JOURNAL OF HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCE VOL.8, NO.4, DECEMBER, 2017 EDITIONS, ISSN: 2316-1989
Sub-Sahara African Academic Research Publications,
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TOWARDS TRANSFORMING SUB-SAHARA AFRICA THROUGH COLLECTIVE RURAL DEVELOPMENT
DIBIE, GODFREY ATUNU1 ROBERT, ODEY SIMON2
General Studies Department, Nasarawa State Polytechnic, Lafia1
2Bridge Gate Research Consult Ltd, Gwagwalada, Abuja, FCT; Gokin and Dab Educational Services and Consultancy, Lafia, Nasarawa
Sub-Sahara Africa’s development seems to be a mirage across the ages, as it continues to battle with development problems at continental, regional and national levels. Any development that is urban-centred alone, to the near complete exclusion of rural areas, is inconsequential and unsustainable. Regrettably, that is the kind of development obtained commonly in this region. Rural development is neglected by even the grass root governments and people. This hampers the realisation and sustainability of development goals. This paper makes a case for collective rural development as a pragmatic means for transforming the region. It reveals that both government and individuals are yet to do the right thing in order to develop and transform the rural areas of this region. Development efforts so far are urban-centred for political propaganda, selfish interest and to make a splash, which result in rural-urban drift, rural underdevelopment and impoverishment. As a position paper, it draws basically from secondary sources– library and internet print materials. Besides, intuition and non-participant observation are the primary sources employed. Descriptive method and qualitative approach are employed pursuant to the nature and preoccupations of the study, alongside the text-content analysis sourced secondary data analysis. The paper submits that collective rural development is a panacea for the development issues of the Sub-Saharan Africa. It recommends that rural development should be taken very seriously as the beginning point of development by all and sundry, government, NGOs, corporate institutions and individuals alike. Rapid rural development programmes and gestures should be evolved and sustained.
Keywords: Collective, Rural, Development, Transformation, Sustainability
ISLAM AND CHRISTIANITY FROM A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE
School of Arts and Social Sciences, A.D. Rufa’i College for Legal and Islamic Tudies P.M.B 004 Misau, Bauchi State
This paper titled; Islam and Christianity from a comparative perspective is going to shade light on Religious Crisis in Northern Nigeria 1996 – 2011 it attempt to ascertain and examine how crisis and disturbances of religion ascribed to Northern Nigeria. It Examines and analyzes socio-political and economical factors influence the crisis between Muslim and non-Muslim in Northern States, and to examine analyses the remote causes of religious crisis in and to get immediate ways to avert and prevent its future occurrences. It involved Historical methods. and the deviation were influenced by socio-cultural intrusion ignorance, grievance, misapplication of the the religious teachings, due to tribal or cultural influences within the society setting, political discrimination, economic dependence and enslavement among others.
Keywords: Islam, Christianity, Comparative, Perspective, Crisis.
COPING STRATEGIES ADOPTED BY FARMERS LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS IN JEMA’A AND GIWA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS OF KADUNA STATE
1 MICHAEL Y. HANNATU 2 ISAH IBRAHIM,
Department of General Studies, Nigerian Institute of Leather and Science Technology, Samaru -Zaria. .
The main objective of this study was to determine the surviving strategies adopted by people living with HIV/AIDS in Jema’a and Giwa local government areas of Kaduna state, Nigeria. The sample size (192) was randomly and proportionately selected at 10% of the population respectively. The population covers a period of 6years (2007-2012) and was obtained from the local government general hospitals and relevant non-governmental organization. Structured questionnaire was used and administered by trained enumerators, supervised by the researcher to collect relevant data from the respondents. Descriptive statistics with simple percentage were employed to analyze the data. The common strategies adopted by the respondents in coping with HIV/AIDS in Giwa includes: sales of family assets, crop, labor; withdrawal of children from school and substitute expensive meals with 16.2%, 14.6% and 13.5% respectively. In Jema’a the common strategies include: substitute expensive meals, sales of family assets and live on less intake of preferred food with 24.4%, 14.6% and 12.0% in that order. The respondents suggested that free education for their wards, accessibility and availability of treatment drugs, access to credit/loan, job and enlightenment programs among other as mean of managing their conditions. It is recommended that poverty reduction strategies or measures need to be taken seriously and given priority among rural people, direct support for HIV/AIDS infected farmers such as credit facilities and inputs need to be provided promptly at highly subsidized rates and also, there is the need to draw up legislation that can protect the land rights of women and children.
Keywords: Coping strategies, HIV/AIDS Farmers, Households, Socio-Economic Activities, Poverty.
