SUB-SAHARA AFRICAN JOURNAL OF AFRICAN ADVANCEMENT & SUS. STUDIES (SJAAS)
VOL. 25 (6) SEPTEMBER, 2022 ISSN: 3125-5521
Sub-Sahara African Academic Research Publications,
Centre for African Development Studies, University of Ibadan,
P. O. Box 10108, U. I. Post Office. Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria, West-Africa.
SUSTAINABLE DESIGN FOR AFFORDABLE HOUSING DELIVERY IN NIGERIA
EMMANUEL AJIBOLA ORIMOLOYE
Department of Architecture, Faculty of Environmental Design and Management, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria
Nigeria has witnessed tremendous increase in the rate of urbanization in the last two decides (Ajanlekoko 2001). In the early fifties, it was to be put to be fifty six cities in the country and about 10.6% of the population lived in these cities where as today with a population of about 200 million, not less than 30% live in cities. This has placed a great burden on the Nigeria cities as the number of houses provided are not adequate to meet this growing population, as a result many are living in slums and substandard houses. This paper, focus on the need for sustainable design for affordable housing delivery for the masses considering the ease of constructions, maintenance, aesthetics and integration to city centers, environmental factors and the compact nature of the design to avoid waster of space and integration with the environment. Demarcation of apartment boundaries for each occupant, as well as ownership responsibilities and demand to be clearly defined through designs are the objectives of the paper to ensure sustainable development after execution process of the design proposals.
ACHIEVING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH ADULT EDUCATION IN NIGERIA
*MUHAMMED USMAN; *JIBRIN, YUSUSF PAIKO; **ABDU, IDRIS WUSHSHI; & *KABIRU MOHAMMED
*Ibrahim Badamasi Bbabangida University, Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria, Department of Continuing Education and Community Development. **Department of Adult and Non-formal Education, Niger State College of Education, Minna, Nigeria
This study focused on how sustainable development can be achieved through adult education in Nigeria. The study made some clarification on the concept of sustainable development pointing out its goals. The objective of the process of adult education and national development is to get the adults, either as individuals or as a group, to learn and through learning to change their attitude and behavior. The paper discussed adult education as well as the redefined objectives and its relevance in achieving sustainable development in Nigeria. The study concludes that public awareness, education, capacity building and training are key to moving the society towards sustainability. Therefore, it was recommended that Functional literacy education should be considered by adult education providers as an instrument for creating awareness among people particularly in the rural communities
Keywords: Adult Education, Development, Sustainable
CRITIQUE OF MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT IN OIL AND GAS SECTOR OF NIGERIA
DR C. O. OKWELUM
Delta State University of Science and Technology, Ozoro.
Since the finding of commercial oil in Nigeria, the State has been grappling with the problem of the human resources development. The nation is battling with it to show for the enormous mineral resources that are available to it and which it continues to squander. Even with the presence of the multi-national oil companies in Nigeria not much has been achieved in technology transfer in the past fifty years. The level of unemployment has risen to 33 percent and only about one percent of the population is employed in the oil sector. This paper which adopts the doctrinal method examines the various perspectives that manpower development in the oil and gas sector can be viewed. It finds that the State is tenacious in seeing that humans resource is developed to critical levels but the multi-national oil companies have no clear-cut commitment to same except as is necessary for profit maximization. It therefore calls for more public-private initiatives and fuller implementation of the local content doctrines and involvement of local content vehicles.
Keywords: Personnel management, Industrial Relations, Human Resource Development, PTDF, Local Content, Oil and Gas
ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION AND THE CHALLENGES OF DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
BILKISU ABDULGANIYYI FAGBEMI
Department of Business Administration and Management, the Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa, Nasarawa State Nigeria
The development of a Nation cannot be divorced from the knowledge of entrepreneurship education. The objectives and significance of entrepreneurship education towards national development were discussed along with the challenges ahead of the issue entrepreneurship education were proffered. They include inter alia implementation of suggestion to reduce poverty, in house training and retraining personnel with modern pedagogical approach to teaching, cooperative management approach which would involve stakeholders of education, NGOs, local and international philanthropists. They could provide instructional and infrastructural facilities for teaching entrepreneurial education.
