CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LAW, POLITICS AND HUMANITIES RESEARCH (CJLPHR)
VOL. 26 NO. 6 – DECEMBER, 2022 EDITION
Cambridge Research and Publications International,
Africa (Nigeria): CAHDC, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
Copyright © 2022 Cambridge Research and Publications International.
THE EFFECTS OF POLITICAL INSTABILITY ON THE SOCIO – ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, ABUJA, NIGERIA
SARKA, S.W., PHD1 & BULUS B. S., PHD2
1Department of Public Administration, National Open University of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria. 2Department of Administration & Finance, FCT Primary Health Care Board, Abuja, Nigeria
This paper assessed the effects of Political Instability on the Socio- Economic Development in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja. The study adopted survey research design and descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data collected with the aid of SPSS software version 19. Three research questions guided the study and the research instrument used was a self-designed questionnaire. Random sampling techniques were used to select respondents and the Taro Yamane Sampling method was utilized in determining the sample size of 400 respondents for the study out of 800,000 populations. Accordingly, 400 copies of the questionnaire were distributed of which 392 were retrieved and analyzed. Findings from the study shows that mistrust among different ethnic/religious groups, corruption, thuggery, imposition of candidates, greed, flaws in our electoral laws and judiciary system causes political instability which affect the Socio-Economic Development of the FCT. Findings also revealed the consequences of political instability in the FCT to include mal administration, corruption, nepotism, lack of free and fair elections, general insecurity of lives and properties. The recommendations proposed in the study includes; the menace of political instability in FCT should be taken seriously; Prompt efforts should be made to tackle the challenges from its roots; War against corruption and political thuggery should be stepped up to save the society from decay; Public awareness campaign and engagement of religious and ethnic leaders on societal morals is imperative for minimal political conflict to enhance development.
Keywords: Political Instability, Effects of Political Instability, Socio-Economic Development, Federal Capital Territory, Abuja.
MASS MEDIA AND THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK OF SOUTHWEST REGIONAL SECURITY INITIATIVE: ASSESSMENT OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL IMPLICATIONS ON PERFORMANCE
*OJO, TITILOYE OYEYINKA Ph.D; **MARGARET SONIA ARCHIBONG-OKONNEH Ph.D; & ***ADEYEMI, DEBOLA M.
*Department of Mass Communication, KolaDaisi University, Ibadan, Nigeria. **Department of History and Diplomatic Studies, Koladaisi University, Ibadan, Nigeria. ***Faculty of Law, KolaDaisi University, Ibadan, Nigeria.structure
This study examined Mass media reportage of Southwest Regional Security (Amotekun) with a special focus on the assessment of the legal framework in terms of constitutional implications on performance. This study adopted structured interview coupled with other secondary materials such as library materials, journals, text books and other desk study. The paper was approached from descriptive angle which is basically qualitative. This study was anchored on the Agenda-setting and Law of Contract theories. Data collected were transcribed from the recorded tape and qualitative analysis carried out in line with research questions. The paper concluded that the selected agency is active in preventing criminality and that the its legal framework has helped constitutionally to enhance their performance in the act of protecting lives and properties. Though, dire need to situate their constitutionality. This study found out that the mass media uphold the surveillance and correlational functions of the media especially in the area of mobilization against act of insecurity. It revealed that the establishment of Amotekun was based on the houses of assembly approval to complement Nigeria Police Force. It showed that the agency was not a counter of constitution but validated to support police efforts. It also found out that the initiative is confronted with different criticisms and legal challenge amongst others. It recommended that the mass media should encourage the public to be security conscious, government should consider restructuring agitations, Southwest governors should endearvour to improve the initiative operations via the provision of law to better the operational performance.
Keywords: Mass media, legal framework, constitutional implications, Southwest Regional Security, Reportage.
THEORIZING GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE IN NIGERIA
GODWIN AGABA OCHUBE
Department of Sociology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
Gender-Based Violence GBV is predominant in almost every human societies, and more especially in developing country like Nigeria. Different predisposing factors such as age, income, gender and cultural practices contributes to aggressive and violent behaviour on the basis of gender in Nigeria. Often times aggressive behaviors and practices endangers victims thereby leading to psychological trauma, poor physical health and even death. The paper proceeded through a secondary search methodology by evaluating the arguments of Social Learning Theory and Feminist Theory on GBV. The paper concluded with recommendations on proper socialization within the family on the effects of gender-based violence and the needs for victims to speak out and seeking for help. It also, advocates for the repealing of obsolete laws and cultural practices that impedes equality and development of both boys and girls in the society.
