SUB-SAHARA AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIODIVERSITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH (SJBER)
VOL. 25 (4) SEPTEMBER, 2022 ISSN: 2211-8735
Sub-Sahara African Academic Research Publications,
Centre for African Development Studies, University of Ibadan,
P. O. Box 10108, U. I. Post Office. Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria, West-Africa.
THE PORTRAY OF AN ARCHITECT THROUGH THE LIFE, ARCHITECTURE, CONTRIBUTIONS AND PHYSIOLOGY OF BRUNO TAUT (1880-1938)
ORIMOLOYE EMMANUEL AJIBOLA
Department of Architecture, Faculy of Environmental Design & Management, Adekunle Ajasin University, P.M.B.001, Akungba- Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria
This study is to investigate Bruno Taut’s contributions and philosophy as one of the leading lights and father of modern/architecture. It also x-ray who an architect, his role and struggle in natural development. Studies and investigations carried out revealed his immeasurable and un-quantified contributions to the modern Architecture in the use of glass and color in architecture as manifested in his work – The Glass Pavilion (1914) and House 19 in his exhibition; and also in urban planning and housing Estate development (Box Paint Estate).His contributions as an architect, author, educator,(Professor of Architecture), a public servant have in no small measure accorded him a place of pride among the few architects with wide experience in all spheres of life. His foreign trips also contributed to his exposure in architecture in other domains with cultural differences as noted in the designs of his own house with Japanese and Turkish influence. He will be remembered as an apostle of color and glass, although he was criticized for his work as well as his involvement in art décor which made many portray him as an artist. However, this has come to portray that architects as jack of all trades and master of design has much relevance in this contemporary time.
Keywords: architect, architecture, history, philosophy, contributions,
RE-INVENTING THE CONCEPT OF FLEXIBLE SPACES FOR SHOPPING MALLS IN KUGBO, ABUJA, NIGERIA
*NWODOH, LINDA OGECHUKWU; & **EZE, CHUKWUDUM JASPER
*Department of Architecture, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
The process of reinventing spaces within the mall would deliver a product, be it an office space or social space that would provide tenants with spaces which are valuable, needed and useful. This shows an appreciation of prevailing trends and the need for shopping mall spaces to be transformed to alternative uses that can breathe life into it. As a result of changes in human behaviour and technological advancement, the need for flexible space creation is on the increase. This change is most evident in commercial facilities where rigid and solid wall construction is the norm and poses a limitation for expansion as a result of the growth of commercial establishments. The aim of this paper is to make spaces within the mall flexible so that the spaces can be transformed to serve various purposes as the need arise. The methodology used in this research is the descriptive research method. This study involved literature review and case study of selected shopping malls in Abuja, Nigeria. Content analysis was utilized in analysing and reporting data collected from the literature review and case studies. The result from this show that some of the shopping malls visited are not flexible enough to be used for other purposes. It therefore concludes that the study will promote flexibility of mall spaces for multiple uses thereby making it easily marketable. It therefore recommends that Architects and designers should improve on their design to encourage flexibility of spaces for multiple use.
Keywords: Commercial, Design, Flexible, Shopping Mall, Trends, Re-invent
ENVIRONMENTAL AND LIVELIHOOD IMPACTS OF RECURRING FLOOD EVENTS ON DOWNSTREAM COMMUNITIES OF SHIRORO DAM NIGER STATE, NIGERIA
AYUBA, BARNABAS; & PROF. AISHETU ABDULKADIR
Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology Minna
The devastating effect of the recurring flood has pose a serious environmental and livelihood impacts in the study area ranging from loss of arable land, crops, economic trees, animals and even lives and properties. The aim of this paper is to examine environmental and livelihood impacts of recurring flood events on downstream communities of Shiroro Dam, Niger State Nigeria. The sources of data used include primary and secondary. The primary sources include reconnaissance survey, questionnaire administration and purposive selection of affected communities and respondents of the study area In order to develop detailed and comprehensive literature review, the information was obtained from written documents. To achieve this therefore, data were sourced from the gazettes, internet facilities, text books, journals, published and unpublished thesis from University library etc. with regards to environmental and livelihood impacts of recurring flood events on downstream communities of dam internationally and locally. The methods of data analysis include frequency percentage, sustainable livelihood index, and 3-point Likert type scale. The result shows that 179 of the respondents believed that the major cause of recurring flood in the study area is from heavy rainfall, 110 of the respondents agreed that the major cause of recurring flood is due to overflow of Shiroro dam, siltation of the river ranked third with 57 of the respondents and blockage in the drainage ranked the least with one respondent. The damages of flood occurrences in the riparian communities include collapse of buildings and displacement, property destruction, loss of lives, farmland/crops submerge and loss of animals as indicated in the study. Damages as a result of recurring flood events in the study area were of different classes and magnitude as indicated in the study. Farmland/crops submerge ranked the highest with 30% of the respondents, collapse of buildings and displacement of people ranked second with 28% of the respondents, property destruction ranked third with 20% of the respondents, loss of lives ranked fourth with 18% of the respondents and loss of animals ranked the least with 4% of the respondents. The implication of damages as a result of flood occurrence in the study area is low standard of living, inadequate food security and environmental degradation. In conclusion, there is need to develop better and appropriate measures (as discussed under the implications and recommendations sections) to prepare and mitigate the environmental and livelihood impact of recurring flood events on downstream communities of Shiroro dam, Niger State, Nigeria.