Keywords: Leadership, Managerial Skills, Entrepreneurship Education, Cooperative Management, Stakeholders Teaching Facilities.
DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRY FOUNDATION CLASSES AND CITY GEOGRAPHY MARKUP LANGUAGE DATA INTEGRATION
MOHAMMED JAWALUDDEEN SANI*1 SHU’AIBU UMAR1 AHMED BABAYO1
1Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, School of Environmental Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.
Modern cities require novel design and development approaches that are resourcefully shaped for neighborhood needs. In order to achieve this, decision makers must deal with information from both the micro (building asset) and the macro (neighborhood) levels, consequently, deal with two very different information scopes and standards. This paper addresses this issue and introduces a new conceptual approach for developing a hybrid information infrastructure by integrating building design data, in the form of ifcXML, and 3D neighborhood models, in the form of CityGML. This paper uses examples from the operations and maintenance domain to explain the need for data integration to support decision makers at the neighborhood level by providing access to a wide range of detailed data, starting from the neighborhood scale, and zooming in to a room in a building. The IFC CityGML Data Integration (ICDI) approach that is introduced in this research satisfies both geometric and nongeometric (semantic) information queries in real time. This feature distinguishes ICDI significantly from related works that mainly focus on data conversion from one source to another. Furthermore, this work provides deep insights into the data structure of ifcXML and CityGML and discusses data mapping issues between these two common data standards.
KEYWORDS: BIM, GIS, IFC, ifcXML, CityGML, Data Integration, FM
FORMAL AND INFORMAL ACCESS TO LAND IN NASARAWA: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
AYODELE KAYODE DAVID AND AJANI, USMAN YUSUF
12Department of Estate Management, Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa
One of the main goals of the Land Use Act of 1978 and all Governments is to achieve an equitable distribution and access to land rights for all citizens, regardless of wealth or position. As a result, this study used Nasarawa as a case study to analyze the problems and issues related to formal and informal access to land. The household heads of residential properties in Nasarawa made up the study’s sample population. Data were collected using structured questionnaires, and descriptive statistics, a weighted mean score, and factor analysis were used to analyze them. According to the study, governmental allocation, compulsory acquisition, private purchase, kinship, and families are among the main formal and informal access points to land in Nasarawa.. Additionally, the study found that informal means of access to land were used more effectively in the study area. The research also showed that barriers to formal and informal access to land include affordability, poor infrastructure, high land costs, lack of formal documentation, favoritism, discrimination, and difficulties among others. The results of the Factor Analysis showed the chi-square value of 2596.033 is significant at p < 0.000 indicating that 4 components were generated which culminated in 77.338% at 8.937 eigen level. The research further found that consequence of formal and informal access to land includes the growth of substandard settlements; unbalanced wealth distribution; inefficient land management; environmental degradation; segregation, vulnerability, marginalization amongst others. The study came to the conclusion that effective and equitable access to land for the overall development of the property market could not be overstated and recommended that adequate measures be taken to ensure equitable access through open land allocation and transparent procedures while also encouraging the review of land administration policies and strategie.
Keywords: Formal, Informal, Access, land, Issues, Challenges
THE ROLE OF MONITORING AND CONTROL ON CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGEMENT IN NORTHERN NIGERIA
IBRAHIM SANI YAR ADUA
Department of Quantity Surveying, Hassan Usman Katsina Polytechnic, Katsina.