Keywords: Gender, Violence, Socialization, Culture, Feminism, Social Learning
NIGERIAN SECURITY OPERATIVES AND THE SECURITY OF LIFE AND PROPERTY OF NIGERIAN ROAD USERS
ADOKO, OWOICHO EMMANUEL
Dept. of Sociology, Kwararafa University Wukari
The study sets out to examine Nigerian security operatives and the security of life and property of Nigerian road users. To this end, a few objectives were set out, they include: to examine: The state of security of Nigerian road users Reasons attributed for the unwholesome attitudes of Nigerian security operatives towards road users, Possible measures towards curbing the highhandedness of Nigerian security operatives on our roads. In a bid to achieve these, a particular methodology was adopted-the use of secondary data including textbooks, newspapers and the internet and primary data through observation. The major findings suggest that the causes of officers’ mistreatment of road users in Nigeria are as a result of the following: poor remuneration and motivation, corruption in the general Nigerian society, sheer greed of officers, wickedness; lack of exposure to international best practices and feelings of disrespect and intimidation. As a solution, it is recommended that the work of men on this all important duty should be taken seriously by the authorities over them to provide them the motivation needed to do their work out of free mind; further, the officers themselves are enjoined to remember God in whatever they do, the authority also is enjoined to ensure that only jobseekers who qualify should be given the opportunity to do this work since it has to do with the life of people; among others.
KEYWORDS: Security of life and property, Bribery, Exploitative attitude, Road users, Road checks
POLITICAL CAMPAIGN AND HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATION IN RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA, 2013-2021
ABU, CHRISTIAN UKEAME
Department of Political Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt
Human Rights Abuses ranging from torture and kidnap to disappearance of persons and political assassinations, among others, have become a recurring decimal in Rivers State politics in recent times. These, in most cases, are perpetrated by the Law Enforcement Agents deployed to the campaign grounds as well as unknown uniform gunmen who exploit the proclivities of the Law Enforcement Agencies to inflict harm on the citizens on campaign and off campaign grounds. Extant literature shows that while scholars have examined how variables like warring cult groups, unknown factions from the both conflicting parties, etc, have engendered Human Rights Abuses in Rivers State, there has not been any systematic scholarly effort directed at exploring the nexus between the dynamics of political campaigns and Human Rights Abuses in the State within the period of 2013 to 2021. This study, therefore, undertakes to interrogate this linkage. The paper utilized the Social Conflict Theory as a framework of analysis, while also adopting the Ex-post facto research design. The Documentary method and content analysis were deployed for data collection and data analysis, respectively. The study found that the militarization of political campaigns and the excessive use of other Security Agents undermined Human Rights by exacerbating their Abuses in Rivers State, Nigeria. Appropriate punishment of officers and politicians who sponsor election-related violence is therefore recommended.
Keywords: Election campaigns, Abuses, Hate Speech, Election Violence, Law Enforcement Agencies.
INCREASING CRISIS FATIGUE AND ITS EFFECTS ON SOUTHERN KADUNA RESIDENTS: DIRE NEED FOR COMMUNITY COUNSELING INTERVENTIONS
BAHAGO, SAMAILA BENEDICT
Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education, Veritas University Abuja
With Kaduna state as the epic Centre of insecurity nowadays, the study looked at the causes and effects of increasing crisis fatigue experiences on communities in Southern Kaduna state Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to examine the alarming prevalence of psychological crisis fatigue due to wanton killings and kidnappings by Fulani Herdsmen among the people of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The root causes and effects of crisis weariness that has been brought on by the ongoing deaths of herders as well as how this crisis fatigue has affected southern Kaduna State residents were also investigated. Two research questions served as the study’s main directions for the descriptive survey research design. The sample was made up of 590 respondents who were chosen from five Local Government Areas of southern Kaduna State using a purposive sampling technique. To gather information from the respondents on their experiences with crisis fatigue, a 30-item questionnaire was created by the researcher. Simple percentages and frequency counts were used to assess the data. The study’s findings suggested that people in southern Kaduna State have a long history of experiencing crisis fatigue. They gave high ratings for the general public’s lack of knowledge of crisis fatigue. For instance, 100 percent of respondents had a negative view of crisis fatigue; 99.81 and 99.42 of respondents had no protection against mental health issues; and so forth. The circumstance made the responders more prone to feelings of hopelessness and melancholy. Based on these, the researchers suggested a counselling framework for community counselling interventions for Southern Kaduna’s residents and the people of Nigeria as a whole, and they suggested that the Nigerian government focus most of its resources on removing the causes of crisis fatigue across the country.
