MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (MDGs) AND SUB-SAHARA AFRICAN TRANSFORMATION AGENDA,
NOVEMBER 26, 2015
N.A.S.U., KEFFI, 1000 CAPACITY AUDITORIUM, KEFFI, NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA.
CONSUMER PERCEPTION OF ABA MADE PRODUCTS FOR SUB-SAHARA AFRICAN TRANSFORMATION ASSESSMENT
1 ACHAMA GODWIN IKECHUKWU 2 OBIAH MADUBUIKE EMMANUEL
1 Department of Business Administration and Management, Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo, Imo State, Nigeria 2 Department of Accountancy, Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo, Imo State, Nigeria
A visit to Ariaria International Market, Aba, a mention of power line will quickly reveal that there are talented entrepreneurs in Nigeria. Power Line is the cluster for leather making products in Aba. Range of products found there are male and female shoes, handbags, sandals, etc. these products are popularly referred to as “Aba Made”. This paper therefore, examines consumer perception of Aba Made products in the Leather Industry. The study examined and descriptively articulates the degree of perception of Aba made products. The specific objectives was to determine various factors influencing the bad image attached to Aba made products and make necessary recommendation for adjustment of these products for acceptance. The result of the study suggest that for a product to be accepted depends not only in the quality of the product, but also at the mention of the country of origin, which is more important than price. Consumers holds the made in Aba leathers in low regard relative to foreign products, while price remains the only single important reason of consideration for Aba made products’ in comparison with foreign products. In line with the findings, the study concluded that consumers perceive the Aba made products lower in comparison than foreign products. It also indicates that the Aba made products are cheap and the price remain the only attractive factor that retains customer patronage. The study recommended that the government should supervise the production of Aba made products to ensure compliance with international standard best practice and specification to ensure adequate competitive quality with imported product. Suggestion for future studies on other Aba made product like the leather bag were also presented.
AN EXAMINATION OF ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILLS REQUIRE FOR MANAGING AND OPERATING SMALL SCALE BUSINESSES AS PERCEIVED BY SMALL SCALE BUSINESS OPERATORS IN NIGERIA
DAJUR C.I.K **BAKLE SEKYEN KUMSHIN & **TUAMYIL RUFINA
Department of Office Technology and Management, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria **Department of Business Education, Federal College of Education P.M. 1027, Pankshin, Plateau State, Nigeria
The major purpose of the study was to examine the entrepreneurial skills required by small scale business operators for successful management and operation of small scale business enterprise in Nigeria. Specifically the study examined the management skills, marketing skills and accounting skills required by small scale business operators for successful operation of small scale business enterprises. The study was carried in Pankshin Local Government of Plateau State using a survey research design. The population sample of the study consisted of 77 respondents. A 4-point Likert rating scale made up of 32 structure questionnaire items was used in generating data for the study, data collected were analyzed using statistical mean. The findings revealed that small scale business operators require management, marketing and accounting skills for successful operation. It was concluded that entrepreneurship education is a major place for the skill acquisition and recommended among others that there should be periodic organization of workshops and seminar by government for owners of small scale business enterprises and proper provision and funding of skills acquisition centre for effective training of entrepreneurs.
FACTORS UNDERMINING EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT PERFORMANCE OF THE CIVIL SERVICE IN BORNO STATE
BABAGANA MOHAMMED1, MOHAMMED ABUBAKAR GAJIBO2 AND ALHAJI LAWAN KAWI3
- Consultancy Unit, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. 2. Department of Banking and Finance, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. 3. Consultancy Unit, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
The study stands to examine the factors undermining effective and efficient performance of civil service in Borno state. Based on the findings of the research, the following factors were discovered as the major problems militating against the efficiency of the civil service; defective and poor organizational structure, corruption and nepotism, indiscipline and indolence, incompetent superior, contemporary security challenges, lack of punctuality and dedication to work, bureaucracy and problem of inefficiency, low or poor remuneration etc. the study recommended the followings; Governmental ministries, department and agencies should give conscious attention to the aims objectives and goals for its existence, the civil servants should be sent on training within a short period of time to make them cope with the contingency and unfolding scenario, the civil service system should gear towards regarding merit which would encourage the public servants to be transparent and accountable, a thorough and well articulated reform that will install the weberian ideal principle of bureaucracy should be made, appointment into public service should be base on merit, special reward for bureaucrat should be provided and lastly, there is a need for governmental department and agencies to institute “job appraisal review”.
