JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCE VOL.8, NO.1, DECEMBER, 2017 EDITIONS, ISSN: 2318-9315
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ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF MOSQUITO-BORNE DISEASES IN DARAWA COMMUNITY IN DUTSIN-MA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KATSINA STATE, NIGERIA
EZENKIRI, NWANKWO JUSTIN1, SHADRACH, MAN CHAFI (PH.D)2 & EMODI, OSELOKA JOSEPH3
Department of Physical and Health Education, School of Science, Isa Kaita College of Education, P.M.B. 5007, Dutsin-Ma, Katsina State, Nigeria, 2The proprietor, Damy Preparatory School, P. O. Box 95, Dutsin-Ma, Katsina State, Nigeria 3Department of Educational Foundation, School of General Education, Isa Kaita College of Education, P.M.B. 5007, Dutsin-Ma, Katsina State, Nigeria.
The study examined economic impacts of mosquito-borne diseases in Darawa Community in Dutsin-Ma Local Government Area of Katsina State, Nigeria with a view to proffer a lasting solution for the healthy living of the society. Descriptive survey research design was used in this study. The entire population of 349 participants obtained from virtually 300 households was studied. Area and simple random sampling techniques were used in selecting the participants. Instrument for data collection was a self-developed questionnaire. The instrument was validated by two health professionals while 0.73 reliability coefficient was obtained, using test and re-test method. Frequency, percentage counts and Chi-square were used to analyze data generated at level 0.05. The findings of this study show that there is significant incidence of mosquito-borne disease, problem posed by mosquitoes in preventing people of Darawa Community from achieving their daily goals/tasks such as reading, farming etc and expenditure in controlling and treating mosquito-borne diseases in Darawa community since 2015 to 2017 (p< 0.05). Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended among others that there is every need to conduct routine (weekly or monthly) environmental sanitation in Darawa community with the aim to deal with vectors especially the mosquitoes.
Key words: Economic impact and mosquito-borne disease.
TRANSFORMATION ASSESSMENT THROUGH ADAPTATION OF INFORMATION SYSTEM AND SOCIAL NETWORK SITE (FACEBOOK)
Department of Computer Sciences, Federal College of Education, Katsina, P.M.B. 2041, Katsina State.
Surfing the websites such as “Facebook”, Myspace and Twitter has become a prevalent phenomenon in the younger population. Nowadays, social network websites are the integral part of social, learning and working life for college students. The paper of the nature of using social network site reflects essential practical and academic values. The objective of the paper is to examine the transformation assessment through the adaption of information systems and social network site (facebook), based on the design theory of emergent knowledge process. The results of the paper can contribute more to the use of information systems and Social networking services in facilitating the development of online teaching and learning.
Keywords: Transformation Assessment, Information System, Social Network, Social Network Site Adoption
EFFECT OF BAMBARA NUT SIEVATE SUPPLEMENTED EXOGENOUS ENZYMES ON HAEMATOLOGY AND SERUM BIOCHEMICAL VALUE OF FINISHER BROILER BIRDS.
*E.O. AHAOTU1, V.N. OKONKWO2, K.C. OKORIE2 AND A. AKINFEMI3
1 Department of Animal Production and Health Technology, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo, Nigeria. 2 Department of Animal Science and Fisheries, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria.3 Department of Animal Science, Nasarawa State University, Laffia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria.
A total of 60 Anak strain broiler finisher birds of 28 days of age were used in a twenty eight (28) days feeding trial to determine the effect of bambara nut sievate fortified exogenous enzymes on the serum biochemical values and haematological assays of finisher broiler birds. Four experimental diets were formulated such that bambara nut sievate fortified exogenous enzyme was incorporated in the finisher broiler diets at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% dietary levels to replace soybean in the experiments in diets T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. The 60 finisher broiler birds were divided into 4 experimental groups of 15 birds per group and were randomly assigned to the 4 treatment diets and replicated three (3) times (5 birds per replicate). The haematological parameters such as Hb, PCV, RBC. and WBC increased with respect to control except in treatments 3 and 4. Furthermore, MCV, MCH and MCHC, were significantly different (p>0.05). Serum biochemical parameters such as urea, total protein cholesterol and globulin were significantly different (p<0.05) between the treatments, while creatinine and albumin were similar (p>0.05) between the treatment means. However, all the parameters of the WBC were not significantly different (p>0.05). All serum biochemical elements were significantly different (p<0.0) between the treatments. These results suggest that bambara nut sievate fortified exogenous enzymes could be included in the diet of finisher broiler birds up to 15% level without any harmful effect on the animal.
