JOURNAL OF RENEWABLE AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH
VOL. 29 NO. 1 SEPT., 2023.
SUB-SAHARA AFRICAN ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS,
Centre for African Development Studies, P. O. Box 10108, U. I. Post Office. Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria.
EFFICACY AND PALATABILITY OF PELLETISE RODENTICIDE FORMULATED FROM CASTOR OIL SEED AGAINST RODENTS
Department of Crop and Environmental Protection, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Ogbomoso.
Rodents are one of the important pests of public health and agriculture, they are capable of causing crop damage and transmitting diseases to humans. The present rodent control strategy depends primarily on synthetic rodenticides, which are highly toxic non-target species, and are expensive. Naturally produced organic pesticides may be more desirable as they are less harmful specie specific and are economically sustainable. Pelletized rodenticide formulated from castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L. Euphorbiaceae) was assessed in a Laboratory experiment for its toxicity and palatability. The study was undertaken to evaluate the optimum concentration of a pelletize rodenticide formulated from castor oil seed on roof rats and to determine a suitable formulation of rat poison from castor oil seed. The roof rats used for this studies were collected from rabbitry, poultry and hostels of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Ogbomoso, Nigeria. Eighteen (18) roof rats were caught using a cage trap and were divided into three 3 replicates and each replicate had three cages. Each cage had two rats of both sexes. The weight of the roof rats used for this experiment is between 114g to157g of body weight and are sexually mature. Data were collected on the number of mortality from each treatment during the test period. The result of the treatment groups. higher mortality was recorded on ratio 1:1 of pelletized castor oil seed cake + commercial rat feed and fish meal than on ratio 1: 0.5 pelletized castor oil seed cake + commercial rat feed and fish meal. The most effective pelletize rodenticide studied composed of castor oil seed cake + commercial rat feed and fish meal. It was tested and estimated that ratio 1:1 castor oil seed cake + commercial rat feed and fish meal produce 50% mortality. But in control group, no mortality was recorded. A pelletized rodenticide formulated from castor oil seed resulted in rat mortality in the test but not in the control group. The liberation of the toxic substance from the poisoned bait might have been delayed by the presence of the plain bait (fish meal) in the choice test. The observation revealed that Castor oil seed cake only + commercial rat feed and fish meal ratio 1:1 formulated into a pellets can serve as an alternative to synthetic rodenticides.
Keywords: Castor Seed Oil, Formulated, Palatability, Pelletized Rodenticides, Roof Rat
PESTICIDES RESIDUE LEVEL IN VEGETABLES; AN ASSESSMENT OF VEGETABLE SAFETY IN MAKURDI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, BENUE STATE
EMMANUEL O OGWUCHE1, ESHIEMOKHAI COSMAS ODION2
1Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Makurdi 2Department of Chemistry, Center for Food Technology and Research (CEFTER), Benue State University Makurdi.
An assessment of pesticide residues in vegetables was necessitated based on the fact that pesticides are very dangerous to humans and the environment, hence, their use on the increase posed a serious residual challenge. Fresh samples of Spinach (Amaranthus hybridus), fluted pumpkin (Telferiaoccidentalis) and Pepper (Capsicum spp) were randomly selected, and 36 composite samples of identical vegetables were drawn from commercial farmers (North bank, Wurukum, and Wadata) and Non-commercial farmers. Pesticide residue levels were determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) at Chemistry Advanced research Centre, Sheda Science and Tech, Kwali. Data obtained from structured questionnaire and HPLC were statistically analyzed using Minitab 16.0, descriptive statistics operations and compared with WHO/FAO limits. The pesticide residues in the vegetables were within the WHO/FAO permissive level except the commercial vegetables; Cypermethrin in pumpkin, mean value of (21.030 ± 0.182 µg /L – 0.000±0.000µg /L), Emaectin benzoate in pepper, (1.8643 ± 0.0117 mg / ml – 0.000 ± 0.000 mg / ml) and Emaectin benzoate in pumpkin, (2.201±0.002mg/ml – 0.000±0.000mg/ml). These values were all above the WHO/FAO standards and MRLs of 0.02, 0.02, 0.01 and 0.03 mg/kg for Cypermethrin and Emaectin benzoate respectively. The presence of pesticides in these Vegetables calls for strict regulation regarding the application of pesticides in farms.
Keywords: Pesticides, Residue, Vegetables, Assessment, Safety
A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF X-RAY IRRADIATION ON THE FLORAL ATTRIBUTES OF AFRICAN MARIGOLD (TAGETES ERECTA L.) PLANT
EGBUCHA KELECHULWU CHRIS; NKAA, FRANCIS; AND OPAEA JULIE
Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umibike, Abia State, Nigeria.