Keywords: Flood, Recurring flood, Shiroro dam, and Downstream communities
EVALUATION OF CIRCULATION STRATEGIES IN AN URBAN PUBLIC MARKET ZARIA, NIGERIA
FRANCIS BASIL & MUHAMMAD ISA BALA
Department of Architecture, School of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria
Markets have been long known as a commercial platform and forms and integral part of many towns. Most markets in Africa as well as Nigeria have their transactions taking place in open-air. Over time some of the activities are now permanently situated in halls (covered market). The combination of open air market as well as covered market within an urban environment as can be found in Nigeria are bedeviled with a lot of circulation challenges. More also, market as an urban infrastructure offering the public a platform for continuous buying and selling attract traffic congestion, as any urban facility that draws inhabitant to congregate, causes traffic congestion. Planners have identified poor circulation as one of the nine infrastructure deficiencies within the public facility, and a common scene found in a public facility such as market is congestion due to poor traffic flow. Hence the need for proper circulation measures and strategies within a market, from various perspective most especially the residents (shop owners) and the users (customers). This research therefore embarked upon an empirical study of a market in Zaria Kaduna state with the view to explore the challenges of circulation with its antecedent challenges of both the shop owners and the customers using qualitative research approach. This entail participants’ observation and conduct of interviews. The results of the findings which was content analyzed showed that circulation challenges in the market can be resolved through incorporation of spatial strategies that can hinder or promote effective circulation within the urban markets.
Keywords: Architecture. Behavior, circulation, congestion, design planning
ASSESSMENT OF IMPLEMENTATION OF SAFETY MEASURES BY SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED CONSTRUCTION FIRMS IN ABUJA, NIGERIA
JIBRIL ADAMU MUHAMMAD; ABDULLATEEF ADEWALE SHITTU; YAKUBU DANASABE MOHAMMED; AND JOHN EBHOHIMEN IDIAKE
Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.
Studies have revealed that construction firms lack proper implementation of safety measures on construction projects in Abuja, Nigeria. Therefore, construction works all over the world pose serious threat to workers and non-workers on site in most developing countries such as Nigeria. This study assessed the level of implementation of safety measures by small and medium sized construction firms (construction SMEs) in Abuja with a view to improving the safety performance of construction firms. This was achieved through: identification of the effective safety measures required on construction sites; examination of barriers to the implementation of safety measures on construction sites; and suggesting strategies for improving the level of implementation of safety measures by construction SMEs. The use of structured questionnaire was employed for collecting data from selected construction SMEs in Abuja. Data were collected from 50 randomly selected construction SMEs with a response rate of 92%. Relative Importance Index (RII) and Mean Item Score (MIS) were employed for data analysis. It was revealed that the use of personal protective clothing (MIS = 4.54) was the most effective safety measure required on construction sites. It was also found that ineffective management commitment (MIS = 4.63) was the most severe barrier to the implementation of safety measures by construction SMEs. The study also found that provision of personal protective equipment (RII = 0.94) was the most effective strategy for improving the level of implementation of safety measures on construction sites. It was however concluded that the level implementing safety measures by construction SMEs in Abuja is low. Therefore, this study recommended that construction stakeholders should encourage, ensure, and promote the proper implementation of safety measures in construction SMEs. This will assist to curb the challenges inhibiting safety measures implementation so as to improve the safety performance of construction SMEs.
Keywords: Construction Firms, Construction SMEs, Safety Measures, Small and Medium-sized Construction Firms.
