SUB-SAHARA AFRICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN, SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SCIENCE RESEARCH (SJHSPR)
VOL. 27 (6) MARCH, 2023 ISSN: 2416-7999
Sub-Sahara African Academic Research Publications,
Centre for African Development Studies, University of Ibadan,
P. O. Box 10108, U. I. Post Office. Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria, West-Africa.
IMPACT OF RURAL WATER SUPPLY ON THE HEALTH OF PEOPLE IN PART OF GBAKO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, NIGER STATE, NIGERIA
GARBA, YUSUF YAHAYA; & PROF. M.B. YUNUSA
Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology Minna
Access to safe drinking water is required by all communities, regardless of the area, average income, average level of education, geographical region or race, ethnic or cultural background. Therefore, this study examined the impact of rural water supply on the health of people in some part of Gbako Local Government Area, Niger State, Nigeria. This study employed both primary and secondary sources of data collection. The primary data were sourced from the administration of questionnaire to two groups, namely, selected agencies of government directly involved in water supply management and the general public located in the study area. Secondary data sources include journals, textbooks, newspapers, magazines, encyclopedia, library, etc. Secondary data sources were used to add value to this study. The methods of data analysis include frequency percentage, statistical mean and four-point likert scale. The study shows that high cost of drilling boreholes ranked the highest with 31.6% of the sampled population, climate change ranked second with 25.4%, high cost of storage facilities ranked third with 15.2%, shortages of aquifer ranked forth with 12.5%, pollution ranked fifth with 9% and corruption ranked the least with 7% of the sampled population. This revealed that the major cause of drinking water shortage was high cost of drilling boreholes in the study area and its one of the best drinking water source with less degradation. The impact of rural water supply on the health of the people in the study area include diarrhea, cholera, and typhoid. Patronage of hospitals and other health care facilities in Gbako Local Government Area is on the increase. The rapidly increasing population coupled with the deteriorating water quality are some of the factors responsible for this trend. Hospital records have confirmed high incidence of typhoid, cholera, dysentery, diarrhoea and guinea worm in the study area and some of these diseases are shown in the study. The study area is endowed with abundant surface water resources which remain largely untapped. Planned development of available surface water resources in the study area through surface and underground storage and planned exploitations of ground resources through boreholes, would minimize the seasonality of water availability in most parts of the study area, promote year-round agricultural production and enhance the welfare of the people.
Keywords: Water supply, Health and Rural water supply
DEVELOPING NEW LEGAL APPROACHES TO ADDRESS CYBERSECURITY CHALLENGES IN AFRICA
LATEEFAT ADEOLA BELLO Ph.D
Department of Commercial Law, Faculty of Law, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
Cybersecurity refers to the practice of protecting computers, networks, and digital information from unauthorized access, theft, damage, or other forms of cyberattacks The rise of cybersecurity threats in Africa has become a major concern for governments, businesses, and individuals. Traditional legal frameworks often struggle to keep up with the rapidly evolving nature of cyber threats, and as a result, many countries in Africa have been struggling to address this issue effectively. Interestingly, The continent has no unified approach to tackling cybercrime, and this constitutes a hindrance to enacting and enforcing effective laws and regulations. This lack of regulation leaves African countries vulnerable to a wide range of cyber threats, including data breaches, internet fraud, and online scams. This paper explores the challenges of addressing cybersecurity threats in Africa and proposes new legal approaches to include developing comprehensive cybersecurity laws that take into account the unique challenges faced by African countries, strengthening regional cooperation and coordination in combating cybercrime, increasing public awareness about cybersecurity risks and best practices, and promoting the development of a robust cybersecurity industry. The paper further highlights the importance of building the capacity of African countries to address cybersecurity challenges, particularly in terms of building the technical skills of law enforcement agencies, judges, and prosecutors. It emphasizes the need for collaboration between governments, the private sector, and civil society in addressing the issue of cybersecurity in Africa. The paper adopts the doctrinal approach in the discourse on the importance of developing new legal approaches to address cybersecurity challenges, protecting critical infrastructure, promoting economic growth and development, and ensuring the safety of electronic transactions and activities across the African continent.