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of different X-ray irradiation doses on the floral and horticultural attributes of African marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) plant with the aim of identifying any genetic effects which exposure to some mild doses of x-ray may have on the floral and ornamental qualities of this plant. The seeds were subjected to various X-ray doses using the Dongman X-ray machine of capacity 125kV, 250MA and rated line voltage of 220VAC). Seven treatment doses applied were as follows: (0mGy, 5mGy, 10mGy, 15mGy, 20mGy, 25mGy, 30mGy and 35mGy). Treated seeds were planted on sand filled pots arranged under shade house condition in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications of ten(10) seeds for each treatment.. LD50 was determined above 20mGy of X-ray irradiation. Higher doses above 20mGy proved to be lethal as no seedling emergence was observe. The stimulatory effect of X-ray irradiation was observed at 10mGy and 15mGy in almost all the floral characters studied. It was also observed that lowest X-ray dose of 5mGy was effective in inducing early flowering of Tagetes eracta plant. Contrastingly, the higher mutagenic dose of 20mGy substantially decreased all the floral characters as compared to the control. On the basis of the present observation, it may be concluded that X-ray irradiation of 10mGy and 15mGy could induce variability and enhance flowering of African marigold (Tagetes erecta). Thus, it can be recommended that the treatments with lower X-ray doses of10mGy and 15mGy be adopted for improving flowering attributes of African marigold (Tagetes ereta) plants and lowest X-ray dose of 5mGy for inducing early flowering.
Keywords: Targetes Floral, Ornamental, Irradiation, Petals, Mutagenesis
QUALITY DETERMINATION OF COOKIES FROM BLENDS OF COCOYAM (XANTHOSOMASAGITTI FOLIUM) AND BAMBARA GROUNDNUT (VIGNA SUBTERRANEAN) FLOUR
BULUS DANIEL SADIQ (PhD); & TANKO O ODENI
Dept. of Food Technology Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B 1012 Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State Nigeria.
Production and Quality evaluation of cookies from blends of cocoyam and bambara nut flour were studied using standard methods, the flour were mixed at various ratio of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50 of cocoyam to bambara groundnut flour as samples P1, P2, P3 P4, P5 and P6 respectively. The flour and product (cookies) were subjected to proximate, functional and sensory evaluation (NOAC 2000). The proximate analysis of the cookies for the protein ranged from 10.68±0.01 to 19.29±0.08, the moisture ranges from 9.23±0.01 to 9.67±0.01 and carbohydrate 60.50±0.08 to 76.67±0.04. The result of the functional properties of the flour were between 0.55±0.01 to 0.80±0.01 for the swelling index and 50.50±0.71 to 84.50±0.71 for wettability. The result of the sensory evaluation shows that there was no significant difference (P<0.05) in the colour, texture, taste and overall acceptability and there was significant difference (P<0.05) in flour of the product at 5% degree of freedom
Keywords: Cookies, Bambara Groundnut, Cocoyam, Blends, Cormels
THE EFFECT OF TIMELY PAYMENT OF AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE COMPENSATION ON INSURED FARMERS’ INCOME IN TARABA STATE
UGBE, JOHN FIDELIS
Department of Business Administration and Management, Federal Polytechnic Bali, Taraba State, Nigeria.
A solely empirical study is being conducted to determine whether insured farmers in Taraba State who suffered losses as a result of natural disasters were able to return and carry on with their agricultural businesses the following year. This research study’s major goal is to ascertain how timely agricultural insurance compensation payments affect the revenue of covered farmers. Six local government areas in Taraba State—Karim Lamindo, Ardo-kola, Lau, Bali, Gossol, and Wurkari—were chosen for the study by means of practical sampling approaches that cut across the three senatorial districts. The population of the study consists of 3223 insured farmers, which corresponds to all the farmers registered in Jalingo, Taraba State, with the Nigerian Agricultural Insurance Corporation. Using the population as the sample, Taro Yamane’s sample size formula produced a sample size of 356. A survey sample technique, which involved the use of questionnaires, was used to collect the data. Only 348 of the about 356 sent questionnaires were returned. Through their various farmers’ cooperatives, the microfinance and commercial banks that disbursed agricultural loans and helped the farmers insure their farms with the Nigerian Agricultural Insurance Corporation (NAIC), which offers farm insurance in Nigeria, assisted the researcher in gathering the respondents. At a significance level of 0.05, the chi-square statistical method is utilized to analyze the null hypothesis. The study reveals that timely payment of agricultural insurance compensation has a significant impact on insured farmers’ income by safeguarding farmers’ incomes through the payment of compensation that allow farmers to continue running their farms the following year regardless of the losses sustained. Some suggestions were presented, among them is the necessity of providing affordable insurance premiums.
Keywords: Agricultural Insurance, Compensation, Insured farmers, Income, Timely Payment