This paper analyzes project monitoring and control techniques and tools and how they impact on project management, performance and its success. Extensively exploring the current literature, it reviewed the Bodies of Knowledge (BOK) approach and evaluated the managers’ perspective to satisfy the research requirements. Data relating to the outcomes of various projects undertaken by a set of construction managers in both the private and public sectors on the impact of the use of methodologies, techniques and tools was obtained by a set of questionnaire and structured interview and used for this study. Various views of the Bodies of Knowledge were reviewed and synthesized and the information obtained by Questionnaire and structured interview from the project managers in various sectors was used to analyze the correlation between variables that determine the application of monitoring and control methodologies, techniques and/or tools and other variables that determine the success criteria in projects. Results obtained from the study have shown that there was a positive influence of the use of Monitoring and Control techniques and tools on the results as a success factor in project management and performance. The study aims to highlight an optimal and most appropriate approach on the use of techniques and tools in project monitoring and control processes in the Nigerian Construction Industry, thus promoting the implementation of both traditional and new tools.
Keywords: Construction, Monitoring and control, Northern Nigeria, Project management, Role.
LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE EDUCATION IN NIGERIA, DEVELOPMENT, ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
AUWAL MAGAJI ABUBAKAR; DEBORAH SARAH GADO; & AISHAT MUKHTAR KURABAU
Department of Library and Information Science, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna
Library and Information Science (LIS) education can only be meaningfully discussed within the context of education generally, and vis-a`-vis the cultural milieu for which it is provided. The growing globalization is equally a necessary factor to consider in this discussion, given its seeping impact on culture, economy and education, especially in developing countries. LIS education programs in Nigeria are offered at various tertiary level institutions—Colleges of Education, Polytechnics, and Universities. Such programs award certificates, diplomas, Higher National Diploma, HND, BLS, BLIS, MLS, MLIS, MSC, MARM, Ph.D. and vary in nomenclature, content, and grading system, depending on the awarding institution.
Key points: Library, library education, Library and Information science, Development, Issues and challenges.
ROLE OF PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUE ON TEACHING AND LEARNING PHYSICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
*NUHU ABDULRASHEED; **ABDULLAHI ABUBAKAR; & *MOHAMMED SHITU
*Department of Physics, Federal College of Education, Yola. **Department of General Education, Federal College of Education, Yola.
This paper takes a critical review of the role of problem solving technics on teaching and learning of physics in secondary schools. This is because the application is very important because it emphasizes the benefits of the instruction of problem solving strategies and will be beneficial in the literature of physics. This paper also highlight the steps involve in problem solving techniques and the important of structured, systematic methodology to solve problem solving. Physics teachers should be trained regularly by the federal ministry of education on the application of strategies in the teaching and learning of Physics for senior secondary school students. Educators in Teacher Education Institutions should employ the technique in teaching pre-service teachers to enable them learn how to apply same in their respective classrooms.
Keywords: Problem solving technique, teaching, learning and physics
NATURAL RESOURCE RENTS, HUMAN CAPITAL AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE (SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA (SSA) REGION
*UGWUOKE AUGUSTINE CHIKA; **UZOWULU GLORIA CHIAGOZIE; & **NWALUPUE NNAMDI MARK
*Corporate Affairs and Information (CAI) Department, National Productivity Centre, Enugu State Office. **Productivity Capacity Building (PCB) Department, National Productivity Centre, Lagos State Office
This study assesses whether natural resource rents can enhance the positive association between human capital-industrial development. Using a sample of 14 sub-Saharan African countries over the period of 1995-2015, the empirical findings confirm an insignificant impact of human capital on industrial development in the presence of natural resource rents. In addition, we find evidence of direct drag effect of education expenditure on industrial development.
Keywords: Industrial Development, Education, Health Expenditures, Natural Resource Rents, Human Capital, Natural Resource and Findings.