NEW MEDIA PERCEPTION AND FRAMING OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AGAINST MEN IN NIGERIA
OMOLAYO OLUSOLA JEGEDE; REBECCA AGBOOLA OLORUNPOMI; ADERONKE A. ADEBOWALE; & PHEBEAN MONIJESU AYANTUGA
Department of Mass Communication, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria
Domestic Violence has become a menace in Nigerian society which needs critical attention. The problem of violence against women and men in Nigeria has not been given adequate attention both at the individual and government levels because it is not a topic discussed freely or openly until the emergence of the new media. Contrary to the general assumption that women are the only victims of domestic violence, men are also victims of domestic violence even though they will not come out publicly to share it. Many factors are liable for this shortage of public discussion of domestic violence, especially against men; the chief of which is fear of stigmatisation. The media also have not helped in disseminating enough information on the possible effects of domestic violence on victims and how to handle it. This has further empowered silence among male victims. This study, therefore, analysed the social media framing of domestic violence against men by reviewing and analysing cases of domestic violence among intimate partners on social platforms (Facebook, Twitter and YouTube) as well as the perception and framing of men in such reported cases. It also examined the influence of this framing on the perception of the audience on the issue as well as how to handle it. The researcher found that the following themes were used in framing domestic violence against Nigerian men; ignorance, blame, silence due to the desire to save marriage, weakness and patriarchy. The research also found that the audience significantly perceived men negatively even when they are the victims. The research therefore recommended that social media should be used better on reporting cases of domestic violence against men. This is especially important as new media platforms are often consulted first before other mass media.
Keywords: domestic violence, frames, men, new media, perception, Nigeria
FINANCIAL INCLUSION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA
1PROF. SUNDAY AGUWAMBA; & 2 OKOLOGUME, HENRY CHUKWUDI
1Department of Banking and Finance, Mallam Sanusi Lamido Sanusi College of Business and Management Studies, Igbinedion University, Okada, Edo State of Nigeria. 2Department of Banking and Finance, School of Business Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo State, Nigeria
This study empirically examined the impact of financial inclusion on economic growth in Nigerian from 2006 to 2020. The time series data were estimated using the ordinary least square method through the instrumentality of Econometric Views version 9.0. The estimated result depicts positive and significant relationship between the financial inclusion and the proposed variables. Data for the study was sourced from the World Bank’s Development Indicators, International Monetary Fund Report (2020), and the CBN Statistical Bulletin (2020). Findings emanating from the study revealed that having controlled for both deposit interest rate and inflation rate, both Broad money supply (BMS) and Loan to the Private Sector (LPS) exerted positive significant impact on economic growth in Nigeria. The study recommended that, effort should be made by the monetary authority to enlighten and encourage the unbanked populace on how they can conveniently open account with banks as this will enhance the level of financial inclusiveness which in turn will increase the growth of the Nigerian economy. Also, loan to private sector should be given adequate attention since it has significant consequence on economic growth in Nigeria.
Keywords: Financial inclusion, economic growth, OLS, Central Bank of Nigeria.
EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE ACT 2004 AMIDST INCREASING EXAMINATION MISCONDUCT ISSUES IN WAEC, NABTEB AND NECO EXAMINATIONS IN NIGERIA
*BAHAGO, SAMAILA BENEDICT; **GOTIP, NEHEMIAH WOKJI; & *BULUS, HARUNA
*Department Educational Foundations, Faculty Of Education, Veritas University Abuja. **Department of Arts and Social Science Education, Faculty of Education, Veritas University Abuja
The paper examined the effective implementation of the examination malpractice act 2004 amidst increasing examination misconduct issues in WAEC, NABTEB and NECO Examinations in Nigeria. Indepth-interview method was used for the study. The paper highlighted the fact that examination misconduct is one of the most common negative tendencies we’ve witnessed in the country. It has become an intractable problem in most of our schools and it is on the rise in WAEC, NABTEB and NECO examinations. Several types of examination misconduct were highlighted in the study. The paper further examined Nigeria’s examination malpractice act and effective strategies in curbing examination malpractice in Nigeria. The paper recommends that teachers should be paid a higher salary, and examination officials should be given a special welfare package to deter them from accepting financial and material inducements from students, parents, and others who might try to sabotage the examination process and that eexamination malpractice laws should be promulgated and enforced in the country amongst several others.
