CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCES (CJPAS)
VOL. 20 NO. 9 – MARCH, 2021 EDITION
Cambridge Research and Publications International,
Africa (Nigeria): Centre for African Humanity and Development Circle
(CAHDC), University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
Copyright © 2021 Cambridge Research and Publications International.
CHARACTERIZATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE AS A POTENTIAL TREATMENT OF HEAVY METAL EFFLUENTS BY THE RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLY
OLORUNSEUN JOSHUA OGUNDEJI; AND ABDULFATAI JIMOH
Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria
Liquid waste discharge from process industries, when not properly handled and disposed, poses a great risk to both man a nd the environment. In this present work, sugarcane bagasse was characterized by proximate analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) found to have 177.961 m2/g, Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and RAMAN spectroscopy. In the adsorption study, the individual and interactive effects of the four critical parameters including reaction time, pH of the solution, temperature and adsorbent dosage on removal efficiency of Cr, Zn and Cd were accessed by applying the response surface methodology combined with the central composite design. The models provided an excellent interpretation of experimental data with acceptable coefficients of determination (R2) and analysis of variance demonstrated statistical significance of the model terms. The maximum percentage removal of Cr, Zn and Cd were found to be 69.05%, 49.95% and 59.33% respectively in the experiments.
Keywords: sugarcane bagasse, heavy metals, Response Surface Methodology (RSM)
DAILY RAINFALL INTENSITIES LEADING TO FLOOD IN PORT HARCOURT, NIGERIA
*JOHNSON, D.V; GOBO, A.E; NGEREBARA, O.D. & **EKAKA-A, E.N.
*Institute of Geosciences and Environmental Management, Rivers State University, Nkpolu -Oroworokwu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. **Department of Mathematics, Rivers State University, Nkpolu -Oroworokwu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
Daily Rainfall data of Port Harcourt, Nigeria from 1981 to 2016 (36 years) was obtained from Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) and analyzed based on 6 different classes of rainfall intensities as in Tarhule et al., 2009. Six (6) rainy months of May, June, July, August, September and October were considered for rainfall intensities of Extremely light, Light, Moderately light, Moderately heavy, Heavy, and Extremely heavy. Total of each classes or ratings were calculated and Total rainy days obtained for the 6 months being considered with the rating percentage of each class of intensity. The percentage of extremely light rainfall varied from 45.590 in 1999 to 65.854 in 1983. The light rainfall varied from 13.870% in 1982 to 28.0% in 1986. Moderately heavy rainfall ranges between 1.60% in 1986 to 7.14% in 2005. Heavy rainfall component ranged from 0.0 in 1983 to 3.361% in 2007. Extremely heavy rainfall varied from 0.0 for many years of the considered period to 4.26% in 2014. Rainfall contributes greatly to flooding in a city so a knowledge of rainfall intensity is essential in planning for agriculture, design of flood protection, preventive and mitigation facilities. Rainfall intensities and duration are natural occurrences and knowledge of them helps in future planning and management of flood in the city.
Keywords: Rainfall, intensity, Total rainy days, classes of rainfall, flood management.
A PURE GAME APPROACH TO FLOOD DISASTER MITIGATIVE BUDGETARY DECISION SEARCH
LAURETTA EMUGHA GEORGE & ISOBEYE GEORGE
Mathematics /Statistics Department, Ignatius ajuru university of education, Rumuolumeni, Port Harcourt.