EVALUATING BUILDING INFORMATION MODELLING (BIM) ADOPTION REQUIREMENTS FOR SMALL AND MEDUIM CONSTRUCTION FIRMS IN KATSINA METROPOLIS
1YAZEED YAKUBU, 2YARIMA MOHAMMED, 3IBRAHIM IDRIS, 2FILIBUS IBRAHIM DANFITOH, 2AHMAD MOHAMMED AHMAD, 2RAJI MOHAMMED MUDASHIR, 2ABUBAKAR HAMZA SAKWA,
1Department of Quantity Surveying, Hassan Usman Katsina Polytechnic, Katsina, Nigeria-West Africa. 2 Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria-West Africa 3Department of Building Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria-West Africa
Building information modelling is an agent of digital revolution and game changer that is shaping the direction of construction sector in this modern and ever-changing world. This study aimed at evaluating BIM adopting requirements for Small and medium construction firms in Katsina metropolis. The study employed quantitative approach and data for the study was gathered using a structured questionnaire. The target respondents for the study were architects, quantity surveyors, builders and civil engineers working in small and medium sized construction firms. The study distributed ninety questionnaires (90) using convenience sampling and recorded a return rate of 67.77%. according to the respondents, the most important requirements for BIM adoption include; policy for BIM (RII 0.854), requirement for BIM adoption, specifying level of adoption (RII 0.785). The study recommends that; necessary changes be made to the existing government policies on construction and its procurement so as to reflect BIM, necessary infrastructure be provided so as to ease the adoption of BIM, BIM education be included in our educational curriculum so as facilitate its awareness and adoption.
Keywords: Building Information Modelling (BIM), Requirements, SME, Construction
EFFECT OF FINANCIAL FRAUD ON NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT: NIGERIA PROJECT
1OLATUNJI, TUNDE E. (PhD); 2DAUDA, ADAMU ABUBAKAR, 3ALKALI PRISCILLA N., 4SHEHU UMAR, 5DOGARA NASIRU DANLADI (PhD);
1-4Directorate of Academic Planning, Nigeria Institute of Leather and Science Technology, Zaria, 5Nasarawa State Board of Internal Revenue, Lafia.
The financial scandals which have appeared in recent times have placed fraud at the heart of economic and financial issues. Fraud by executives has disastrous consequences as it results in huge losses for investors and creditors, and especially for the company itself. Most of these frauds were often in the form of accounting and financial manipulation, and they have evolved to change forms. Fraud is a hidden crime and businesses cannot assume that all frauds have been detected. It is extremely unlikely that the detected fraud within an organization will represent the total financial impact of fraud on that organization, or the total loss from fraud they have experienced. It is a fact that some individuals will look to make gains where there is opportunity, and organizations need robust processes in place to prevent, detect and respond to fraud. Fraud impacts on people, industries, public bodies, services, economy, and the environment and all of these can be irreversibly harmed. The research therefore recommends that Auditors and Accountants in organizations and financial institutions should be trained on how to carry out forensic investigation since the fraudsters are now sophisticated in their operation. Also, internal control systems should be strengthened to block opportunities that attract fraud perpetrators and oversight function of the National Assembly be strengthened to make public office holders accountable.
Keywords: Fraud, deterrence and prevention, Return on Assets, Financial institutions, National Development
TECHNIQUES OF REDUCING FLOOD IN THE SAVANNAH REGION OF JIGAWA STATE FOR ADEQUATE FOOD SECURITY
Jigawa State Polytechnic Dutse
The Nigerian Savannah is sometimes affected by flooding that leads to the destruction of farmlands and houses leading to poverty within the region, many researchers had been providing so many solutions to such kinds of environmental disasters across the world, yet the problem persists, because the environment lacks a technology that will solve the problem in Architecture, Engineering and Construction industry. This study was conducted along the Hadejia river that crosses through some local Government of Jigawa state, the local Governments includes Ringim, Taura, Miga, Auyo Kafin Hausa and Hadejia, the research method used was mixed methods, these are; the qualitative and quantitative approach, the qualitative approach includes the reconnaissance survey, field data collection, existing data. while the quantitative method includes the Satellite Image Processing and Analysis, a familiarity visit to the area under investigation was carried out, after intensive fieldwork, in which the samples/data were collected across the study area, and a TCX converter software was used to determine the longitudes and latitudes of the study area, Quikgrid was used to convert the available data to contours of the study area. Their elevations were as follows: Highest from Ringim which is 392M to Lowest toward Hadejia which is 346M with intervals of 2M between contours height, the results show that the flooding will be higher in Hadejia because it has the lowest elevations, after intensive calculations, the solution provided for the disaster was a creation of dunes and Oasis using AutoCAD software and Realtime Landscape Architects to solve the problem in the perspective of Landscape Architecture, a 10,000 Meter cube area was used as a sample in the part of the study area and closed to the waterways, a design was produced and evaluated, the result shows that initially, the sampling area was accommodating only 30,000 Meter cubes at the maximum height of 3-meter flooding of the existing data, after the calculations and the design of Oasis creation and dunes along the higher contours, the result shows that each sampling area will accommodate more flooding under the ground, this result can be multiplied by millions of the same samples. And the second result was the dunes created will allow for farming, planting of medicinal trees, fruit trees, fishpond and wildlife survival. This will serve as a menace after the disaster, and also a preventive measure before or during the next flooding if available. The proposal will boost food security in the area and create more job opportunities for the people of Jigawa State and beyond.