Keywords: Education, effective, examination, malpractice, and misconduct
ENHANCING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE THROUGH EMPLOYEE BEHAVIORAL MODIFICATION TECHNIQUES
LAWRENCE L. ORKUUGH (Ph D)
Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Nasarawa State University,
This paper attempts a discussion and highlight of the problems of employee organizational behavior and corporate organizational culture and management strategies in Nigeria. It has looked at the organization as a social and corporate entity established to provide specific services and achieve specific goals. It was established by the discussion that human behavior in the organization is a composite phenomenon involving the interaction of the person and the work environment. The roles of environment, organizational culture, managerial style, and worker motivation and work attitudes have been implicated. Employee behavioral modification techniques and approaches to behavioral management strategies were recommended for enhancing organizational performance.
Keywords: Behavior; Productivity; Modification; Leadership; Culture; Organization.
THE ROLE(S)/IMAGES OF WOMEN: EXAMPLES OF SELECTED AGES IN LITERATURE
HASSAN IBRAHIM; JAMILA A USMAN; & SADIQ MARYAM DANGABAR
School of Basic and Remedial Studies, Gombe State University
There has been an increase in women’s relegation to the background. Hence, the study investigates this in relation to their roles in the society as reflected in the various ages of literature examined in this research work. The outcome of this has been the exploitation of female vulnerabilities, a situation in which woman has always been easily regarded as a fallible human being. This perception has overtime put women in a very difficult position. The paper therefore, adopts, the theory of feminism which came into being as a result of the feeling that women are generally marginalized both in society and in literature. Concern is with the role the characters play in the texts. lt looks at the effects of social and political changes upon women and how these changes restrict their artistic autonomy. lt is believed that the study will be of Paramount importance as it contributes to knowledge by enhancing the understanding of readers towards the roles/ image of women in literature.
Keywords: Women, Ages, Relegation, Literature, Image
IMPLEMENTING A PEOPLE CENTRED NATIONAL SECURITY FRAMEWORK FOR NIGERIA: THE ROLE OF THE NIGERIA POLICE FORCE (NPF)
DR DANLADI E. BOT
National Defence College Nigeria, Abuja
The issue of having security to be people-centric, has dominated international security discourse for decades now. The people centred security (PCS) approach was defined in response to the critique of the human security agenda. It retained its focus on meeting the diverse security needs of men, women, boys and girls, but sought to engage rather than antagonize the state in pursuit of this goal. In the case of Nigeria, the nature of the evolving dynamics of the internal security threats it has been facing, makes it critical to carry the citizenry along, making them a key strand in the national security framework or architecture. This study, using largely qualitative research, highlights Nigeria’s security landscape and identifies the loop holes in Nigeria’s security system. The paper argues that a people-centric approach to security in Nigeria, when will address complex situations of insecurity in Nigeria’s security system through collaborative, responsive and sustainable measures that are; a. people-centered, b. multisectoral, c. comprehensive, d. context-specific, and e. prevention-oriented. The study however finds that, vulnerability of the concept to the vagaries of the Nigerian society, makes implementing it, a herculean task. It also finds that, implementing the concept, within the existing institutional internal security arrangements, may be challenging. To mitigate these challenges, the paper tries to suggest the improvement of policing methods by the Nigeria Police Force (NPF), as a panacea.