ASSESSMENT OF THE APPLICATION OF ECO-FRIENDLY STRATEGIES IN RESORT BUILDINGS IN NORTH-CENTRAL NIGERIA
TSADO, S. B. & AKANDE, K. O.
Department of Architecture, Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria
It has been observed that the built environment contributes to the relationship between humanity and nature. To achieve this, researchers suggest that the desires of humans, the integrity of both natural and managed ecosystems, the design of nature, economic sustainability, the ecological economics, various indigenous biodiversity, and the environmental literacy available for sustainable development, resource conservation, and protection of the natural world; all have need to be considered. This paper aims to weigh the use of eco-friendly strategies in resort buildings in Nigeria as it affects the relationship between humans and nature. This would be carried out through the use of questionnaires which were administered to 250 building design team members, visitors and users of resort buildings in North-central Nigeria. Analysis helping software like the SPSS and MS-Excel were used in analysing the data through the Likert-scale and Mann-Whitney U-test while presentations made through charts and figures. This evaluation considered the progress made from previous researches in the identification of eco-friendly strategies as well as the synergy of both ecology and the built-environment. It is recommended that the relationship and the responsively of the stakeholders is considered in Biophilic design. This research would help in guiding building designers and landscape specialists in enhancing ecology in resort design in Nigeria.
Keywords: Biophilic Design, Built Environment, Ecology, Humans, Nature
ASSESSMENT OF INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN HOSTEL ACCOMMODATION IN FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY MINNA, NIGERIA
AKOH SHADRACH AKOH, AYUBA PHILIP AND MUHAMMAD ISA BALA
Department of Architecture, School of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria
Indoor air pollution is placed among the top five environmental public health risks that cause morbidity and mortality globally. The majority of people spend more than 90% of their time indoors. Poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can cause varieties of adverse health effects on people. More also, the recent pandemic has necessitated the need for good indoor environmental quality. Students hostel have been found to be living overcrowded due to the limited accommodation facilities in tertiary institution across Nigeria. This therefore requires urgent need to have an empirical evidence on indoor air quality. Hence this paper is focused at assessing the impact of indoor air quality on the health status of the occupants in the hostel spaces, with a hypothesis placed that occupants’ behaviour is the primary mechanism influencing indoor particulate concentrations. The monitor areas within the hostel were determined, an assessment of the monitor areas was conducted to determine the prevalent pollutants in the indoor spaces. Due to the need of empirical evidence, a quantitative research approach was used where a questionnaire survey was conducted and air samples were tested for pollutants using the air visual node. It was discovered from the monitor areas, the presence of biological pollutants such as mold and mildew, chemical pollutants such as CO, CO2 and Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10). Study rooms where students cook in their spaces had more quantity of CO2. The highest concentrations of pollutants were recorded in spaces with more number of occupants as this influenced occupants behaviour. The impact of the indoor air on the occupants’ health was shown through reported cases of respiratory symptoms and diseases. In conclusion, it was established that number of occupants and occupants’ behaviour influences indoor air quality and particulate concentrations of air contaminants.
Keywords: Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ), Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), Occupants’ health,
END USERS’ SATISFACTION ON LAND TITLING REGISTRATION PROCESS IN ABEOKUTA
AKINYEMI SAHEED OLAYINKA; DR. A. ADEYEMI; & DR. (MRS) M. S. MUHAMMAD
Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi-Nigeria.
The study aimed at investigating the end-user’s satisfaction on land title registration process in Ogun State with a view to improve land registry services in the study area while the research objectives were to investigate the problems associated with land title registration process in Abeokuta; to determine the effect of associated problems on the end users’ satisfaction with land title registration process in Abeokuta; and to investigate the satisfaction level of end users with land title registration in Abeokuta. Quantitative research approach was adopted while a longitudinal survey research strategy was used, the study adopted 5 Likert scale research questionnaire type, close ended questions was used, the respondents in this study were land allied professional firms in Abeokuta, Ogun State. The data was analysed quantitatively by descriptive statistical tools using SPSS for the research objective 1 and 3 while regression analysis was done for the research objective 2 while Mean Ranking was used to rank the variable outcome. The study concluded that, the end users were dissatisfied with the land title registration process in Abeokuta. Recommendations were outlined among which are; analogue service provision which must be replaced with electronic services through massive investment in IT infrastructure, the land registry should broaden her activities by extending data contents, offering new services and providing transparent procedures, this can be achieved if land information/data are organized in a way to adopt service-oriented approach by using appropriate modern tools to reduce transaction cost, increase transparency, and quick access to land information by users.