ENTREPRENEURSHIP SKILLS DEVELOPMENT: A TOOL FOR ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT IN NIGERIA
ABDUL ADAMU & YAHAYA JAMES
Department of Economics, FCT College of Education Zuba, Abuja
Entrepreneurship Skills Development does not start and end with creating the enabling environment to enhance economic activities only. It calls for ‘mass action’ requiring an individual’s focus toward the discovery and acquisition of entrepreneurial traits, harnessing such revelations to confront and overcome the hostile forces of nature. It is a matter of the individual developing the will-power to survive, consciously working to be free from strangulating forces. This paper looks at entrepreneurship skills development as a tool for economic empowerment in Nigeria. It carefully examines the challenges limiting the success of entrepreneurship skills development in the country probably the sub-sahara Africa at large. Deliberate measures should be put in place to incorporate entrepreneurship skills development schemes into the curricular of the educational system from Primary to University levels, making credit facilities easily accessible to entrepreneurs, protecting indigenous entrepreneurs and improving infrastructural facilities among others are recommendations the paper suggested as a way forward.
CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT AS A MEANS OF INCREASING HIGH RATE OF TURN USMAN ADAMU IBRAHIM
The paper try to examined how customer relationship management lead to an increase in the profit making as a result of influx of customer patronage. In olden days, many company believed that is better to stick to old customer than the new customer, however, companies have gained better understanding of importance of customer relationship and adopted it as a high priority operational goal. The sources of this research were mainly drawn from secondary data. i.e. journals, textbook, newspaper, magazine and published materials. The study revealed that customer relationship management is very important and it serve as a means of increasing the rate of turn over which is the goal and objective of an organization. A recommendation was made as follows, that organization should embark on periodic customer survey and rewarding of higher patronage of the gears so as to be abreast, of the current trends in CRM in an organization or firm should have a special complain unit for a customer modern to listen to their problem.
MAINTENANCE OF INFRASTRUCTURAL FACILITIES IN NIGERIA [A CASE STUDY OF HIGH RISE BUILDING]
Dr. Engr. Gana A.J
Civil Engineering Department, College of science and Engineering, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State.
The maintenance of infrastructural facilities has been proved to be one of the key factors for sustaining the life long span of those facilities for human use and services. High rise buildings as case study in this context are equally part of the infrastructural facilities, and their constant maintenance has also proved to be one of the reason for long life span of existence. This paper examines maintenance of infrastructural facilities in Nigeria, objective of maintenance, necessity of maintenance, associated factors for maintenance of high rise buildings, types of maintenance and major Engineering, area of maintenance. The paper also concludes with the way forward.
TEACHING AS A PROFESSION IN NIGERIA, IT’S PROBLEM AND PROSPECTS (A CASE STUDY OF MAIDUGURI METROPOLIS OF BORNO STATE)
BABAGANA MOHAMMED1 AND ALHAJI LAWAN KAWI2 AND MOHAMMED ABUBAKAR GAJIBO3
1.Consultancy Unit, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. 2.Consultancy Unit, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. 3.Department of Banking and Finance, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
The study stands to examine the need for teaching as a profession in some selected schools within the Maiduguri metropolis. The paper aimed at examining the problems bedeviling teaching profession in Borno state and how to tackle the problems affecting the teaching profession. It emphasized on the teaching function of schools, teachers, parents and how the school teachers are expected to operate. the respondents were surveyed that 64.7% of 100% of the respondents are teachers with NCE certificate, this is an indication that majority of teachers had the qualification. The paper also revealed that revealed that 72% of the respondents agreed that teachers’ standard of training is high and 60% of the respondents believe that students admitted into college of education or institute of education are those with good results. 59.7% disagreed to the statement that only those that follow the teaching line are employed to teach and so also, 66.6% of the respondents disagreed that teaching profession is the most respected in the society. Almost all the respondents agreed that teachers’ salary is not being paid promptly, Pertaining to the matter of health facilities 74% of the respondents agreed that teachers have no enough health facilities at their disposal especially in schools. Based on the finding of our data, the study recommended the followings; adequate supervision should be carried out on schools to make sure that the administrators and the teachers actually what is expected of them. There is a need to create more awareness about the importance of teaching as a profession in our schools through enlightenment campaign by the profession. Necessary equipment and facilities needed for the smooth conduct of teaching and learning should be provided by the school authorities available. Stakeholders (parent, teachers and students) should be enlightened about their roles and responsibilities. Those schools that do not have teaching programmes in place should be force to do so by the government. The teachers should be motivated. The government should improve the wages and salaries of teacher. Adequate interview should be conducted when it comes to employment into a teaching profession.