The curious nature of man has led to the persistent exploration, exploitation, and alteration of the environment which result in the advancement of urbanization, industrialization and global development in all areas of human endeavour thereby achieving various sustainable developmental goals. The endless interaction between man and his environment causes a negative effect on the people, economic property and the environment over a period of time. Among all the natural disasters, flooding has the biggest damage potential on the affected peoples, economy and environment. Flooding is one of the commonest and most devastating disasters. But irrespective of the negative effects of flood disaster on the society and the economy of the world, the funding methods so far cannot withstand the magnitude of worst case scenarios thereby bring budgetary pressure on the shoulders of government. This study depicts a two person zero sum pure strategy matrix game between man (human community/society/corporation/government agency) and nature ~ in the event of flood-causing natural or behavioural disasters (human behavior precipitated disasters). In this game scenario, man was viewed as the human decisioner and he was the row player while nature or behavior was the column player such that the total payoff function (Ui) of the row player was equated to the total payoff function (Vj) of the column player. Hence Ui + Vj = Gij = 0 where Gij is the payoff function of the game. This implied that the budgetary strategy choice of the human decisioner was able to withstand the gravity of the flood disaster which was the random strategy choice of physical nature or behavioural nature as the case may be. The result showed that the human community/society/corporation/government agency was not always adequately prepared for the physical or behavioural disaster like seasonal rain flooding. Hence, the natural occurrence (physical or behavioral) takes them by surprise, causing huge damages and untold losses of human life and economic property. Based on the findings of the study, we have recommended that the human community/society/corporation/government/government agency should always stay prepared for the worst case scenario of flood disaster irrespective of the actual severity level thereby making available in a verifiable reserve bank account the highest mitigative budgetary value for any physical or behavioural disaster outbreak.
Keywords: Mitigative, budgetary decision, pure strategy, game model, flood disaster, severity
COMPARATIVE ANALYSES OF JET COMPONENT PARAMETERS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI
*LEGHARA EMMANUEL I; *FRANCES ANAKWE; **DEBORAH GAYUS & ***HARUNA NDAHI
*Chukwuemeka Odomegu Ojokwu University Uli. **College Of Agriculture Gujba ***Federal Coe Ehamaufu
We carried out statistical analysis of observable parameters of jet components of quasars, radio galaxies and BL Lac objects. We employed descriptive statistics and one dimensional linear fit to the log-log plots of the parameters. In general, quasars have highest luminosity with average luminosity as , with highest brightness temperature redshift , fastest , largest in size and furthest from the core . Using the absolute difference between the weighted mean position angle and the proper motion position angle in degree, as a measure of the changing direction of the jet motion, indicates that BL Lacs which are blazars have the largest changes in the assumed ballistic motion. In general, the relationship between the observable parameters were not strong and generally with a lot of scatter except the ;with correlation coefficient of for the three classes of radio sources and with very high values of index in the log-log relation of for quasars; for radio galaxies and for BL Lac objects, and the relation; with correlation coefficient of for the three classes of radio sources and with relatively low scatter in the index in the log-log relation of for quasars; for radio galaxies and for BL Lac objects. The strong relation supports the self-similarity model assumed in the analysis of the evolution of radio source.
Keywords; Galaxy, Active galactive nuclie, Quasars. Bl lac and correlation
EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES OF VIRTUAL TEACHING METHODOLOGIES AND THE CHALLENGES OF QUALITY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY TEACHERS OF INTELLECTUALLY CHALLENGED IN AFRICA CONTINENT IN THE FAST-MOVING WORLD DURING THE COVID 19 LOCK DOWN CHALLENGES
*I.K. OJUOPE; **A.O. ADETUNMBI; ***O.E. OYINLOYE
*Department of Computer Science, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State. **Department of Computer Science, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State. ***Department of Computer Science,Ekiti State Univerversity, Ado Ekiti
The pandemic crisis of COVID-19 brought big challenge which makes E-learning to become the mandatory component of all educational institutions like schools, colleges, and universities in and around the world. This challenging situation has flipped out the traditional teaching process and adopt virtual system of teaching and learning. The use of virtual teaching methodology during this COVID-19 pandemic provides an effective teaching method that brings out the best in students living with physical challenges. As several developed countries move into this virtual system of teaching methodology, the case is not so in Africa as several countries are still far behind. From the report of World Bank (2020) on Pivoting to Leveraging Lessons from the COVID-19 Crisis for Learners with Disabilities, it was observed that several people living with disabilities have tendency to spread this Pandemic and they have little or no access to the technology that drives this modern system of learning and several teachers most especially in African countries stick to the use of traditional method of teaching and learning. The report of World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank (2011), physically challenged persons carry a significant proportion of the world’s population, about 15%. As a result of differences in access to quality education to the normal individuals, they are rarely seen as contributor to productive human capital development of the Society. Most of the Learning Challenged children have little or no access to education, this is as a result of several challenges they face in learning and comprehension. This paper focuses on the effective strategies of virtual teaching methodologies and the challenges of quality science and technology teachers of the intellectually challenged in Africa continent in the fast-moving world during the COVID 19 Lock down challenges. This will enhance the learning ability of this category of Students during this COVID-19 lock down and also motivate their desire to learn. This research work was carried in one of the government school for handicap children in Nigeria. From the learning ability testing of the research, it was discovered that the students learn faster and easier with the use of ICT base assistive technology than normal classroom learning. As a result of this, this paper focus on comparing level of efficiency of the ICT base virtual teaching methodology during this COVID-19 pandemic ing for these categories of Students.