Keywords: National Security, Nigeria, Nigeria Police Force, and People Centred Security
THE BIGINNING AND DEVELOPMENT OF ISLAMIC THOUGHT AND CIVILIZATION
GARBA ABUBAKAR UMAR; MUHAMMAD MUJTABA ABDULKADIR PhD; & AUWAL GAMBO PALI
School of Arts and Social Sciences, ADR College of Education Legal and General Studies, Misau, Bauchi State
The rapid development of Islamic thought throughout history, due to the open, tolerant and accommodating attitude of Muslims to the hegemony of foreign thought and civilization, love of science, academic culture, the work of Muslim scholars in government and social institutions, the development of streams that prioritize ratios and freedom of thought, increased the prosperity of Muslim countries, and the problems faced by Muslims from time to time are increasingly complex and require solutions. This type of research is library research, namely research whose main object is books or other sources of literature. That is, data are sought and found through literature review from books that are relevant to the discussion. All fields of science are subjected to study by Islamic thinkers, both religious and general sciences. The development of Islamic thought has implications for the development of Islamic civilization throughout the Islamic world. The development of Islamic thought and civilization was marked by the development of educational institutions, during the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties, and supported by other dynasties such as Andalusian Cordova, North Africa, Turkey and Islamic India. This has a significant impact on the lives of Muslims and has a strong influence on the progress of international civilization in general, from the classical period to the modern era. In this paper, we examine the supporting factors of the development of Islamic thought and civilization, the process of the development of Islamic thought and civilization throughout history, the scientific fields developed and its leaders, and the impact of the development of Islamic thought and civilization on the lives of Muslims and the international world.
Keywords: Development, Islamic Thought, Islamic Civilization.
THE NIGERIAN POLICE IN DEMOCRATIC DISPENSATION
*AISHATU MUSA; **KAUMI ALKALI KALLI; & *RABI ISA
*Department of Social Services, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. **Department of Industrial & Labour Relations, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Borno State
It is widely acknowledged that democracy is the only form of government that ensures people’s freedom and that the police are the only institution capable of defending the public and containing its excesses. The paradoxes are found in this. Democracy on the one hand permits total freedom, while the institution of the police polices that freedom. It is important to strike a balance between a person’s independence and the application of all valid social regulations. The police are a necessary evil; without them, a society would descend into chaos and anarchy, whereas too many police would encourage the emergence and growth of despotisms and dictatorships. In a developing democracy like ours, the police need more support than just a helping hand. After 29 years of military (miss) rule, the police are practically impoverished in every area, from recruiting to training and retraining to providing logistical support to entrenching indiscipline and, worst of all, adopting a culture of brutal and inhumane treatment of fellow citizens while carrying out their constitutional duties. The paper mission is to dwell on the likelihood of some changes in police in relation to policing in the democratic system or dispensation in Nigeria.
Keywords: Police, Democracy, Military, Freedom.
YORUBA LANGUAGE AS A TOOL FOR PEACE, SECURITY AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT: A CASE STUDY OF EMMANUEL ALAYANDE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, OYO
AJANI FOLAKE ADEWUMI
Department of Yoruba, Emmanuel Alayande University of Education, Oyo
This paper succinctly explore the role of Yoruba language as a medium of communication in fostering peace, security and national development. It focuses on the talent potential of indigenous (Yoruba) language as a means of transmitting ethical and moral values that engender the right attitudinal order in view to tackle the problem of peace, security and development in Nigeria. This paper also assert the position of Yoruba language as a medium of instruction for perfecting peace and security which form the basis for any national development. Three research questions were formulated to guide the study. A 20 items instrument was used for the study. The data generated was analysed using frequency count and simple percentage. One hundred and fifty (150) people were randomly selected for the study. The selection of teachers was based on gender balance. This paper brings out recommendations for maintenance of peace and security as well as a well-cultured society that will bring development in the country based on the outcome of the findings.
Keywords: Yoruba Language, Peace, Security, National Development, Emmanuel Alayande College of Education.