THE USE OF MULTI-MEDIA IN ORGANISATIONAL COMMUNICATION
USMAN ADAMU IBRAHIM AND FATIMA SHAIBU
Pre- ND Department, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria
If communication is adequate in organizations, there will be proper co-ordination between the staff and the management and hence achieving the organizational goals, on the other hand, if communication is on adequate, it hampers the smooth running of the affairs of the business and generates a lot of problems. The researcher is aware of the problems posed by inadequate communication and it is in a bid to make detailed study of the effect of these problems and offer solution for them, that this research work is being designed. In addition it was found out that there are very wide gap between the executive and their subordinate in the areas of communication. It this chasm created is properly handed; there will be proper coordination of activities in business organization. It was also discovered from the study that good communication as a primary objective was the result of the successful existence of the most successful business organization today. In making this research the use of oral interview & observation were applied in collecting data.
WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN A DEMOCRACY: THE NIGERIAN EXPERIENCE.
*MRS. HANNATU Y. MICHEAL & ISAH IBRAHIM
**Department of General Studies, Nigerian Institute of Leather and Science Technology, Samaru – Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
It is often said that when you educate the woman you educate the whole world but what will happen when you empower the woman? Women form a significant fraction of the population of the world. Estimates as at 31/12/14 put the population of women at 3,601,523,108 and in Nigeria, the female population that is, percentage of total in Nigeria was put at last measured at 49.1 in 2013 according to the World Bank (access via www.tradingeconomics.com). Women globally tend to be poorer than men. They are also more deprived in health and education and in freedoms in all forms. To make the biggest impact on development, society must empower and invest in its women, Todaro, 2012). Hence, one of the Millennium Development Goals in the AD2000s is the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger and target was to reduce by half the proportion of people living on less than $1 a day but how can this be achieved if women are not empowered, especially in a democracy like ours? Empowering women is not one way traffic; it requires a wholistic approach and a total overhauling of the system, traditions and laws that tend to relegate the woman.
PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS ON NEEM (AZADIRACHTA INDICA) LEAVES
WAZIRI A. GALADIMA, HUSAINI GARBA mscn, MODU Z. KYARIMCSN, BABA UMAR MUSTAPHA, AISHA A.K. BALARABE
Science Laboratory Technology, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri Borno State Nigeria
Studies were conducted to determine the phytochemicals present in Neem (Azadirachtaindica) leaves. The leaves for this work was washed, dried in a shade and then grinded to powder. The grinded leaves sample was soaked in distill water for 24 hours. After the contact elapsed the solvent was filtered to recover the extract. Qualitative analysis was carried out on the extract; the result showed Azadirachtaindica contains; saponin, flavonoid and tannin and the absence of Alkaloid.
MONGO BETI ET LES DIRIGEANTS AFRICAINS DE LA PÉRIODE POSTCOLONIALE: EXEMPLE DE REMEMBER RUBEN ET PERPÉTUE
IJAH GIDEON AKASE
Departement de Français, Université de l’Etat de Nasarawa, Nigéria.