Keywords: Bambara nut sievate, exogenous enzymes, Broiler finishers, Serum Biochemistry, Haematology and Protein Source.
THE SPECIES COMPOSITION AND DIVERSITY OF THE COASTAL WATERS OF ONDO STATE, NIGERIA.
JOSEF BAMIDELE BOLARINWA,
Department of Fisheries Technology, Lagos State Polytechnic, P.M.B 21606, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria.
A study of the icthyofauna resources of the coastal waters of Ondo State of Nigeria conducted for 18 months (June 2011-December, 2012) revealed the presence of 67 finfish species with the clariids(especially Clarias gariepinus and Heterobranchus bidorsalis) and cichlids(especially Oreochromis niloticus and Coptodon zilli) dominating the stock accounting for 42% and 16% respectively. Other predominant families were A high ’Claroitedae’(Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) with 9.2% contribution, ’Channidae’(Parachanna africana) with 8.7%, Osteoglossidae (Heterotis niloticus) with 7.1%, Gymnarchidae( Gymnarchus niloticus), Mugilidae (Mugil cephalus) and Clupeidae (Ethmalosa fimbriata). Lausanne Index of Abundance was 89.7% while Margalef.s index( a measure of species richness) was 5.18. The Length-weight relationships of these predominant fishes showed negative allometric growth pattern. A high level of heterogeneity of stock was observed as revealed by Simpson Index and Shannon-Weiner Index of General Diversity (H i) which were 0.13 and 0.35 respectively. A lot of similarity in species composition existed as revealed by Evenness Index(E) of 0.20 and Berger-Perker Index of 0.88. There was comparatively higher catches of fish in the dry season than the wet season probably due to reduced water volume which concentrated the fishes for easier catchability. The author recommends the need to protect the existing stock especially the monospecific families like the Osteoglosidae and Gymnarchidae through regular monitoring of the physicochemical parameters of the coastal waters which are highly susceptible to crude oil pollution, Ondo State being a crude oil-producing area. More funds should be committed by the government to researches on population dynamics and biomass estimate of our coastal waters.
Keywords: Species composition, diversity indices, coastal, allometry, Length-weight relationship, icthyofauna, predominant.
SAFETY ASSESSMENT, IN–VIVO ANTI-TRPANOSOMAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOL ROOT EXTRACT OF SECURIDACA LONGEPEDUNCULATA IN MICE INFECTED WITH TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI BRUCEI
*HARUNA, Y 1., C.M. ELINGE 2
1,2 Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, P.M.B. 1144, Aliero, Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria.
Securidaca longepedunculata is a savannah shrub commonly used by traditional medicine practitioners in Nigeria; the plant is reputed to have over one hundred medicinal indications. The study aims at assessing the safety of the plant which is 2.8 mg/kg, and its trypanocidal activity using Swiss albino mice of both sexes: The animals were randomly selected and divided weight dependently into groups of 5 mice each, consisting of three methanol extracts groups of 5%, 10%, and 20% of the extract’s LD50 which is equivalent to (0.14, 0.28, & 0.56 mg/kg) respectively, and also a standard control drug (diminazene aceturate 3.5 mg/kg), infected and not treated group and no infection no treatment group. Except the no infection no treatment group, all other groups were infected with T. brucei. Invariably, each animal received inoculums of about 1.0 x 107 parasites per gramme body weight through needle passage and produced parasitaemia in the mice. On commencement of the medications the methanol root extract of S. longepedunculata was given to the three groups in divided doses for seven days and the diminazene aceturate was given at a therapeutic dose of 3.5 mg/kg just once. All the drugs were given through intra-peritoneal routes after confirming parasitaemia.
Keywords: Drug, mice, Securidaca longepedunculata, Parasitaemia, Treatment
ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION METHODS FOR CROP FARMERS IN IKWERRE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA.