Keywords: End Users, Users Satisfaction, Land Titling, Titling Registration Process
EFFECTIVENESS OF QUALITY CONTROL TECHNIQUES IN BUILDING PRODUCTION IN FCT, ABUJA, NIGERIA
NAFISA ABUBAKAR BARAU1, UMAR AUWAL2, ABDULLAHI ISA BUNU1, DANIEL RAYMOND2
1Department of Technical Education, Aminu Saleh College of Education Azare, P.M.B. 044, Katagun LGA, Bauchi State, Nigeria, 2Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University (ATBU), Bauchi, P.M.B. 0248, Bauchi State, Nigeria
Most construction firms face many difficulties and problems due to the ineffectiveness of the quality management model, such as errors, delay, degradation, compromised quality and cost overrun, etc. in complementing their projects worldwide. The study aims to assess the effectiveness of quality control techniques in building production in terms of planning and control in Abuja, Nigeria, one hundred and seventy-five (175) sets of questionnaires were administered to practicing financially up to date Professionals in the Construction Industry within the study area through proportionate stratified random sampling. The survey records about 97.7% useful response rate. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the data. Findings revealed that, the assessment of effectiveness of quality control techniques in building production in terms of planning and control resulted to a concise indication of cost of quality with the highest level of effectiveness and constructability of design assessment with the least. Based on these findings, it is recommended that all the quality control techniques in use should be put to practice rather than just a few, and should easily be accessible to ensure effectiveness in building production across all companies in the study area.
Keywords: Construction, Quality Control, Building Defects, Total Quality Management
ASSESSMENT OF PRE-INVESTMENT APPRAISAL TECHNIQUES AS A VERITABLE TOOL FOR REAL ESTATE BUSINESS DECISION IN ABUJA, NIGERIA
AYODELE KAYODE DAVID
Department of Estate Management and Valuation, School of Environmental Studies, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, Nasarawa State Nigeria.
This paper evaluates pre-investment appraisal as a decision-making tool available to Estate Surveyors and Valuers (ESV) for determining the viability of any Real Estate Business. The viability test investigates profitability and takes into account how long it would probably take for an investment to recoup its initial investment. This paper examines the appraisal techniques used by ESV in Abuja Metropolis. Field survey was adopted through the use questionnaires administered to 150 Registered Estate Surveyors and Valuers out of which 125 were successfully retrieved. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics. The results of Relative Importance Index (RII) falls between Low, High, and Very High. The payback Period PbP was found to be the viability appraisal technique that is most commonly used in practice, as shown by the highest mean score of 3.2 and RII of 0.81 which is very high by rating. Unstable interest rate ranked highest among the factors for the choice of appraisal technique with a mean of 3.2 and RII of 0.80. It was advised that Estate Surveyors should adopt suitable tool for carrying out viability studies in order to guide investors on the decision to choose between alternative real estate investments.
Keywords: Pre-investment appraisal, viability, payback Period, and Real Estate.
SUSTAINABLE BUILDING DEVELOPMENT AND THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT IN NIGERIA: A REVIEW OF THE IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION
BABATUNDE GBENGA EZIEKIEL; & ISIYAKU MUHAMMED
This study attempt to review the concept of sustainability, hence, sustainable development which stands for meeting the needs of present generation without jeopardizing the ability of the future generation to meet their own needs and offer a better life for everyone, now and for generation to come. The paper identified the attributes of sustainability associated with the built environment to include biophysical sustainability and technical sustainability and examine the concepts technological innovation and these attributes of sustainability. The examination in this paper revealed that the concepts of technological innovation agreed with the attributes of sustainability, hence sustainable development and built environment. The paper posit that technological innovation has great influence on sustainability of development and the built environment and also that sustainability of development spans from Environmental Assessment to environmental management system at development process, operation and demolition phases. The paper concludes that continuous technological innovation and implementation should be encouraged since it has positive impact on sustainability of development and built environment and recommend among others that a balanced progression of sustainability efforts should be maintained through technological innovation and implementation begin from environmental assessment through development phase and operation phase and the engagement of well skilled professional to implement the sustainability measure and in the conduct of the entire built environmental management system.