Keywords: Flooding, Landscape Architecture, Savannah, Technology
REVIEW OF UNIT COMMITMENT FOR ECONOMICAL OPERATION OF POWER SYSTEM
UMAR MOHAMMED 1, IDRISSA MOHAMMED GODOWOLI 2
1&2 Department of Electrical/ Electronic Engineering Technology, the Federal Polytechnic Damaturu.
Unit commitment (UC) is an optimization problem used to determine the operation scheduled of the generating units at interval with varying loads under different constraints and environment. Many algorithms have been invented in the past decades for optimization of UC problem, but still researchers are working in this field to find new hybrid algorithm to make the more realistic. The important of UC increasing with constantly varying demand. Therefore, there is an urgent need in the power sector to keep track of the latest methodologies to further optimize the working criterions of the generating units. This paper focuses on providing clear review of the latest techniques employed in optimizing UC problems for stochastic and deterministic loads, which has been acquired from many review published paper. It has been divided in to many sections which include various constrains based on profit, security, emission and time. It emphasizes not only on de regulated and regulated environment but also on renewable energy and distributed generating systems. In term of contributions, the detailed analysis of all the UC algorithms has been discussed for the benefit of new researcher interested in working in this field.
Keywords– Unit commitment (UC), Optimization, deterministic load, stochastic load, evolutionary programming (EP), Hybrid
TESTING OF SOIL PRODUCTIVITY ACROSS SLOPES AND INDEX MAPPING USING LANDPKS
MUAZU MAMMAN OMEIZA
Agricultural Technology Department, Kogi State Polytechnic Itakpe
A study was conducted to test soil samples using LandPKS at different depth across slopes and topography in the kogi agricultural development project ADP sites in lokoja the state capital of kogi state, Nigeria.A point across slope was selected from the study site situated behind the ADP building andcharacterized features of soils such as soil Texture, soil colour and land slopes were observed. Data generated were collected, tabulated and analysed by the Land Potential Knowledge System( LandPKS) whose various interface and results were used in determining soil productivity of that site and its reperesentation on the map using Soil mapping units or geographical information system GIS was shown on the platform. The study concludes that since soil testing is key during the pre-planting operations its result will go a long way in correcting land deficiencies by making recommendations for companies to provide fertilizers to be supplied in the right proportions for maximum productivity and sustainability.