A critical analysis of Mongo Beti’novels of post-independence shows the need for a socio-political revolution as the only panacea to bring about the needed political changes in the society. This analysis which is sometimes full of exactitude shows the seriousness with which readers and critics view his works. With the publication of Main basse sur le Cameroun , Beti’s new novels direct it attacks on the fascist politics of the new African leaders. This attack runs through his later novels especially in Perpétue et l’habitude du Malheur and Remember Ruben
INFUSING EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND RESEARCH PROCESS INTO SUB-SAHARA – AFRICAN TRANSFORMATION ASSESSMENT PROGRAMME
*DAWODU, BEATRICE ESHOVO **AIWANEHI, OMOFUMA, MERCY
*Department of Educational Administration and Planning, Ahmadu Bello University, (ABU, Zaria), Kaduna State, Nigeria **Department of Educational Administration And Planning, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nasarawa State, Nigeria.
Educational administration and research processes in contemporary African society has been perceived as an instrument for positive change. In view of this, nations that desire a positive transformation in technological advancement requires a vigorous effort to strive in promoting researches and development. The paper therefore highlight some of the challenges that impede effective educational administration and research processes in Sub-Sahara African countries. Also, the paper further discussed application competence and knowledge in educational administration and research processes. The paper came up with the conclusion that the over all growth and development of a nation is the responsibility of the government and entire citizens of the nation. Recommendations were made that there is the need to provide consistent education administration and research policy and there should be a collaborative effort by all relevant stakeholders and other educational agency to ensure a sustainable progress for development.
NEGATIVIZATION: A FOCUS STRATEGY IN BASÀ LANGUAGE
IMOH, PHILIP MANDA
Department of Languages and Linguistics, Faculty of Arts, Nasarawa University Keffi, Nasarawa State, Nigeria
Basà language is classified as belonging to Kainji family, under the sub-phylum Western-Kainji, known as Rubasa (Basa Benue) (Croizier & Blench, 1992:32). Basà is an under-described language spoken in the North-Central Nigeria. The language is characterized by subject-verb-object (henceforth SVO) as its canonical word order. Data for this work is sourced from the researcher’s native intuition of the language corroborated with a careful observation of native speakers. This paper investigates the syntactic derivational strategy of information-structure encoding in Basà language. It emphasizes on a negative operator, as a strategy for focusing a constituent or clause that follows it and negatives a whole proposition. For items that are not nouns, they have to undergo an obligatory nominalization process, either by affixation, modification or conversion before they are moved to the preverbal position for these operations. The study discovers and provides evidence of the fact showing that different constituents in the sentence such as the subject, direct, indirect object, genitive, verb phrase, prepositional phrase, clause and idiophone, etc. can be focused with the same negativizing operator. The process is characterized by focusing the preverbal NP constituent alone, whereas the whole proposition is negated. The study can stimulate similar study or be replicated in other languages.
ROMANCIERES NOIRES D’AMERIQUE: ALICE WALKER
IJAH GIDEON AKASE
Département de Langues et Linguistiques, Nasarawa State University, Keffi,
Nasarawa State, Nigeria
Prenant appui sur les romans de Margaret Walker, The Third Life of Grange Copeland et The Color Purple, le présent essai pose la problématique de la production littéraire de la femme noire aux USA. Doublement marginale, par rapport à la littérature de la majorité blanche et par rapport à littérature afro-américaine restée essentiellement masculine avec Wright, Ellison, Baldwin et autres, l’écriture féminine n’a finalement eu droit de cité qu’au début des années 80 à la faveur de ce qu’il est convenu d’appeler idéologie féministe. Mon but est de montrer l’intérêt thématique et surtout artistique des romans de Walker, romans qui déploient une technique du « patchwork » pour développer une théorie sociale, le « womanism » visant à un changement profond dans les rapports Blancs/Noirs, Noir/Noire et partant Homme/Femme.