Keywords: Technology, Innovation, Sustainability, built environment
THE IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA
*BAHAGO MARKUS DANIEL; **JOHN ILIYA SASETU; & ***AYENI EKUNDAYO
*Department of Architectural Technology, School of Environmental Studies, Isa Mustapha Agwai 1 Polytechnic Lafiyai, Nasarawa state, Nigeria. **Department of Architectural Technology, School of Environmental Studies, Isa Mustapha Agwai 1 Polytechnic Lafiyai, Nasarawa state, Nigeria. ***Department of Architectural Technology, School of Environmental Studies, Isa Mustapha Agwai 1 Polytechnic Lafiyai, Nasarawa state, Nigeria
Construction sector is consider as one of the main sources of environmental pollution in the world. Over the past decade, the construction stage of a building is often criticized for overlooking or approximating the environmental impacts as compared to other life-cycle stages of a building. This is evident through strong research findings regarding other building life-cycle stages in building-emission-assessment studies. Despite the significant role of the real-estate industry to UAE’s economy, the performance of contractors is a major concern for the stakeholders and clients. In many instances, contractors are blame for poor performance and criticized for having limited knowledge in the application of requisite management techniques. The records showing that a large construction companies have won many residential projects in UAE but at the end they have a big loss due improper handling to project schedule over a series of sub-contracts. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between project risk management and the performance of construction companies in UAE. This study applies quantitative methods to examine the relationship between project risk management and project performance. The total number of population equal to 1270 individuals. Those individuals represent project managers and the staff in project management department in Aldar Company for construction and properties. The findings shows that environmental factors has a significant effect on construction management. The paper therefore recommends that government with the support of stakeholders in the construction industry should come up with special legislations, codes or standards relating to sustainable construction practices specific to Ghana’s construction environment to ensure its proper and effective implementation. Specifically, the national building regulations should be reviewed to take account of environmental regulations. Besides, all forms of construction activities should be subjected to an environmental impact assessment to determine the potential impacts and also come up with some mitigation measures before they are executed.
Keywords: construction; buildings; emissions; sustainability; environmental factors
AN ANALYSIS OF RISKS FACTORS IN PUBLIC/PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP PROJECTS AND THEIR MITIGATION MEASURES BY CONTRACTORS AS A STRATEGY FOR INFRASTRUCTURE PROCUREMENT IN KATSINA STATE, NIGERIA
IBRAHIM SANI YAR ADUA
Department of Quantity Surveying, Hassan Usman Katsina Polytechnic, Katsina.
Public Private Partnership, a cooperative venture between the public and private sectors, built on the expertise of each partner has been a veritable procurement strategy in many developed and developing nations of the world. In Katsina state, the desire by the public authorities to enhance infrastructure development led to a number of partnerships with the private sector in the housing and other sectors. Risk factors associated with PPP in Katsina state were studied and the contractors risk mitigation measures were assessed in this research. Using a survey approach, the perception and feelings of stake holders in the construction industry were obtained from a sample of 76 respondents drawn from a population of 101 registered contractors and consultants in Katsina state. Using questionnaires, data for the study was generated and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results of the data analysis show that 80.7% have ever been engaged in PPP projects and 50% of the respondents have encountered risks in most of their projects. Political risk factors from unstable security circumstances, Poor Governance and New governmental acts or legislations, Lack of coordination/cooperation between partners, Changes in management ways and poor information availability, Poor communication and Ambiguous planning due to project complexity, Undocumented change orders, Design changes and Lower work quality in presence of time constraints, Environmental risks from adverse weather condition and Difficulty to access the site are major risk factors and variables in the implementation of PPP in the state. 84.7% of the respondents have proactive measures for checking out risks in their firms. Given the huge amount needed and the drive necessary for development; it has been recommended that in order for the government to address the problems of huge infrastructure deficit, the use of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) for infrastructure development and thus addressing the challenges constraining the growth of the Nigerian economy is a necessary option. Contractors must not just have proactive measures to check against risk, but should be able to ascertain the suitability and reliability of the measures based on risk factors and project peculiarities. Public sector involvement should be encouraged by provision of more concessions.
Keywords: Contractors, Infrastructure, Mitigation Measures, Procurement, Projects, Public/Private Partnership, Risks Factors.