BOKO HARAM: HUMAN RIGHT VIOLATION, POLICE BRUTALITY A BANE OF NIGERIA’S PEACE AND DEVELOPMENT
*BASHIRU USMAN ** ZAINAB MOHAMMED BELLO
*Department of Mass Communication, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria **Department of Business Education, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria
Peace and sustainable security is fundamental in every society, thus living in fear and uncertainty is the most dreaded situation. Since 2009, Nigeria has been battling to end an insurgency orchestrated by Boko Haram sect. Fatal activities of the sectarians claimed over ten (10) thousand lives, destroyed properties worth billions of Naira and displaced over two (2) million people in the North eastern part of the country. This paper therefore, examined how human right violation in form of police brutality caused indignation and collective action which started as reprisal attack, but metamorphosed to violent extremism; it traced the origin of the Nigerian police and discovered why they behave in the particular way. The paper also exposes how impunity and negligence of authorities gave birth to, and nurtures the insurgency; the modus operandi and dimensions of the insurgency; casualties recorded as result of the apocalyptic activities of Boko Haram sects; and effects of the insurgency on the development of the country. Specifically, the paper adopts the relative deprivation theory to explain why Boko Haram sect took up arm and embarked on rampant indiscriminate killings, and proffered possible solutions to arrest the menace and forestall its reoccurrence.
Keywords: Boko Haram, Relative Deprivation, Police Brutality
UTILIZATION OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES AND SERVICES BY ACDEMIC STAFF OF KADUNA POLYTECHNIC: A CASE STUDY OF ISA KAITA LIBRARY KADUNA POLYTECHNIC
*ISAH IDRIS GULU, **MOHAMMED SALAU SHEME & *LAWAL IBRAHIM ADAMU BIU
*Department of Library and Information Science, Kaduna Polytechnic. **Isa Kaita Library, Kaduna Polytechnic
Library and information services are key element in libraries since time immemorial. The use of electronic resources and services has caused a transformation in the user`s perception from what is been hosted in the library to how and when services are rendered to fulfill their requests. The study examines utilization of electronic information resources and services (EIRS) by the academic staff of Kaduna Polytechnic. Survey research method was used for the study. 1586 academic staff constituted the population while 200 questionnaires were returned and used for the study. Among findings are:- Majority of the academic staff (80%) indicates research as the purpose of utilizing electronic information resources and services and 47.5% e-library users were facing problem of adequate power supply. Extension of Electronic Resources and Services to user’s offices and classes through online e.g. web OPACS, provision of E- Library, subscription of e- journals, e- books and e- magazine as well as regular power supply or green energy were identified as recommendations for efficient and effective utilization of E-resources.
Keywords: Information, Resources, Services, Academic, Staff.
INFLUENCE OF SOME HAUSA KINDOMS ON KARAI-KARAI TRIBES
UMAR DAUDA WAZIRI
School of Languages, A.D. Rufa’i College for Legal and Islamic Studies P.M.B 004 Misau, Bauchi State
Hausa culture spread to different parts of the world, this paper examined the way this culture influences the non Hausa people around them. With this conviction, this study explores the influence of Hausa traditional titles on Karai-Karai of Bauchi and Yobe states. The study discussed the history of Bauchi state, Hausaland, Hausa language, traditional titles, Karai-Karai and revealed the influence of Hausa culture on these tribes in aspects like traditional titles mode of greetings in the palace, musical instruments and the language they use in the palace. This study will contribute in the preservation of the cultures of the tribes studied and Hausa.
Keywords: Hausa, Karai-Karai, Kindoms, Tribes, Influence.
PARTICIPATORY COMMUNICATION AND POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN NIGERIA: A REVIEW OF THE COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECT (CSDP) IN TARABA STATE 2009-2012
SARAH GAMBO AND TARGEMA TORDUE SIMON
Department of Mass Communication, Taraba State University, Jalingo.
This study seeks to explore how participation, interest and involvement of community members/beneficiaries in the planning and execution of poverty alleviation programmes will accelerate the process, using the Community and Social Development Project (CSDP) as a case study. Anchored on the principles of participatory communication theory, the study critiques the assumptions of the dominant paradigm of modernization, calling for an alternative paradigm of participation that recognizes local initiatives and contribution to the process of poverty alleviation. Evaluative design approach has been adopted, with key informants interview (KII) conducted on a sample of 33 respondents (three information officers of the CSDP and thirty members of CSDP host communities in Taraba State) to elicit data for analysis. More so, documented assessment of micro projects by the agency from 2009-2012 have been reviewed. The research discovers that community members were actively involved and participated in the planning and execution of the CSDP micro projects in their communities, and that the projects executed have been impacting positively in the lives of community members. To this end, the research conclude that participation, interest and involvement of beneficiaries at the planning and execution stages of poverty alleviation project is central to their success, thus recommending the approach to subsequent poverty alleviation programmes for more results that would enable us achieve the goal of poverty alleviation in the country.