Keywords: LandPKS, Land Potential Knowledge System, Lokoja, Soiltesting, GPS and Soil Mapping
EFFECT OF LAND USE SUCCESSION AND REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS IN ILORIN METROPOLIS
ESV HASSAN, OLANREWAJU ABDUL
Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin Kwara State, Nigeria. Email:
The study evaluated the land use succession and real estate transactions in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria. It identifies and examined land use succession pattern in Ilorin Metropolis; identified and examined factors influencing land use change in the study area; and investigated the implications of land use succession on real estate transactions in the study area. Thus; with a view to providing information that will enhance real estate investment and transaction decisions. Both primary and secondary data were used for the study. Purposive sampling technique were utilized for the Kwara State town Planning and Development Authority, and the Kwara State Bureau of Lands while simple random sampling techniques were adopted for the landlords and tenants of all the identified 381 properties in the area of study and 19 Estate Surveying and Valuation firms. Data collected were analysed using frequency distribution, percentages, mean, standard deviation, trend analysis, factor analysis and relative importance index. The study revealed that residential – commercial land use succession is the most prevalent land use succession in the study area. The study also established that, the land ownership common in the study area was self – owned and that the nature of growth and development pattern of land use succession common in the study area was linear. The study concluded that major effect and implications of land use succession in the study area was traffic congestion, noise pollution, loss of business hours and particularly commercial property market product domineering respectively.
VARIATION IN THE SOURCES OF DRINKING WATER IN IDAH AND THEIR SUITABILITY ON THE HEALTH OF THE PEOPLE
1DR. JOY ANWULI JEGEDE; **ANTHONY TINUFA; *ADAH PAUL DANLADI.
*Department of Urban and Regional Planning, the Federal Polytechnic, Idah, Kogi State. **Department of Estate Surveying and Valuation, the Federal Polytechnic, Idah. Kogi State.
This study is designed to analyse the variation in the sources of drinking water and how they affect the human health in Idah. Water samples were collected from the various sources (Groundwater, River, Rain and Packaged water) of water and were subjected to laboratory analysis to detect the water parameters. One-way Analysis of Variance was then employed to analyse the result of the laboratory test in other to determine the relationship between the water sample parameters for both wet and dry seasons. Correlation Analysis was adopted to analyse the quality of the drinking water and the possible health problems that could emanate from the water sources. The result revealed that groundwater as well as borehole is the most common source of drinking water and that typhoid, diarrhoea, cholera, dysentery, gastroenteritis and vomiting were the possible health problems that emanate from the various sources of drinking water consumed by the people of Idah with typhoid having the highest occurrence. It also revealed that there is a weak relationship among the different water-related diseases and that human activities and poor environmental management are the major causes of water pollution in the study area. The study however suggests that though the water is relatively safe for drinking, there is a need for proper hygiene and environmental management.
Keywords: Variation; Drinking Water; Health; Environmental Management
STUDY OF THERMAL PROPERTIES OF SOME COMMON ROOFING MATERIALS (ALUMINUM AND POLYCARBONATE SHEET) USED IN BUILDING
MOHAMMED JAFARU; BUBA MOHAMMED; & ISHAKU HAMIDU MIDALA
Department of science laboratory Technology Federal polytechnic Mubi
This research work is focused on determining the thermal properties of some selected roofing materials used for roofing; these materials are aluminium sheets and polycarbonate sheets. In this project work, Lee-Charton’s method is used to achieve the aim of this research. The result obtained shows that, polycarbonate sheet is a good insulating material and aluminium is a good conductor of heat where the polycarbonate has a thermal conductivity of 0.20 w/mK, thermal diffusivity of 0.00014 m2/s, and also a thermal resistance of 5.00 mk/w. Likewise aluminium has a thermal conductivity of 205.2 w/mK, thermal diffusivity of 0.0018 m2/s, and also thermal resistance of 0.0049 mk/w. The best material to be used in the Mubi Adamawa state is polycarbonate. However, from the economic point of view, it is recommendable to choose an insulating material with a lower thermal conductivity and more affordability to the average number of inhabitants when considering housing and school construction in a densely populated town like Mubi.
Keywords: thermal properties, Aluminium, thermal conductivity
SCIENCE WOMEN IN THE SOCIETY AND INEQUALITY
DAHUNSI T.O. (Ph.D)
Primary Education Department, F.C.T. College of Education, Zuba-Abuja
This paper investigate science women in the society and inequality. Government and other stakeholders should endeavour to work on the system by assisting, improving, supporting and encouraging women into science education for scientific and technological development and eradication of gender inequality. The challenges noticed include discouragement from parents, spouses, society and government. The paper recommended that, special allowance should be provided for women, easier admission opportunities for women into higher level of learning, public enlightenment for the public on importance of women to be allowed to study science and legal action taken against parents and husbands who disallow their females from study science.