The present article discuses the problematical issues of Black Women’s literature in North America based on Alice Walker’s two novels, the Third life of Grange Copeland and The Color Purple. Doubly marginal in relation to white literature and Afro-American literature, male-dominated as the latter is by names such as Wright, Ellison, Baldwin and others, Women’s literature only became a legitimate scholarly area at the beginning of the ‘80s with the ascendancy of what is commonly known as Feminist ideology. The aim of this article therefore is to show Walker’s thematic concerns, and in particular her artistic approach; Walker employs the “patchwork techniques, one that articulates a social theory called by herself “womanism”. By this theory, Walker envisages profound changes in black/white, black/black interrelationships and more particularly in male/female relationship.
LA TRADUCTION ET LA TECHNOLOGIE MODERNE : CAS DE DEUX LOGICIELS (SYSTRAN ET GOOGLE TRANSLATE).
(MRS) DINATU IWALA
Department of French, Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nasarawa State, Nigeria.
Aujourd’hui, le monde est devenu un petit village grâce à l’internet et la technologie moderne. On ne saurait vivre sans les technologies comme l’ordinateur, le téléphone portable etc. Ces technologies sont devenues parties intégrantes de notre vie quotidienne. La technologie moderne aide à rendre la vie très facile. Elle simplifie la vie de tous les jours. La technologie pourrait aider le traducteur pour faire la traduction. Elle est un moyen, un outil, un logiciel de sous-titrage. Elle a pour l’objectif final de réduire l’effort des être humains. Depuis deux derniers siècles, l’humanité a fait des pas énormes à ce qui attrait à l’innovation et aux progrès technologiques. Les technologies permettent de se rapprocher de faciliter la communication, d’améliorer l’enseignement et l’apprentissage et de faire économiser du temps énorme et nous facilitent beaucoup de tâche. De nos jours, on se sert de la technologie pour traduire. La technologie aide et facilite les activités traduisante. Dans ce travail nous allons analyser les problèmes de deux logiciels dans la traduction: La traduction systran et la traduction Google afin de proposer des solutions à ces problèmes.
A LINGUISTIC STUDY OF TIV NAMING SYSTEM
AKASE, TIAV T.
Department of Languages and Linguistics, Nasarawa State University, Keffi,
Nasarawa State, Nigeria.
Anthroponomastics is the study of personal names. It falls under the umbrella of Onomastics which is the science that studies names, their forms and uses. This study explores the way the ancient Tiv named their children and how it is done at present. The history and migration of the people, and their interaction with other ethnic groups, and how this has affected their naming pattern were examined. The genetic affiliation and typological classification of Tiv language were discussed. Finally, the naming practice and the various naming patterns in Tiv language were discussed. The work draws a conclusion that Tiv people give names that are meaningful and are classified into types, based on the various situations that warranted or generated such names. Their naming practice is not ceremonial. So the article recommends attitudinal transformation because naming is a celebration of life.
Keywords: anthroponomastics, onomastics, personal names, and ethnography.
AN EVALUATION OF AN INTEGRATED MARKETING PLAN AND STRATEGY: A CASE STUDY OF SADI COFFEE AND NOODLES JOINT GWALLAMEJI STUDENT VILLAGE, BAUCHI STATE-NIGERIA.
SADEEQ GARBA ABUBAKAR1, BELLO ADAMU DOGOJI2 AND HUSSAINI YARO ALI3
1&2 Department of Business Administration and Management, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. 3Department of Marketing, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.
Sadi Coffee and Noodles Joint is created and situated at Gwallameji student village. The marketing plan is for a three year period (2016-2018). In addition to coffee, the shop is offering ready-to-eat noodles. Sadi coffee has identified through its market research the potential buyers who share some similarities in their needs, buying processes and purchasing power. The strategy is to aggressively launch the new coffee shop into the market and to get the customers to buy the product, with a sustained growth in patronage and a continued appreciation of the product. A situation analysis, competition analysis and a SWOT analysis were carried out. The positioning in the target market was done. The brand positioning strategy considered the composition of the product, make and the brand that gives the product its distinguishing position. Recommendations were made such as the application of strategy of differentiation from competition, extensive promotional activities to popularize the name and services of the coffee shop in the market area, and offering a reasonable and competitive price that can be sustained.