Keywords: Poverty, Poverty alleviation, Participatory communication and CSDP
SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF USING THE LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENTS IN CONTROLLING COMMUNITY CONFLICTS IN RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA
1B. A. ODINWA AND 2F. E. NLERUM
1Department of Agricultural Education, Federal College of Education (Technical), PMB 11, Omoku, Rivers State. 2Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics/Extension, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Nkpolu, Port Harcourt.
This study investigated the socio-economic effects of using law enforcement agents (LEAs) in controlling community conflicts in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area (ONELGA) of Rivers State. A total of 216 respondents, selected through stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used in the study. Data obtained were analyzed, using mean scores and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for test of significance. The findings showed that: Community conflicts in ONELGA were not state of emergency cases that could attract the presence of the LEAs to the extent of living with the people in their communities (M=2.63), rather, government and the oil company(s) have special interests in crude oil and gas businesses in the area (M= 4.69). In terms of Social-economic effects, It showed that: kidnapping, oil bunkery and cutting of electric cables are recent events in the face of LEAs (M=3.45); there is very high cost of living in the area (M=3.19); and there is increased anti-social behaviours such as armed robbery, stealing and cultism (M=3.16). Based on the findings, this study recommends the following: (1) There should be a reduction in the number of the LEAs in the area since the identified conflicts in the study are not state of emergency cases, (2) Federal and state governments as well as the oil companies operating in the area with vested interest in the crude oil and gas deposits in the area should diversify into commercial agriculture, cottage industries and tourism, in order to create more employable and recreational opportunities that will occupy the people meaningfully, and (3) There should be good governance and transparent leadership in families, communities, clans, local government area and the state in general, through proper implementation of the laws/constitution of the land.
Keywords: Socio-economic; Effects; Law enforcement agents; Community; Conflicts; Rivers State.
THE ROLE OF PRINCIPALS AS CURRICULUM LEADERS IN NIGERIAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS: THE EMERGING ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
*MUSA ZAKARI YA’U & **ZUBAIRU, YAKUBU MAGAJI
*Head, Department of Curriculum and Instruction, Federal University of Education, Zaria, Kaduna state-Nigeria **Department of Educational Foundations, Federal University of Education, Zaria, Kaduna state-Nigeria
While education researchers have documented the importance of curriculum leadership, the consensus in the literature is that this important role is seldom practiced. A study found that 62 percent of the principals’ time is focused on school management issues, whereas only 6 percent of the time is focused on programme or instructional issues. Another study concluded that “if schools are to progress, the principal cannot allow daily duties to interfere with the leadership role in curriculum. This paper examines the role of secondary school principals as curriculum leaders in secondary schools in Nigeria. The paper looked at the following areas; the concepts of curriculum, leadership and curriculum leadership. The paper also examines the need for effective curriculum leadership in Nigerian secondary schools, the role of principals as curriculum leaders in Nigerian secondary schools and the emerging issues and challenges faced by principal as curriculum leaders in Nigerian secondary schools. In the light of the above, the paper suggested as follows: Principals should assist teachers to interpret curriculum policy and make instructional quality the top priority. Principals should also ensure that curriculum content is consistent with both learning outcomes and with the assessments used to measure the attainment of those outcomes. Principals should also ensure that learning and teaching support materials used in their schools are consistent and mutually reinforcing. The principals should also embark on regular training through regular seminars and workshops aimed at updating their knowledge and previous experiences. The principals should also ensure that their inputs and that of their teachers are respected in the process of developing new curriculum.
Keywords: Principals, Curriculum, Leadership, Challenges, School
THE CONTRIBUTION OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN AKOKO EDO AREA OF EDO STATE, NIGERIA
*TIJANI, S.O., **ALIGBE, B.A., **UMORU YAKUBU,
*Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi **Department of Public Administration, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi.
At the international level, local governments are playing a significant role in community development by means of better cooperation with the people at local level. Policy makers are encouraging a high level of community participation in local development to provide a good reason for the continued existence of local government and to retain strong state power (Jessop 2004; Newman et al. 2004). Of late, there is pressure that challenges the functional role of local government in encouraging community development in Akoko-Edo Local Government. The result finds that local government systems in most of the countries sustain close relationship with its citizens in giving better services. This relationship would remain in the future development by engaging good cooperation between local government and the citizens. The theoretical framework of this paper argues that the factors involved in supporting the process of community development and the roles of local government influence the outcomes in community development. Community development is the domain that would influence delivery of services. Community development is difficult to measure as the ability of local government in providing and delivering services influences the demand of community development. Thus this study identifies the barriers between perceived demand and delivery of community development services.
Keywords: Contribution, Local Government, Community, Development, Delivery