Keywords: Women, Science, Development, Society
DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE USING DIFFERENT BRANDS OF CEMENT IN MAIDUGURI, BORNO STATE
*AHMED TIJANI GUBIO; **ALHAJI BUKAR AJI; *ZARA KYARI KOLO; & *YAKUBU BUNU MELE
*Department of Civil Engineering, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. **Department of Civil Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria.
This project is aimed at determining the compressive strength of concrete using different brands of cement purchased in the open market in Maiduguri. The brands of cement used were Bua, Dangote Block Master, Dangote 3×, Dangote Falcon, Ashaka Elephant Supaset, Ashaka (Ordinary). A mix ratio of 1:2:4 was used and concrete cubes cast were cured and crushed at 7, 14 and 28 days interval respectively. The result obtained after crushing the concrete cubes was used to calculate the average compressive strength of concrete for each ordinary Portland cement. The results of compressive strength of concrete for various brands of cement using different brands were compared. The result shows that Bua Portland cement has the highest value of compressive strength value, followed by Dangote Block Master, Ashaka Elephant Supaset, Dangote 3×, Ashaka (ordinary) and finally Dangote Falcon with the least. Although the cost of each brand of cement varies, selecting to optimize cost should
Keywords: compressive strength, Portland cement.
LANGUAGE EDUCATION FOR PEACE, SECURITY AND DEVELOPMENT: THE ROLE OF YORUBA TEACHER
AJANI FOLAKE ADEWUMI
School of Secondary Education, (Language Programmes), Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo
This paper shall succinctly explore the latent potential inherent and effective in Yoruba language as a tool for peace, well cultured society, safety and national development. It focuses on the latent potential of indigenous language (Yoruba) as a means of transmitting ethical and moral values that engender the right attitudinal order in view to tackle the problem of peace, security and development in Nigeria. This paper also assert the position of Yoruba language as a medium os instruction for perfecting peace and security which form the basis for any national development. Three research questions were formulated to guide the study. A 20 item instrument was used for the study. The data generated was analysed using frequency count and simple percentage. One hundred and fifty (150) people were randomly selected for the study. The selection of respondents based on gender balance. This paper brings out recommendations for maintain peace and security and well cultured society that will bring development in the country, which based on the outcome of the findings.
Keywords: Language Education, Peace, Security, Development, Yoruba teacher
MISSION METHODS BY AFRICAN MISSIONARIES: ORIGINALITY, EFFICIENCY AND SUSTAINABILITY
REVD. FR. DR. FRANCIS ADEOLA ADEYEMI
Catholic Institute of West Africa, Port-Harcourt
The history of African Missionaries has been neglected in missionary historiography. The authors of early works dealing with mission history were nearly all Western missionaries, these authors convinced of the superiority of their way of life and of their belief systems they were imbued with an exaggerated view of the civilising influence they were supposed to have on indigenous populations. This resulted less interest in recording the history of African Missionaries. The aim of this paper therefore, is to give an appraisal of the mission methods employed by African missionaries in order to make them more original, efficient and sustainable. Thus, African missionaries would henceforth have the opportunity not only to speak for themselves but also to write for themselves. This paper also peruses at the original, efficient and sustainable ways for mission methods by African missionaries. This study finds that all Christians are enjoined to be missionaries based on the command of the Lord and Master himself – Jesus Christ, who stated that: “Go therefore, make disciples of all nations; baptize them in the name of the Father and of the son and of the Holy spirit and teach them to observe all the commands I gave you.” The paper finally made some recommendations.
Keywords: Mission, Methods, African Missionaries, Originality, Efficiency and Sustainability.