Keywords: Teaching Methodology, Science and Technology, Teachers, Physical Challenges, Education, COVID-19, Pandemic Disease, Virtual Reality, Assistive Technology, ICT, Teaching, Learning.
EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERISATION OF KACHIA GINGER OIL
UMAR MUSA; JIBRIN WAZIRI & MUSA IDRIS TANIMU
Department of Chemical Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Nigeria.
In this study, oil was from Kachia ginger extracted and characterized. The extraction was carried out at different particle sizes of 60 m, 150 m, 250 m, 350 m, and 425 m of the Kachia ginger. A constant period of 2 h, equal solvent (ethanol) volume of 250 ml and extraction temperature of 100 oC were maintained. The oil yield was found to increase as the particle sizes of the ginger decreases, and the optimum particle size was 250 m which gave the maximum oil yield of 3%. From the physiochemical analysis of the oil, the results showed that the saponification value, iodine value, Acid value, free fatty acid and pH are 92 mgKOH/g, 16.23 gI2 /100g, 5.01 mgKOH/g, 2.5 mg/g, and 5.7 respectively. The oil composition was also determined using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the results showed the presence of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid as follows: 3-Iodo-thiophene-2-carboxamide (41.13%), 3,6-Bis(N-formamido) carbazole (16.34%), 1-1-Bromoundecanoic acid (6.25%), 3,5-bis(methylthio)-4-phenil- Isothiazole, (5.49%), 6-Methyl-trizolo(4,3-b)(1,2,4)-triazine (4.74%) and Undecanoic acid (4.62%). The physicochemical analyses of the extracted oil revealed that the oil possess antioxidants which makes it suitable for consumption.
Keywords: Kachia ginger, Oil extraction, particle sizes, oil yield, physiochemical analysis, GCMC analysis.
GRONWALL’S INEQUALITY FOR INTEGRO-DIFFERENTIAL DELAY EQUATIONS AND ITS APPLICATIONS
Department of Mathematics, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt
The paper analyses the asymptotic behaviour of differential equations when subject to a delay system with basic example. The scheme developed give a favourable solution that will be useful to any system under consireation.
Keywords: Delay equations, integro-differential equations, gronwall’s inequalities.
COMPUTER VISION TO DETECT DRIVING DISTRACTION USING HISTOGRAM ORIENTED GRADIENT (HOG)
*SUBERU YUSUF; **MADU IFEYINWA MARISA; ***SUNUSIABDULHAMID DANTATA; ***IDRISYA’U IDRIS
Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, BauchiState
Road accidents in Nigeria and all over the world have been a major problem for a very long time. Thousands lose their lives and millions of people lose a livelihood annually because of road accidents. Fatigue, which causes drowsiness among other factors, is a key contributor to road accidents. This study aimed at making use of the available technologies to detect distraction among drivers at early stage in order to prevent or reduce the impact associated with accident, this is achieved by warning the driver of his or her state when driving. Agile development is adopted in the development of the final product that targeted embedded devices. The final product regist9+ered good system performance with up to 65% drowsy cases detected by the system.
Keywords: Fatigue, road accident, livelihood, drowsiness, detects distraction, agile development, and embedded devices.
ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA IN THE SOIL WITHIN A REFUSE DUMPING SITE IN DAMATURU, YOBE STATE
IBRAHIM ADAMU GODOWOLI & ABUBKAR AJI
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, the Federal Polytechnic Damaturu Yobe State.
A total of four (4) soil samples were collected from two (2) different dump sites in Damaturu Metropolis, The samples were examined for temperature, pH and total heterotrophic bacterial. The mean temperature values of the soils ranged from 27 to 28°C while the mean pH values ranged from 6.5 to 7.8. The total heterotrophic bacterial population ranged from 142×107, 2.8×108, 2.91×108 and 3.00×107 respectively. The gram reaction and the following biochemical test i.e catalase, coagulase and indole were conducted, the result shows gram positive and gram negative organisms were detected, the biochemical result identified the following organism Bacillus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella., Proteus, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species. Regular removal of waste from the dump site and adequate sanitary condition around the dump site were recommended.