Keywords: Herdsmen kidnappers, incidences, causes, and crisis fatigue.
CONCEPTION AND MISCONCEPTION ABOUT THE ROLES OF NEXT OF KIN, ADMINISTRATORS AND EXECUTORS IN THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF THE ESTATE OF A DECEASED PERSON UNDER THE LAW
DR OMODELE, ADEYEMI OYEDELE, PhD
College of Postgraduate Studies, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria.
In all nooks and crannies of Nigeria people heard of next-of-kin and where necessary people appointed next-of-kin in schools, places of employment, hospitals, banks and a host of others. A next-of-kin is usually a blood relative, though not always. A person who died testate is the one who wrote and executed a Will before his death while the one who died without a Will is called died intestate. Upon the death of a testator (person who made a Will), the Will would be read and there would be a grant of probate to be applied for by the executors from the probate registrar / high court of the state while someone who died without a Will, the relations had to obtain Letters of Administration from the probate registry having fulfilled some conditions which said act may be facilitated by the next of kin and / or relations. Will is an important document in the administration of the estate of a testator. This research is doctrinal of which primary data is the Administration of Estate Law, Cap A5, Laws of Lagos State, 2015, Wills Act, Wills Law of Lagos State 2015 and secondary data are text books, journal articles, per-review journals, newspapers and works downloaded from the internet. The study looked at the legality or otherwise of appointing a next of kin, the purposes of a Will, factors that made a Will to be valid and who benefits from the estate of a deceased person. The work looked at the roles and duties of administrators and executors in the estate of a deceased person. The work exposed that a next-of-kin has no recognition under the law but a mere paper or mouth appointment. The theory adopted for this study is the pure theory of law. The concluding part of the work summarised the findings and stated that makers of valid Wills make things easier for their family members after death and that things are less cumbersome compared to a person who died intestate or appointed a person called next-of-kin. The paper encouraged persons to make Will before death to discourage manipulation of their estates after death.
Keywords: Next of kin, administrators, executors, estate, will and intestate
THE IMPACT OF NON-TRADITIONAL VARIABLES ON HEALTH CARE RISK ADJUSMENT
DR ADAMU K. DANIEL.
Faculty of Management Sciences, Actuarial Science Department, University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.
This study examined the impact of non-traditional variables on health care risk adjustment in Nigeria. Specifically, the study determines the extent at which non-traditional variable can effect health care risk adjustment in Nigeria. It is a fact that non-traditional variable such as, Demographic variable, economic variable, Lifestyle variable, physical self assessment variable and psychological self-assessment variables have great relationship with health, this means that they effect greatly, health and also health risk adjustment .The study employed primary method of data collection where, information was collected-through the questionnaire administered to respondents .The population size consists of 600 medical personnel out of which 100 were found usable. Descriptive statistic in form of tables, frequencies and simple percentage were used for the analysis. The analysis was carried out using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS). This study found that there is great relationship between non-traditional variable and Health care risk adjustment in Nigerian. Also, non-Traditional variable significant impact on health care risk adjustment in Nigeria. It was discovered that there is no method of risk adjustment currently used in health care risk adjustment, prediction of cost and utilization in Nigeria. The study recommends that government should pay closer attention to the health care sector of the country, They should ensure that adequate modalities are put in place to enhance the health sector of the country.
Keywords: Variables, Risk, Health care, Risk adjustment, Deveopment, Infrastructure
STATUS OF SPORTS COACHING AND AVAILABILITY OF SPORTS FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN DELTA STATE
NWABUWE, SUNDAY NATHANIEL; & PETER O. OBOH, PhD
Science Education Department, Human Kinetics and Sports Science, University of Delta, Agbor, Delta State.