EVALUATION OF FACTORS THAT CONSTITUTE GREEN CONSCIOUSNESS AT FEASIBILITY STAGE OF BUILDING PROJECT PROCESSES: CASE STUDY OF BAUCHI STATE
1RAJI MOHAMMED MUDASHIR, 2IBRAHIM IDRIS 1ABUBAKAR HAMZA SAKWA, 1YARIMA MOHAMMED, 1AHMAD MOHAMMED AHMAD, 1FILIBUS IBRAHIM DANFITOH
1 Department of quantity Surveying, The Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria 2Department of Building Technology, The Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria
Construction sector has continuously increased the Earth’s pollution over the past centuries hence, contamination of the air and water, climate change, biodiversity loss, and the reduction of natural bank account of non – renewable resources are some of the negative impacts that construction activities have been generating on the environment. Efforts to curtail the adverse effects of human developments on the environment and socio-economic settings gave birth to the sustainability concept that resulted in the global conviction that all human development should meet today’s need without compromising that of tomorrow. However, to effectively achieve sustainability, the goals across all the dimensions and aspects that constitute sustainability must be maximized; hence, this research investigates the factors of green consciousness of building projects in Bauchi state. Questionnaire was used to obtain data from procurement administrators in ministries and agencies responsible for construction projects delivery across Bauchi state. One hundred and seventy-five questionnaires were distributed and 105 (61%) responses were returned and analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences for Windows, Version 21.0. Result of the study revealed 9 factors that constitute determinants of sustainability consciousness at the feasibility stage and top among them include comprehensive client’s brief and communication throughout project life cycle, Develop potential for mitigating project negative impacts on site landscape, effective project life cycle health & safety management plan, and ICT project sustainability evaluation life cycle support system. The findings shed lights on factors of green consciousness at the feasibility stage in Bauchi state. Therefore, it was recommended to improve key project stakeholders’ sustainability, awareness and green construction should be integrated into building project procurement.
Keyword: green construction, feasibility, construction industry, procurement, consciousness.
EXPLORING PHOTOGRAPHY AS A TOOL FOR DEPICTING MESSAGES ABOUT ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION IN JEMA’A LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA (LGA), KADUNA NIGERIA
*TITUS TIMOTHY; *VERONICA BENEDICT OGUNWOLE; & **ANNA AKUT
*Department Of Fine And Applied Arts, Kaduna State College Of Education Gidan Waya, P.M.B 1024, Kafanchan Kaduna State. **Department Of Physics, Kaduna State College Of Education Gidan Waya, P.M.B 1024, Kafanchan Kaduna State
In Jema’a Local Government Area (LGA), the environment deteriorates daily due to natural and human factors with human activities being the key roots of environmental degradation which include open grazing, pollution, deforestation, and unlawful pasting of posters in public places. Photography is a vital tool for visual communication, and photographers have long used it to reveal issues that affect people and their environments. Therefore, this paper intends to identify the major causes of environmental degradation in Jema’a LGA. The paper aims at raising environmental consciousness through photographic images of degraded scenes of some environments in Jema’a LGA. This practice-based photography showed how impactful photographs are in conveying environmental messages in other to raise people’s consciousness about the environment and shape their attitudes towards environmental conservation. Recommendations were made to help the government, NGOs and the general public to take necessary actions toward improving and protecting the environment. This paper will also motivate further research in the field of photography.
Keywords: Photography, environment, Environmental degradation, Visual Communication
THE DEVELOPMENT OF BASIC SKILLS, THE CASE STUDY OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION FOR SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN LANDSCAPE
Jigawa State Polytechnic Dutse, Jigawa State, Nigeria.
A profession is any type of work that needs special training or a particular skill, often one that is respected because it involves a high level of education, Many researchers had been making so many recommendations regarding the desert encroachment and desertification of the African landscape, where must of such researches were recommending planting of trees, but most of those researches are not providing design for such recommendations. The landscape Architecture profession is a profession that involves the systematic design and general construction of structures for the use of living things, investigation of existing social, ecological, and soil conditions and processes in the landscape, and the design of other interventions that will produce desired outcomes. The scope of the profession is broad because they design a wide range of structures and landforms for living things, the design includes; site planning, stormwater management, erosion control, environmental restoration, parks, recreational areas, visual resource management, green infrastructure planning and provision, and private estate, and residence landscape master planning, landscape designs and constructions. The United States with a population of 334,298,347 people as of 2022, approximately has over 16,400 licensed landscape architects and Nigeria with Zero licensed landscape architects with a population of over 200,000,000 people as of the 2021 census. The study areas for this research were researches on desert encroachment and desertification in Nigeria, Two hundred researches on desert encroachment and desertification were used in Nigeria. A random sampling technique was used in selecting 50 researchers from the entire number. Findings from the study revealed the following: No Design or Landscape Design in research of desert encroachment and desertification in Nigeria, and the unavailability of Landscape Architects is the reason for not having a design or landscape design in many kinds of research of desert encroachment and desertification in Nigeria. The researcher in this study recommend the followings; Government should add more schools of Landscape Architecture in tNigeria, Government should license the existing Landscape Architects in the country, Government should make it mandatory that, all landscape design and construction should be done by a Landscape Architect in the country, Individuals should engage Landscape Architects for their landscape works at all levels.