ANALYSIS OF KIDNAPPING AS A SOCIETAL PROBLEM: IMPLICATION FOR EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN KADUNA STATE
*FRANCIS EPHRAIME RIKICHI (PhD); **TSAKU JOHN AJEGENA; & ***MRS. SUZANA JAMES
*Department of Curriculum and Instruction, Kaduna State College of Education, Gidan Waya. **ERCC Church, Garku Nasarawa State. ***Department of Special Needs Education, Kaduna State Coleege of Education, Gidan Waya
Kidnapping has become a menace in our contemporary society and education system in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Kaduna State has been seen as one of the horrible state in the North-West Geopolitical location because of wide spread injustice, violence, banditry, cattle herdsmen, terrorism and insecurity. This paper notes that the rate of kidnapping in Kaduna State has been increasing of such that more than 200 innocent souls including the Bethel Baptist High School, Damishi Chikun Local Government, Students of Federal College of forestry Mando were kidnapped between 2020-2021. While some of these victims were rescued after paying huge amount of money as ransom, some of them were able to escape after being tortured or raped and others were incarcerated to die of hunger. This paper notes that as a result of injustice and corruption, kidnapping has now become the most lucrative job that can change an individual from pennilessness to riches in a twinkle of an eye. The paper concludes that the blight of kidnapping in Kaduna state continues to aggravates due t the gravity of corruption and unemployment that rendered many skillful graduate to become jobless. The paper also recommended that the government should provides job for the unemployed youths and Nigerian criminal justice system should expedite action in the prosecution of any person accused of kidnapping for justice delayed is justice denied. This will go a long way towards discouraging offenders from relapsing into kidnapping and also deter potential Kidnappers.
Keywords; Banditry, Blight of Kidnapping, Abduction, Violence, Terrorism, Cattle herdsmen, Ransom, Unemployment, Insecurity.
PARLIAMENTARY VERSUS PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEMS OF GOVERNEMNT: THE QUEST FOR GOOD GOVERNANCE IN AFRICA
VENO MICLOTH YONGO
Department of International Relations and Strategic Studies, School of Social and Management Studies, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola.
The quest for good governance is without a doubt the currency of the whole world today. This is why the paper focused on tracing the suitable platform under which good governance can be anchored and delivered to the people in Africa. Thus, the paper looks at the operations of the two major systems of government separately – the parliamentary and the presidential systems as practice today. The two systems were placed side by side together for a better perspective on which should be better for African countries, taking particular reference to the practice of the two in Nigeria. The hunger for good governance generally and in Africa in particular was painted. The paper concludes that, there is no problem with the structural organization of the two systems in question, but the operators of the two systems. The paper finally recommends the presidential system of government as fitting for most of the African countries, considering our peculiar nature as a people.
Keywords: Parliamentary, Presidential, Systems, Government, Quest.
SUMMARIZATION AS AN INDISPENSABLE LANGUAGE SKILL FOR 21ST CENTURY INDEPENDENT LEARNING
*LANDI AMOS GIDEON; **HAPPY ATONG LANDI; & *FATIMA SANI UMAR
*Department of General Studies, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi state, Nigeria. **Department of General Studies, College of Education, Gindiri
This study examines the effect of instruction in summarization on SSII students’ achievements of reading comprehension in Bauchi local Government area of Bauchi State. The objectives of this study were to determine the extend to which instruction will enhance SSII students’ ability to identify main ideas in a given passage, to determine students’ ability to identify supporting details in a given passage and to determine students’ ability to summarize a passage effectively. A non-probability judgement was used to select a sample size of 368 from a population of 8,440 students of SSII in all public schools in Bauchi local government Area of Bauchi state. Pre-test and Post-test were the instrument used for data collection while the arithmetic mean and T-test were used for data analysis and interpretation. The findings rejected the null hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance and concludes that the alternative was accepted, thus there is a significant difference between students who were taught summarization and those weren’t taught. The study recommended that there should be seminars and workshops on the strategies to improve instructions in summarization. There should concerted effort on the part of teachers’ trainers to inculcate in teachers the practice of teaching summarization as a process not a product. Lastly, there should be summary competition for students in order to spur students’ skills and strategies for effective summarization.
Keywords: Instruction, Summarization, Summary, Comprehension, Reading comprehension.