Keywords: Bacteria, Dumping, Pathogenic, Refuse, Soil
ASSESSMENT OF SOME SELECTED HEAVY METALS IN WATER, SEDIMENT AND FISHES OF GEIDAM RIVER, GEIDAM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, YOBE STATE, NIGERIA
1HARUNA, A., 2A. MOHAMMED FARAFARA
1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Mai Idris Alooma Polytechnic, Geidam, Yobe State, Nigeria. 2 Department of Electrical and Electronics, Mai Idris Alooma Polytechnic, Geidam, Yobe State, Nigeria.
The aim of this study was to assess heavy metal concentration (Arsenic, Chromium,Cadmium, Copper and Zinc ) in sediments, water and two selected fish species Cat fish (Clarius gariepinus) and Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Geidam river. The samples were collected from February to August, 2020 at five different sampling sites. The heavy metals concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the results obtained for water and sediments samples ranged from 0.000mg/kg to 0.405mg/kg and 0.011mg/g to 2.600ml/g for Arsenic Chromium,Cadmium, Copper and Zinc respectively and fish had concentrations of 0.000mg/g to 0.930m/g and the data was analyzed using one way analysis of variance and shows there were statistically significant differences in metal concentrations among the sampling sites and sampling months in sediment. Significant differences accepted at p ≤ 0.05. All the heavy metals detected were found to exceed the limits stipulated by FAO/WHO which could be due to inflow of domestic waste and industrial effluent into the river. The results show the need for an ecosystem approach towards sustainable management of reservoirs. This will curb aquatic pollution which is a public health threat to people consuming aquatic resources contaminated with heavy metals
Keywords: Heavy metal, Contamination, River, Sediment, Fish, Water
MINIMIZATION OF TRAINING TIME OF A CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORK BY ADDING K-NEAREASET NEIGHBOR AS CLASSIFIER
FATIMA AHMED ABUBAKAR; ATIKA AHMAD JIBRIN; ISHAQ MUHAMMED; AMATULLAH YAHYA ALIYU & TURAKI ABDULKADIR MAIGARI.
Department of Computer Science, the Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.
Image classification is an essential task in machine learning and computer vision however it is still challenging. Although, over the past years, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have greatly boosted the performance of a series of image classification tasks, recent works have shown that the softmax commonly used at the classification layer has exhibited some limitations. These limitations include low prediction performance. This research work aims at replacing the fully connected and the softmax layers with k-nearest neighbor so as to hybridize the model. This enabled us to overcome the limitation of the softmax as well to use the KNN to classify large dataset. CNN was adopted for feature extraction and the KNN for classification. Comparison of our model was done with two existing models- the original CNN and the CNN-SVM. Each model was executed ten times on four datasets and obtained as mean for three models as 358.92s for the CNN, CNNSVM 46.02s and our model CNNKNN 39.42s as training time respectively.
SIMULATION OF CLOUD-BASED CRM MODEL
SULAIMAN UMAR1, AHMADU MAIDORAWA2 & KABIRU IBRAHIM MUSA (PHD)3
1Department of Computer Science, School of Communication & Information Science, AD Rufa’i College of Education, Legal and General Studies, Misau, Bauchi State, Nigeria. 2Department of Management and Information Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi, Nigeria. 3Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria
Cloud based CRM is an approach to CRM that relies on cloud computing platforms and services to deliver a business with more flexible business process revolution. Cloud based CRM systems are nowadays seen as an influential IT solution for organizations. What inform the research is the fact that business environment, face aggressive competition and increasingly short product development cycles. As such, they are required to provide high-quality products and fast services. Therefore, there is need to have a system that is scalable and has the ability to handle a growing volume of work in a capable manner. The objective of this research, therefore, is to propose a Cloud-based Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Model that will be scalable to accommodate the ever-increasing computing demand without affecting the computing time. The study adopted experimental methodology using simulation technique to conduct the experiment with CloudSim simulation tool 3.0. The result revealed that in the cloud based CRM is faster than the traditional system in handling growing volume of workloads. The key contribution of this research is the incorporation of cloud scalability to the work of El Fazziki et al as well as simulating the model.
