodegradation to biofertilizer amongst other useful products and the biofertilizer produced is richer in nutrients than the chemical fertilizer, hence it is more suitable and have a better effect on the water holding capacity of the soil.
Keywords: comparative analysis, inorganic fertilizer, organic fertilizer, cow dung, bio-fertilizer
PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF GROWING RABBITS FED CORN COB-BASED DIET SUPPLEMENTED WITH OR WITHOUT ENZYME
1 T. A. ADEOSUN (PH.D.), 2R. ISYAKU, 3A. O. GANIYU, 4Y. A. A. OSO AND 5R. B. FATAI (PH.D.)
1,2&3 Agricultural Education Department, Federal College of Education (Tech.), Bichi, Kano State, Nigeria. 4&5Animal Science Department, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
A total of eighty four (84) growing New Zealand White (NZW) x Chinchilla x Dutch rabbits that were six weeks old and weighing 707.14±82.55 g were randomly allocated to seven treatments of twelve rabbits per treatment. Each treatment was having three replicates at four rabbits per replicate. The treatments were: G1/Control (30% WO + 0% CC without cellulase), G2 (20% WO + 10% CC without cellulase), G3 (20% WO + 10% CC with cellulase), G4 (10% WO + 20% CC without cellulase), G5 (10% WO + 20% CC with cellulase), G6 (0% WO + 30% CC without cellulase) and G7 (0% WO + 30% CC with cellulase). All the treatments were served the diets ad libitum for 8 weeks. Average daily gain (ADG), average final weight (AFW), daily feed intake (DFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were evaluated. Also, cost of feed consumed per day (FCD) and feed cost per kilogram weight gain (FKWG) were determined. Two rabbits per treatment were euthanized for carcass characteristics at the end of the feeding trial. The ADG was higher in G3 (16.86±1.20) than G2 (13.96±1.40), and in G7 (14.16±1.91) than G6 (10.90±2.42). The AFW was similar in G3 (1651.67±46.46) and G5 (1620.00±13.23), and their values higher (P<0.05) than the values in the rest of the treatments. The DFI was higher in G4 (80.14±0.27) than G5 (70.94±4.10), and in G6 (83.08±1.02) than G7 (72.03±0.94). The FCR was significantly better in G7 (5.15±0.67) than G6 (7.85±1.55). The FCD was found significantly lowest in G7 (₦19.60±0.26) compared to the rest of the treatments, while FKWG was lower in G7 (₦1400.33±181.95) than G6 (₦2112.67±418.23). The live weight of the rabbits was highest (P<0.05) in G3 (1637.67±44.77) than the rest of the treatments. Dressed weight was higher (P<0.05) in G3 (916.33±94.01) than G2 (786.67±26.58), and in G7 (795.00±82.61) than G6 (679.07±58.14). Forelimb weight was higher (P<0.05) in G5 (8.25±0.16) than G4 (7.35±0.30). It could therefore be concluded that supplementing corn cob-based diet with cellulase enhances rabbit growth, carcass dressed weight and reduces cost of production, thereby promoting the use of non-conventional fibre source like corn cob in rabbit diet, and as such making rabbit production more sustainable.
Keywords: Performance, Carcass characteristics, Growing rabbits, Corn cob, Enzyme
ENVIRONEMNETAL AND METOCEAN ASSESSSMENT OF AQUACULTURE FARMING FOR SEAWEED AND FISH IN WEST AFRICA
PROF DR OLADOKUN SULAIMAN OLANREWAJU AND FELICIA YETUNDE EBOKA
Fish is one of the basic animal protein sources which are important in building the body and replacing the worn-out tissues in the body. A large proportion of the protein consumed in Nigeria is derived from plants, red meat and fish. Fish has an advantage over the others, since it is of high-quality protein (FAO, 2002). Fish provides essential nourishment, especially quality protein and fats (macro nutrients), vitamins and minerals (micro nutrients). Secondly, for those involved in Fisheries, Aquaculture and Fish trade, fish is a source of income which can be used to purchase other additional food items (Kabahenda et al., 2009). The main source of animal protein in Nigeria is fish contributing more than 40% of the total animal protein in their diet, either as fresh fish or cured in a variety of ways such as smoking, salting and sun drying. Fish can see as renewable natural resources (Eyo, 2001). Seaweed is shelter for different generations of marine organisms to protect the growth and feed efficiency. They are also alternative protein sources for farmed fish because of their high protein content and productivity. This paper presents interaction of fish and seaweed in West Africa Coast.