CHALLENGES OF SECURITY GOVERNANCE IN AFRICA: THE 21ST CENTURY EXPERIENCE
*LADAN OZAYASHI NASIRUDEEN; **AHMED EGYE; ***ZHEBAGO EMMANUEL PETER; & ****AHMED GAMBO
*Department of Local Government Studies, Isa Mustapha Agwai 1 Polytechnic, Lafia. **Department of Public Administration, Isa Mustapha Agwai Polytechnic, Lafia. ***Department of Public Administration, Isa Mustapha Agwai 1 Polytechnic, Lafia, Nasarawa State. ****Central Bank of Nigeria, Abuja
For several decades, security has been a major issue in Africa in view of the continued human brutality, pogroms, genocide, terrorism, civil wars, and inter-ethnic conflicts that have continued to be recorded in the continent. Since the 1980s, the continent has continued to record unprecedented violence of various kinds. The state in Africa has become incapacitated as it continues to find it difficult to generate the fundamental conditions for meaningful human survival. Generally, governance is described as the overall integrative efforts of individuals who have either been elected or appointed to carry out the aims for which the modern state has been set up. Through governance, those who occupy the machineries of government are bound to the pursuit of those policies that can impact on the lives of the masses. The theoretical framework adopted for study is Booth’s world system theory. Methodologically, the study adopted descriptive and analytic approach. Data for the study was sourced through the secondary means of data collection. The focus of the study is on challenges of security governance in Africa: the 21st century experience. The study reveals that bad governance, inter-ethnic conflicts, and corruption have remained major challenges to security governance in Africa. The study argues that the non-rethinking of security issues to significantly address the basic needs of the average African has remained a major threat to Africa’s security. The study recommends a pragmatic change and refocusing on security issues in Africa to arrest the bottlenecks militating against security governance in Africa.
Keywords: Governance, Security, Africa, Leadership, Corruption
ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION: MEDIA ROLE IN CREATING AWARENESS IN OGUN STATE, NIGERIA
BANJO, ABOSEDE. OLUBUNMI Ph.D; KAREEM GANIY AJIBOLA
The Federal Polytechnic, P. M. B. 50, Ilaro, Ogun State, Nigeria
Media is said to be the fourth pillar of democracy. The pivotal role of the media is its ability to mobilize the thinking process of millions. One of the important roles of media is that of raising awareness on some of the burning issues of the world. Environmental issues are numerous and affect all aspects of life. In other words, no one is immune to the effects of environmental issues. This paper examined media’s role in creating awareness with regard to environmental education. Three objectives were stated to guide the study and the survey design was adopted. Population of this study were residents of Ogun State which span through three Senatorial Districts, (Ogun Central East and West) Ogun State, Nigeria. -A -total -samples -of -300 -residents -were –selected through multi-stage sampling techniques (Stratified, Simple random and purposive). The instrument for data collection was a research questionnaire with a Likert-type rating scale. Data was analysed using SPSS software 25.0. Findings revealed lack of skills on environmental (X = 2.51, SD = 0.86) and weak government policies (X = 2.13, SD = 0.97) were some of the challenges faced by the media in creating environmental awareness. The result of the hypothesis revealed a positive significant correlation between environmental education and media awareness (r = .649, p<.05). The study recommended that the media should create more awareness on environmental hazards which can stimulate the public interest on the need to frequently observe governmental policies on environment.
Keywords: Media, Awareness Creation, Environmental Education
MINORITY QUESTION IN NIGERIA: TYPES OF MINORITY AND THE ECONOMY; FORMS OF INCLUSION/ORGANISING METHODS
1YONGO, VENO MICLOTH; 1ABDULLAHI, MOHAMMED; & 2NAMUKU, AMINU MOSES,
1Department of International Relations and Strategic Studies, School of Social and Management Sciences, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola. 2Departments of Social Development, School of Administrative and Business Studies, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola.
The hue and cry of marginalization coming from all sections, sexes and other types of minority has reached the crescendo in Nigeria. It is now even more confusing in knowing who is truly a minority or the actual definition of a minority. This work therefore, examines the minority question in Nigeria, the types of minority and the economy, the form of inclusion/organizing methods, thereby clearly exposing the intricate and issues of minority question in Nigeria. The paper concludes that, it is possible to eliminating the problems of inequitable distribution of rewards and others that has been the bent of minorities in Nigeria. The paper ended with so many recommendations, one of which is for the minority groups to use their positions to bring about development in their areas.
Keywords: Minority, Types, Economy, Forms, Inclusion.