Keywords: cloud based, CRM, model, scalability.
USE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN PROVISION OF SECURITY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA: VALUE OF MATHEMATICS
ONWUBUMPE, BIBIANA NKIRUKA & AKUNNA, OGOCHUKWU AGATHA
Department of Statistics, Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State, Nigeria.
High value in security is greatly needed for Nigeria, as a developing nation, to achieve sustainable national development. A means to actualize security in Nigeria is through utilization of science and technology. Science and technology demands the application of mathematics. The paper discussed on how mathematics is valuable for the utilization of science and technology in ensuring security in Nigeria. Issues discussed in the paper are focus on security for sustainable development in Nigeria, science and technology as a means of providing security, application of mathematics in science and technology for security purpose. The paper contained some recommendations that gears towards promoting the use of mathematics in science and technology. It was pointed out that mathematics is valuable in ensuring security for it plays some role in: embracing of ethics in science and technology education, enhancing productivity in science and technological jobs, designing and repairing of security devices, offering of effective products pertaining to security.
Keywords: mathematics, science and technology, security, sustainable development, Nigeria
ANOTHER MODEL EQUATION FOR CORRELATING UNAVAILABLE SOLAR RADIATION WITH RELEVANT CLIMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS FOR METEOROLOGICAL STATIONS IN NIGERIA
UMAR W1., DAHUWA D2 AND BITRUS B.M3.
1, 2Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Aminu Saleh College of Education, P.M.B. 044, Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria. 3Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Taraba State University, P.M.B. 1176, Jalingo Taraba State, Nigeria
In this paper, multiple linear regression has been applied to analyze the data of four meteorological stations in Nigeria viz: Bauchi, Bida, Kano and Nguru via a newly proposed five parameter model equation. The analysis was carried out for both yearly and seasonal variations. Regression coefficients, parameters and goodness-of-fit indices were obtained for each of the stations and an adjusted coefficient of determination, was recorded for most stations. For the yearly and seasonal variations, the empirical model proposed in this work yielded the best-fit equation for all the stations, as opposed to similar empirical models in the literature. With the exception of Nguru were satisfactory fits are obtained with seasonal variation, the results obtained for Bauchi, Bida and Kano are good enough with yearly variation of input data. The results obtained in this research may find suitable applications in areas of agriculture, aviation and weather forecast
Keywords: Empirical equation, cloud cover, relative humidity, relative sunshine duration, climatological parameter, solar radiation
EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ALLAMANDA SEED OIL AS FEED STOCK FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION
SUNDAY SAMUEL OJONUGWA.; OLUTOYE, M.A & ABERUAGBA, F.
Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.
Allamanda cathartica is regarded as an environmental weed and mostly planted as flowers for home beautification, allamanda seeds in most cases is underutilized. Research had shown several importance and uses of allamanda cathartica, it ability to cure colic, jaundice, diarrhea, malaria and vomiting. Allamanda cathartica contains nutrients such as alkaloids, fatty acid, carbohydrates, flavonoids and saponins (Satiah, 2016). The extracted oil from allamanda cathartica seeds has non edible property, this property makes allamanda seed oil a good substitute of palm oil, coconut oil and other edible oils as feedstock for biodiesel production. In this research, soxhlet extraction method was used to extract oil from the allamanda seed and characterized, hexane was used as the extraction solvent and the extracted allamanda oil is dark brown in colour with a percentage yield of 54 %. The saponification value of allamanda oil is 158.483 mgKOH/g which falls below the values given by ASTM, AOCS and Abdelaziz et al..,2012, this indicates the absence of unsaturated fatty acid and characteristics of foaming ability. The free fatty acid value of allamanda oil is 2.60 % which is in the range given by ASTMD 6751, this indicates that the allamanda oil will not be corrosive when used for biodiesel production. The peroxide value of allamanda oil is 5.36 meq/kg is slightly above that of ASTM but lesser than the sighted literature, this indicates that the oil has good oxidative stability. From the obtained result, it can be concluded that allamanda oil is a good substitute for edible oil as feed stock in the production of biodiesel.