Keywords: Design, Desert Encroachment, desertification, Landscape Architecture, Landscape Construction, Landscape Design, Researches,
DETERMINATION OF SEASONAL CHANGE IN WATER LEVEL OF GUBI DAM FOR SUSTAINABLE URBAN DEVELOPMENT
ZAKARI, DANLADI; AHMED, BABAYO; ADAMU MAKAMA PINDIGA; ABUBAKAR ABDULKADIR
Department of Surveying and Geo-informatics, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria
Gubi Dam is one of the largest dam located in Bauchi state and it serves as the major source of drinking water for the entire Bauchi metropolis. Due to the high level of water consumption ranging from domestics, industrial and agricultural use, there exist significant changes in seasonal water level in the dam as a result of meteorological and climatic variables. During reconnaissance, water levels and rainfall data was collected from Bauchi State Water Corporation whereas the hydrological and meteorological data was collected from NIMET office of Bauchi state. Gubi reservoir water level elevations and changes from 2015 to 2021 were examined using Landsat data 8. The water source in the dam varies in quantity and quality due to the seasonal variation over the catchments area. During rainy season, from the period of May to October, the quantity of water in the reservoir will increase due to the amount of the rainfall observed during these periods. During dry season the level of water reduced due to high consumption and the effect of evaporation due to high temperature, the peak value of evaporation mostly occurred within the period of January to April and is the period of drought and high demand of water and it cause a drawdown of the reservoir water level. The results were analyzed, discussed and presented. The surface area of Gubi reservoir in March 2015 was 5224500m2 and the mean of the dry season is 5988600 m2. The seasonal variation in Gubi dam from the period of March 2015 and the mean was 764100 m2. This shows that the dam has accommodated more water in 2015 than the mean of the dry season. So invariably it implies that Gubi reservoir level rise in 2015 during dry season, around March 2015 increase in water level. It is recommended other researcher to conduct research on hydrological modeling of Gubi reservoir to investigate the impacts of the reservoirs in water resources management.
KEYWORDS: Seasonal change, Water level, climatic variables, reservoirs and water resources
AN ASSESSMENT OF THE PERFORMANCE OF PRIVATE HOUSING ESTATE DEVELOPERS IN KWARA STATE
ESV ALLI KEHINDE ABDULRASHEED; ESV AJIBADE RASHEED KAYODE; ESV IBRAHIM ABDULLAHI TAIYE; & ESV OLATUNJI SAMSON OLANREWAJU
Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin.
This study examined the contribution of Private Real Estate Developers in housing provision in Kwara state. The study addressed the ineffectiveness of the private sector to deliver housing to the citizen. The aim of the study examined both the contribution as well as the problems confronting PHED in Kwara State. Some of the objectives of the study were to examine the relationship between the profile of PHED in Kwara State and their performances, assess their effectiveness of the delivery process and to examine the satisfaction of occupiers of the private estate. The research methodology revealed the quantity of housing units developed by the PHED and allowed in evaluating their contribution to the housing provision in the study area. In the study, 255 housing units were selected out of the total 2,547 housing units in the developers’ estates. Primary data was collected through questionnaires administration and secondary data were collected from related documents, publications, textbooks, journals, research works, seminars/conference papers and internet. The findings revealed that PHED have established their business with some years of involvement in housing provision in the study area. It was also discovered that the PHED delivery process is very costly because housing provision is capital-intensive and their delivery process could not take place without availability of capital resources. Their performances have been found out not to be effective as it is supposed to be due to certain factors which instigate their effective participation in housing delivery. It was also found out that despite the limited housing provision, the occupiers expressed satisfaction with the quality of the developed estates both in terms of structure and function.
KEYWORDS: Housing, Developers, Private Developers, Housing Development, Housing Delivery, Participation, Housing Provision.
GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) APPROACH IN MAPPING THE DISTRIBUTION AND MANAGEMENT OF SCHOOLS IN BAUCHI STATE
1SURV. UMAR, SHUAIBU, 2SURV. SANI MOHAMMED JAWALUDDEEN 3SURV. MOHAMMED NANOH BELLO
1 &2Department of Surveying and Geo-informatics, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria3Department of surveying and Geo-informatics, Waziri Umaru Federal polytechnic Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi state. Nigeria
Adopting a modern method of facilities management such as Geographic Information System (GIS) will improve the quality of teaching and learning. This study was carried out to map out and evaluate the facilities in the schools within Dass local government area of Bauchi state. The position of schools were observed and recorded using a hand held Global Positioning system (GPS), questionnaires were administered to all schools, collected and analyzed. Analogue map of the study area (Dass) was converted to a digital format through scanning and digitization and subsequently geo-referenced. The positions of school were plotted and database created based on the attribute information collated. Thus, this study sees to how GIS system is applied in distribution and management of schools in Dass Local Government Area of Bauchi state. Data from the field were processed, analyzed, summarized and queried using AutoCAD 2000i, and Arc view GIS 3.2a software. A digital map showing the strategic geographical distributions (locations) of the various schools was finally produced and printed out as a product for presentation. The main discovery was that the schools in Dass are not evenly distributed and there are few schools as compared to the increasing population. And also, the schools lack the various social and infrastructural facilities as well as equipments.
Keywords: Geographic Information System (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS), Analogue, Geo-referenced.
PROFESSIONAL’S PERCEPTION ON THE COST BENEFITS OF GREEN BUILDING PRACTICE AND ITS ADOPTION FOR CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS IN KOGI STATE
ZUBAIR AHMED, 1*. DANIEL GBENGA I.2*
1Department of Quantity Surveying, School of Environmental Studies. The Federal Polytechnic, Idah. 2Department of Building Technology, School of Environmental Studies. The federal polytechnic, Idah.
Building account for a sizeable amount of total energy consumption and total greenhouse gas emissions around the world. Green building has consequently emerged as innovative building concept to lessen the environmental impact of these buildings. The aim of the study is to assess professional’s perception on the cost benefits of green building practice and its adoption for construction projects in kogi state. The objectives of the study are as follows: to identify the most preferred cost benefits of green building practice and to assess professional’s perception on the cost benefits of green building practice and its adoption for construction projects in the study area. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information from various respondents who were construction professionals. The survey was conducted in kogi state using random sampling techniques were used to select one hundred and thirty (130) respondents out of which (95) of them were suitable for analysis, which represent a potential responses rate of seventy three percent (73%) of the total. The data were analyzed using simple percentile and mean item score. The research shows that respondents have a low level awareness of green building in general. The finding revealed that green features that would be mostly adopted by professionals include: careful orientation and low energy, lighting design, the uses of renewable energy e.g maximum use of natural day lightening and the uses of energy efficient and eco – friendly equipment. In conclusion the study advocated for increased sensitization of benefits of green building among built environment practitioners in such a way to deepen the adoption of green building practice in the study area. The study recommend that professional bodies should train and educate their members on the importance of green building so as to incorporate the lofty practice in their daily practice.
Keywords: construction, environment, cost benefits, green building, professional’s perception.
CONCRETE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES FOR CATTLE BONE ASH AS PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT
*AJI, A. BUKAR; *FALMATA A. MUSTAPHA; *AMINA S. GIMBA; & **AHMED TUJJANI GUBIO
*Department of Civil Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria. **Department of Civil Engineering, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri Borno State, Nigeria.
The study presents the behavior of concrete made with Cattle Bone Ash as a partial replacement of cement. Bulk density, sieve analysis, specific gravity of the ash and aggregate, consistency test, setting time and slump test of fresh paste were carried out to determine the suitability of the material for concrete making. Concrete mix ratio of 1:2:4 and CBA was used to replace cement at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% by weight. Samples of concrete cubes and beams were produced and cured for 3, 7, 14 and 28 days to determine their density, compressive and flexural strength. The result of the consistency test shows an insignificant change with varying quantities of CBA It was observed that the percentage decrease in compressive strength of concrete containing CBA increased with quantity of CBA used from an average of 12.04% at 5% replacement level to 52.63% at 20% replacement level. The flexural strength on the other hand showed a rise in strength after 28 day curing period of about 5%.
Keywords: Cattle bone ash, Composition, Concrete, Replacement and Strength.