EFFECTS OF ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES ON FLORAL DENSITY AND DIVERSITY IN DAGONA WATERFOWL SANCTUARY GASHUA, YOBE STATE, NIGERIA
AKWARANDU, K. E. 1; AMSHI, A. M. 1; ALHAJI MUSTAPHA G.2; AHMED B.G.1 AND AHMED S. B.3 ABUBAKAR, A. M.4
1Forestry Technology Department, Yobe State College of Agriculture, Science and Technology, Gujba, Nigeria. 2Yobe State (Nigeria) Coordinator, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 3Basic Science Department, Yobe State College of Agriculture, Science and Technology, Gujba, Nigeria. 4Agricultural Technology Department, Yobe State College of Agriculture, Science and Technology, Gujba, Nigeria
Wetlands in the tropical sudan savanna are ecological niches to many threatened organisms. However, impacts of rising human populations daily threatens biodiversity, particularly in underdeveloped and impoverished communities where survival on the forest may be direct, crude, and absolute. In a research conducted in Dagona waterfowl sanctuary, Yobe state, Nigeria, to assess types and impacts of anthropogenic activities on the diversity and density of its plants, a structured questionnaire was employed in eliciting information on anthropogenic activities in the area while total count on line transect method was used in assessing the density and diversity of available plants. The Geographic information system (GIS) was employed in determining change in land cover over a ten year period. Results obtained shows that activities on the sanctuary were mostly carried out by males (82%), most of whom were married (54%) and within the 20-30 years class of age (42%) with farming as their major occupation (44%). In study area 1, 32 tree species from 20 families, making up a total of 644 individuals were encountered, while tree density ranged from 0.002km2-0.143/km2 with Balanites aegyptiaca having the highest density (0.143/km2), while Saba florida, Eclipta prostratara and Ipomoea carneat had the least (0.002/km2). Simpson diversity was low (0.891). In study area 2, tree density ranged from 0.002-0.021/km2 with Hyphaene thebatica and Feretia apondenthera having the highest densities and Althernantha nodiflora, Ipomea involucrate, Maerua angolensis and Acacia sieberitona recording the lowest densities. Simpson’s diversity index was very low (0.969). Unauthorized grazing was the most frequently carried out offence (30.59%). Between years 2009 and 2019, the river valley was observed to have shrank by 4.16 % (88.329 Km2 to 84.656 Km2), while the vegetation cover reduced by 62.58% (362.957 Km2 to 135.818 Km2). It is recommended that more surveillance should be carried out to curb the activities of illegal grazers, deforesters and poachers.
Keywords: Dagona waterfowl sanctuary, Yobe state, anthropogenic, transect, vegetation cover
RESPONSE OF GREEN (AMARANTUS L. SPECIES) TO SPRINKLER AND FURROW IRRIGATION IN ASABA, DELTA STATE
1ANENE-OKEAKWA, J. E., (PhD); 2CHUKWUKELU, I. S.; AND 3DIABUAH, S.C.
1Department of Home Economics Education, Federal College of Education (Technical) Asaba. 2&3Department of Agricultural Education, Federal College Of Education (Technical) Asaba.
Field experiment on the response of Amaranthus to sprinkler and furrow irrigation in Asaba was carried out in the Teaching and Research Farm of Federal College of Education (Technical) Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria during the dry season of 2022 – 2023 (December 2022 – April, 2023). The experimental design is a 2 x2x3 factorial. The two factors are sprinkler and furrow irrigation. The experiment on the effect of sprinkler irrigation on Amaranthus was carried out inside the Teaching and Research Farm of Federal College of Education (Technical),Asaba, water was sourced from the farm borehole, while pipe with nuzzles were used to sprinkle water on the plant two times a day, that is morning and evening. While experiment on the response of Amaranthus to furrow irrigation was carried out near the school palm plantation, water was source from the over flow of the “Iyiabi” river near the school farm. A land area of 50m x 50m each was cleared in the two sites. Nursery was carried out in nursery boxes under the shade. At the site for furrow irrigation a raised bed of 1m x 1m, with the height of 15cm and furrow of 0.5m between each bed was prepared. Seedlings were transferred to the field two weeks after nursery at the spacing of 20cm x 20cm and two seedlings per stand. The species of Amaranthus that was planted is Amaranthus cordiatus was sourced from Agricultural Development Agency (ADA) Ibusa, Delta State. Data were collected for the following growth parameters;Plant height, number of leave,plant yield (plant weight).All statistical analysis were carried out using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) with general linear model procedure Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to determine the treatment effect and Duncan Multiple Range Test was used for mean separation difference in mean will be considered significant at an alpha levels or 95% or higher (p ≤ 0.05). Findings revealed that the use of sprinkler irrigation methods significantly influenced plant growth and have the highest number of leaves and plant weight. It was recommended that vegetable farmers should adopt the use sprinkler irrigation for cultivation of amaranthus.
Keyword: Response, amarnthus, sprinkler, furrow, irrigation.