Keywords: Biodiesel, allamanda seed oil, soxhlet extraction and feed stock
PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF POTASH (MANGUL) SOLD IN DAMATURU SUNDAY MARKET, YOBE STATE.
KATUZU. M. I1; HODI. A. I2; LAWAN. L3 & AMINA. G. M4.
Department of Science of Basic Science1 Department of Science Laboratory Technology2&3 Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe State. Department of Midwifery Aminu Sule College of Nursing and Midwifery4 Damaturu. Yobe State.
The term “potash” include various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water soluble form. The physicochemical parameters (solubility, density, pH, moisture content) was conducted using standard procedures and elemental analysis were carried out using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS), Digital Colorimeter and Flame Photometer. The solubility values for potash is 6.82 mg/L, the density of 2.50 (g/cm3), the pH of 12.83 and the moisture content for the sample was 3.17mg/L. The sodium content was 32.50±1.62 g/100g which is higher than all the concentration of the analytes hence, the concentration is within the acceptable permissible limit.The amount of Chloride detected in the sample 46.04±1.25 g/100g. Potassium and Sulphate were found to have the concentration of 14.70±0.73 g/100g and 1.95±0.10 g/100g respectively. The results indicated the presence of Aluminium, Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, and Copper in the potash sample.While Barium, Boron, Cadmium, Nickel, Manganese, Lead, Chromium, Zinc, Arsenic, Selenium and Cobalt were not detected in the potash sample. The result of this study indicates that potash is essential source of elements required for growth and development. Therefore, it is recommended that potash due to its several industrial application can be used in production of material such as glass, soap and ceramics also potash is used as a source of potassium in production of potassium fertilizer which can boost agricultural productions.
Keywords: physicochemical, potash, fertilizer, analysis, boost, solubility.
ANALYTICAL MODELLING OF SINGLE PHASE SMART METER WITH REAL-TIME TAMPERING ALERT
*OLADOSU, D.A, **ADEDUBU, O.A; **ADESHIPO, M. E; **ONI, S.O
*Department of Computer Engineering, the Polytechnic, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. **Department of Electrical Engineering, the Polytechnic, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.
The advent of wireless automation has led to drastic change in billing structure. This study presents a smart metering system without any human intervention which detects illegal electricity consumption by GSM/GPRS facilities in collaboration with a database installed at the central station. The system was implemented by modeling voltage and current transformers using Theveninn’s Equivalence with relevant A.C parameters to process average utility consumption by the end user. Analog to Digital Converter and NAND gate converted the processed analog signal into digital form and eliminated jittering respectively, while microcontroller served as interface for the input and output modules so as to send and receive commands from GSM modules, Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and Light Dependent Resistor (LDR). Finally, a mathematical model was developed for billing parameters while Assembly Language was used as firmware. The end result was launched into Proteus Electrical Card Tool for simulation, to ensure that virtual operation of the Single Phase Energy Meter was within the predefined requirements. The simulating results obtained showed that the prototype developed and tested, proved to be reliable, secure and cost effective. Significant time can be saved by implementing it.
Keywords: Energy; GPRS; Modeling; Metering; Transformer.
DESIGN OF INDUSTRIAL GAS BURNER TO MANAGE SOOT PRODUCTION DURING GAS FLARING
UGOCHUKWU KENNETH UDEZE; & KENECHI MARKANTHONY ONWUGHALU
Department of Electrical Electronics Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Oko.
This research was conducted to foster solution to soot production problem during gas flaring by designing industrial gas burner that will effectively burn the gas and prevent release of soot. To achieve this objective, two different natural gas samples labelled A, B with different methane composition of 70% and 60% respectively where investigated at different flow rate ranging from 50-250kg/hr. taking into consideration two different burner dimension which include burner pipe diameter and burner pot diameter. Aspen HYSYS simulation software version 8.1 was used to simulate the flare burner system while analytical models were used to ascertain relationship between the parameters. The results of simulation showed that as the mass flow rate of natural gas increased from 50-250kg/hr. the mass of air required for complete combustion increased from 130-340kh/hr. for sample A, 160-395kg/hr. for sample B, While the analytical developed showed that as mass flow rate of natural gas increases from 50-250kg/hr. burner pipe diameter increased from 18-56cm for sample A, 22-63cm for sample B while burner pot diameter increased from 18-56cm for sample A, 22-75cm for sample B. it is therefore concluded that lighter gas sample required lesser air, smaller burner diameter, smaller burner pot diameter for efficient flare process.