HARRY, A. T.* AND SMART, E. B.**
*Department of Agriculture and Applied Economics/Extension, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, PMB 5080, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
The study assessed the extension methods for crop farmers in Ikwerre Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. Data were randomly collected with the aid of a structured questionnaire administered to 120 respondents who were crop farmers. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics, frequency and percentage and T-test to test the hypothesis. The results showed that the mean age of crop farmers was (40.6 years), findings also shows that (66.7%) of the farmers were males while 33.3% were females, household size of respondents which falls between 7 and 9 had a majority of (39.2%); (37.5%) with a mean of (8.2 per household) earned a monthly net income of 10000-20000 naira; (35.8%) also agreed that they were visited by extension agents once in three months; 60.8% of the farmers welcomed the improved cassava variety innovation, while 58.3% accepted the use of fertilizer technology. Crop farmers preferred the method demonstration and result demonstration of extension methods with 62.5% and 52.5% respectively. Constraints faced by extension agents in the use of extension methods were illiteracy level of the farmers (66.6%) and insufficient funds (53.3%). Findings also show that there is no significant difference between the extension agents and crop farmers in the extension methods used when the hypothesis was tested. This study therefore recommends an enhanced education and improved credit facilities to crop farmers in the study area.
Keywords: Agricultural extension; extension methods; crop; farmers; Ikwere.
ON THE APPLICATION OF A NUMERICAL ALGORITHM IN THE STUDY OF BIODIVERSITY UNDERGOING CHANGING FRACTIONAL ORDER DIMENSION
ATSU, J.U.1 AND EKAKA-A, E.N.2
1Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar, Nigeria 2Department of Mathematics, Rivers State University, Nkpolu, Port – Harcourt, Nigeria
This study has examined the effect of a fractional order reduction on the biodiversity loss using a computational approach. One of our key predictions has clearly shown that a fractional order of unit dimensions has predicted 15.26 percent of biodiversity loss whereas a fractional order of dimension 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 have predicted 0.234 percent, 0.3789 percent, 0.6593 percent and 1.1344 percent biodiversity loss respectively. These four (4) novel results correspond to the following levels of depletion of the original 15.26 percent biodiversity loss by 98.47, 97.52, 95.68 and 92.57. The other novel results that we have obtained which we have not seen elsewhere are presented and discussed quantitatively as alternative mitigation measures against the event of biodiversity loss which is inevitable.
Keywords: Numerical algorithm, biodiversity, fractional order dimension, ecosystem stability, mitigation measure
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND DIGESTIBILITIES OF SENNA OBTUSIFOLIA LEAVES (TAFASA) AND SORGHUM STOVER BASED DIETS IN GROWING SHEEP IN SEMI ARID REGION OF BORNO STATE, NIGERIA.
- A. JIBRIL1, F. I. ABBATOR2 I. D. KWARI2 AND A. A. MAKINTA1
1Department of Animal Production Technology, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Borno state. 2Department of Animal Science, University of Maiduguri, Borno State.
The study was conducted to evaluate the Chemical composition and digestibilities of S. obtusifolia leaves (Tafasa) and Sorghum Stover based diets in growing sheep. The result of the chemical composition were Expressed as % dry matter ranged from 90.00 to 96.02% while that of Sorghum Stover ranged from 90.6 to 90.8%. The Crude Protein content of S. obtusifolia leaves and Sorghum Stover ranged from 5.06, 10.36 and 22.11% respectively. The Crude Fibre content ranged from 19.0 to 34.00%. Ether Extract content ranged from 1.0 to 2.0%. The ash content ranged from 5.00 to 7.00%. The mineral composition of S. obtusifolia leaves and Sorghum Stover are rich in (Ca, K, P, Na, Mg, Fe, Zn and Cu). The mean dry matter digestibility of the treatment diets showed there was no significant (P>0.05) differences in apparent digestibility among the treatment groups. However, sorghum Stover supplemented group had the lower values. Dry matter digestibility ranged from 43.65 to 51.00% for treatment T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 respectively. It was concluded that S. obtusifolia leaves and sorghum Stover are generally low in nutritional value, but good in distribution of CP and CF. The nutrient compositions found explains the usage of this plant as a forage feed for ruminant animals as supplement to improved feed utilization. This reduced the cost of feeding concentrates, which are generally unaffordable by most small scale farmers in semi- arid environment of Nigeria.
Keywords: Senna obtusifolia leaves, crop residues, chemical composition, digestibility , based diets
APPRAISAL OF THE PATTERN OF DRUG PRESCRIPTION AND CONSUMPTION IN GENERAL HOSPITAL MAKARFI FROM 2011 – 2015
ALEWU, B., MUSA, D. O., FIRDAUSI, U., CAROLINE, Y., & YAHAYA B. Y.