ASSESSMENT OF SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION IN NIGER STATE. CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS FOR TRANSFORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA AND OTHER SUB – SAHARA AFRICAN COUNTRIES: MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS IN FOCUS.
ABDULLAHI MUSA ZHIKPE
Department Of Special Education, Niger State College Of Education, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria
Many of the special needs are very poor in their performances, some were ejected while others were dropped. There is therefore the existence of inclusive education in the state. Assessment of special education programme provisions for special needs and to the exceptional needs persons has therefore become very imperative. It is therefore part of it to develop the various places of the programme provisions of special needs education, schools and other learning rehabilitation centers in the state. Assessment of special needs education programmes as it may have been or had been taken in other authorities, places therefore include in this theme assessment types, beneficiaries and personnels and physical facilities that were or should be involved in the provision of programmes and derivations of benefits accrue to the provisions to the exceptional needs persons and the state in general. All these are central to the determination of eligibility and standard on provision of programmes of special needs education in Nigeria.
CORRUPTION AND FISCAL POLICY PERFORMANCE: EVIDENCE USING TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL RATING FOR NIGERIA
*ELEJE, EDWARD OGBONNIA ** ADEBAYO, GBENGA AYODELE
*Banking and Finance Department, Federal University, Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria **Accounting Programme, Management Sciences Department, Salem University, Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria
Policy analysts and other influential development experts disagree sharply on the role of corruption in fiscal policy performance. While some dismiss corruption as a major bane of economic progress and calling its role as being “over-emphasized”, others argue that, the idea that corruption contribute to worsening economic performance is a proposition too obvious for serious discussion. It is on the premise of the foregoing arguments that this study sought to evaluate the impact of corruption on fiscal policy performance in Nigeria.To achieve this, the study used secondary data sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletins as well as the Transparency International (TI) on government expenditure and retained revenue on one hand and on Corruption Perception Index (CPI) for Nigeria on the other hand for a period of 15 years respectively. The data was analyzed using Time series analysis while a computer-based bi-variate linear regression approach using the current statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20 was also used in the test of the hypotheses. The results show negative but not significant effect of corruption on government expenditure. It also showed a positive and statistically significant effect of slight increase in CPI on retained revenue. Based on these findings, the study concludes among others that, Nigeria at the moment is still highly corrupt going by the 0 to 10 index rating of Transparency International. The study therefore recommends among others that government leadership should cultivate the willingness and political will to fight corruption head-on.
X-BAR ANALYSIS OF ÁGÁTÙ NOUN PHRASE
UMARU, JACOB YAKUBU, AKASE TIAV T, & DAVID AREO ABRAHAM
Dept. of Languages and Linguistics, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nasarawa State, Nigeria
This paper presents an X- Bar analysis of Agátù noun phrase. Noun is a universal category common to all human language, likewise the Noun phrase. This universality notwithstanding, each language has its own specific variations as far as the realization of the NP is concerned. There are also some syntactic theories supporting the realization of noun phrases in human languages, one of them is the X-bar theory which makes it necessary to discuss the applicability of these theories on specific languages. It is based on this premise that this paper analyses the NP structure of Agátù language with the view of establishing the relevance of X-bar convention in Agátù NP structure. Data for this study were collected from daily utterances of speakers of the language as well as the intuitive knowledge of the researcher who is a native speaker of the language. Empirical data were also collected from related studies. It is shown in this paper that Noun in Agátù is vowel initial and the NP is head initial accompanied by other elements such as demonstratives, possessives, adjectives, numerals, quantifiers, noun and relative clauses. Furthermore, based on the X – bar convention, NP in Agátù can assume several bars and we summarized the syntactic position of Agátù NP thus [N1 N0…]. Also, independent unit of intermediate category, coordination as well as parsing are productive in the language. In conclusion, this study has shown the relevance of the X-bar model on the NP structure of Agátù as we were able to account and provide evidence of intermediate projections in Agátù NP. This study has a far reaching impact on the entire linguistic operation of Agátù and human languages in general and this can further inspire similar investigation in other Nigerian/African languages.