Keywords; Gas burner, Gas flaring, Natural gas, Soot formation
THE STUDY OF SORPTION ISOTHERMS FOR VARIED TEMPERATURES OF BITTER KOLA (GARCINA KOLA)
*IJI, SUNDAY IBE; **OBOH, INNOCENT OSERIBOH; & *OBOMANU, CECILIA ALEX
*Entrepreneurship Development Centre, Federal Polytechnic, Ukana. Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. **Deptartment of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Uyo, Uyo. Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.
Sorption isotherms of bitter kola (garcina kola) were determined experimentally using the static gravimetric method at 30 oC, 40 oC, 50 oC and 60 oC within the range of 0.113 – 0.970 water activity. The equilibrium moisture content increased with increasing water activity at a given temperature and decreased with increase in temperature. The experimentally obtained data were used to evaluate the suitability of Brunaeur-Emmet-Teller (BET), Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) and Oswin models. The models’ parameters were computed using an iterative nonlinear regression technique. The experimental data were also fitted to an empirical model using multiple regression analysis and the results were compared. Monolayer moisture content was determined from BET and GAB models, the values were observed to be consistent with other food materials. The sorption isotherm curves obtained were sigmoidal (typical type II isotherm). The results demonstrated that the three models adequately predicted the equilibrium moisture content of bitter kola. On the basis of fit, all the models were suitable for analyzing the observed data with the values of correlation coefficient less than unity and root mean square error (RMSE) values also low. The best results on the basis of monolayer moisture content were observed at 30 oC and 40 oC. This reveals that at low temperatures, the shelf life of bitter kola is extended.
Keywords: Sorption Isotherms, Bitter kola, Static gravimetric method, Equilibrium moisture content, Monolayer moisture content
ASSESSMENT OF ICT FACILITIES IN PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA
1ISMAILA FOLASADE. M.; 2ISMAILA W. OLADIMEJI; 3OLAJIDE ANTHONY T; & 1OLADOYE S. FEMI
1 Department of Computer Science, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree, Nigeria.
2Department of Computer Science, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria, 3Department of Computer Science, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin, Nigeria.
Information and communication technology (ICT) refers to processing and sharing of information using all kinds of technologies for the manipulation and communication of information. To improve high school education is essential to the creation of effective human capital in any country (Evoh, 2007). This study assessed the ICT facilities in public high schools in Osun state, Nigeria. Twenty-four schools constitute the population within which the research was conducted with about five hundred teachers. A 24-item structured questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection which was administered on 270 teachers. 199 answered questionnaires were returned representing 99.5 percent. Data collected were analyzed using ANOVA at a p<0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed that there are no enough ICT facilities for teaching and learning. Also, the results of ANOVA showed that (i) there are no enough ICT facilities for teaching and learning; (ii) the students face challenges with the use of ICT facilities (iii) that the use of ICT facilities has effects on teaching and learning of the students and (iv) that teachers do have knowledge on the use of ICT facilities in the public high schools in Osun state. Therefore, the study recommended that in order to justify the huge spending of Osun state government of provision of ICT facilities, the public high schools should be equipped with adequate ICT facilities (not only computers) that cut across all levels of high school in order to enhance modern methods of impacting knowledge to students.
Keywords: ICT, ANOVA, Osogbo metropolis, high school, Likert scale
THE ROLE OF DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DBMS) IN INSTITUTION/ORGANIZATION
OFUALAGBA MAMUYOVWI HELEN
Department of Computer Science, Delta State Polytechnics Otefe, Oghara, Delta State.
Today an organization uses large amounts of data. A database management system (DBMS) is a software tool that makes it possible to organize data in a database. Within an organization, the development of the database is typically controlled by database administrators (DBAs) and other specialists. This ensures the database structure is efficient and reliable. In this paper we will look what database management system is all about, and to know the role of DBMS in managing institution records, and also to understand the various areas database can be used. The benefit of DBMS in institution,
Keywords: Data, Database, Dbms, Record, System, Server, Codasyl, and Mysql