Shehu Idris College of Health Sciences and Technology, Makarfi, Kaduna State – Nigeria
The patterns of drugs consumption and prescription in General Hospital Makarfi Kaduna state were undertaken. Drug is any chemical substances other than food that provide nutritional support that when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin or dissolved under the tongue causes a physiological change in the body. Drug consumption is the process of taking a chemical substance which is either prescribed by doctors, nurses or any of the medical practitioners with the sole aim of preventing, suppressing, and curing diseases or ailment. Prescription is a health care program implemented by a physician or other qualified health practitioners in a form of instruction that govern the plan of care for an individual patients. The purpose of this research is to find out the various forms of drugs employed by people, the type of drugs for each ailment mostly consumed by patients, the various ailment suffered by people that warrants the use of various drugs, and the age group mostly involved in drug consumption in General Hospital Makarfi from 2011-2015. This study is significant because it will give information of accurate diagnosis and proper treatment of patients by the doctors in this hospital generally. Secondly, cases of multi-drug resistance by patients can be detected and corrected. The problem of addiction, drug abuse, misuse, may be identified and addressed. Descriptive survey design was employed for this study. Both structured questionnaire and recorded data were used as instruments for data collection. The respondents were staff working in the present hospital and include: the Doctors, pharmacists, Nurses, and Medical record officers. The total number of 50 respondents and target population of 203096 patients attending this hospital for the stated period were considered for this present study. The method of sampling technique employed for this study is simple random sampling technique. The sample used for this study is 203096. This study employed simple percentage in data analysis. The form of drug mostly prescribed by doctors to the patients in this hospital is injectables (35174)(24%) followed by tablet (31434) (23%) between 2011 and 2015. Anti-malarials (1175344) (45.1%) were the type of drugs mostly prescribed for these patients in General Hospital Makarfi between 2011 and 2015, and least with anti-angina (17600) (0.7%). Comparing the anti-malarials, considering Coartem®, lonart®, P-Alaxin®, Quinine, and Artemeter produced by different companies, Artemeter is the drug mostly prescribed and consumed by these patients. In general, antimicrobial agents were the most prescribed in this hospital. For the stated period, the category of patients mostly prescribed drugs is the teenagers (179413) (4.7%). The type of diseases mostly suffered by these people is malaria (46537) (22.7%) and typhoid fever (36007) (18.0%) between 2011 and 2015 and least wit enterocolitis (2430) (1.2%). For the stated period, the category of patient mostly prescribed drugs is the young adult (349230) (18%) approximately between the ages of 21 – 35 years closely followed by infants (Aged 2-5yrs) (264852)(14%). Conclusively, STOP. It is recommended here that patient should follow the appropriate prescription by the doctor in order to avoid drug abuse. Patients must follow the appropriate pattern of drug consumption to avoid drug dependence or drug addition, patient should explain the illness clearly to the doctor (physician) in order to obtain accurate prescription.
Keywords: Drug, Consumption, Prescription, Hospital
ON THE DETERMINISTIC P-NORMS ERROR CALCULATIONS OF THE RELATIVE HUMIDITY-AIR TEMPERATURE INTERACTION DATA USING A MATLAB ALGORITHM
1JAMES GALADIMA, E. N. EKAKA-A2
1Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai,Niger State, Nigeria 2Department of Mathematics and Computer Science,Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
FIBER OPTICS COMMUNICATIONS AND THE REVITALIZATION OF THE NIGERIAN ECONOMIC: THE PROSPECT
OFUALAGBA MAMUYOVWI HELEN, DR FLANKLIN O. OKORODUDU
Department of computer science, Delta State Polytechnics Otefe-Oghara, Delta state
The down turn in global economies especially in third world countries like Nigeria may be a consequence of the poor implementation of fiber optics principles. Fiber optics, as the future of data communication, is an important telecommunication component for world-wide broadband network. Fiber optics, with its wide bandwidth signal transmission, negligible delay and low delay has become a major component for effective communication over long distances. With the influx of fiber optics operators into Nigeria because of the presumed huge potentials, it is envisaged that the current low penetration of fiber optic scan be revitalized to lead the country out of its current economic quagmire. This paper discusses the challenges militating against the high fiber optics penetration in Nigeria and proffered solutions.
Keywords: Fiber Optics, Telecommunication, Broadband, Revitalization, Quagmire