This study investigated the status of sports coaching and the availability of sports facilities and equipment in high schools in Delta. It was about human resources development, the position of sports educators, the equipment and equipment problems of secondary schools in the country. It was a management report that included a descriptive survey investigating variables after the fact. The researchers have enerated three research questions that guide the study. The subjects were all physical education and health teachers at Delta’s state public secondary school. 177 PE teachers from 359 Delta Public Secondary Schools were selected by simple random sampling. The data collected was collated and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Surveys show that sports coaching in Delta is poor, especially in high schools in Delta, where quality facilities and equipment are lacking. Therefore, above all, it is recommended that governments, PTAs, and elderly boys / girls should endeavor to provide secondary schools with high quality sports facilities and equipment to increase the productivity of education / learning and coaching. rice field. Improvement. Given the dynamic nature of the sports world, we conclude that the development of sustainable human capital has the potential to foster a vibrant foundation of sport excellence through coaching. It was attached.
Keywords – Sports, Coaching, Secondary Education, Development Strategy, Facilities, Equipment
IMPLEMENTATION OF TREASURY SINGLE ACCOUNT AND ITS CHALLENGES ON PUBLIC SERVICE IN NIGERIA
PROF. S. M. OMODIA; AND TIJANI SULEMAN OLATUNJI
Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Faculty of Arts, Management and Social Sciences, Edo State University, Uzairue, Edo State, Nigeria
This study adopted the implementation of Treasury Single Account and its challenges on Public Service in Nigeria. The study adopted survey research method and data were collected through primary source. A sample size of 2,000 was drawn from a population of 870 thousand from the public service across Nigeria using cluster sampling technique to select respondents from each geopolitical zone (cluster). Data collected were analyzed using Pearson Correlation Analysis Technique. Findings showed that Treasury Single Account policy implementation has positive and significant impact on public service satisfactory performance, financial transparency, financial efficiency of MDAs and curbing of corruption practices with significance level ranges between 1% and less than 5% level of significance. It was concluded that, there shall not be undue influence by all arms of government over the activities of Nigerian public service. This can be achieved by creating a separate independent body by which the public servants can report undue influence by any arm of government. The operation and implementation of due process policy should be strengthened to comply with global best practice. This can be achieved by strengthening the operation of Fiscal Responsibility Commission via the fiscal responsibility act of 2007. There should be constant training and retraining of Nigerian civil servant by organizing workshops, seminal and others on the job training which could be local and international training, Public service administration should base their operation benchmark on the dictates of Transparency International. It was also recommended by the study that full implementation of TSA policy is enforced across all MDAs to prevent leakages of fund and other sharp practices. Also, MDAs that are yet to embrace TSA should adopt it in order to block all form of financial inefficiency, financial linkages, and sharp practices.
Keywords: Implementation, Treasury Single Account, Challenges, Public, Service
LEGITIMACY AND VOTE BUYING SYNDROME IN NIGERIA: IMPERATIVES FOR PROMPT LEGAL SANCTIONS
JOSEPH I. AREMO PhD (IFE),
Department of Public and International Law, Faculty of Law, Elizade University, Ilara- Mokin, Ondo State, Nigeria.
Credible elections are characterized by inclusiveness, transparency, accountability and competitiveness while the hallmark of participatory government through these processes is anchored on the principle of voluntariness. The voters reserve the right to exercise their franchise without fear or favour; material or financial inducements. Nigerian experience at an election since independence has been quite challenging. In a democratic setting, free, fair and credible elections are the only acceptable and appropriate means through which citizens of a country can choose their representatives; but recently held elections in Nigeria have been reportedly characterized by money inducement popularly called “vote-buying” in ordered to sway the mind of the electorate to vote a particular candidate or party. It has become imperative to examine the various means of vote buying; appraise the effect of such unchecked occurrences in our democracy, and interrogate the roles of the major actors during the conduct of elections. This is done through desk research. Findings showed that vote buying is a brand of corruption and undue influence which tends to question the supposed legitimacy the government claims to have acquired. In addition, the electoral umpire, the political parties and sometimes the security agents are contributorily culpable. Therefore, this paper argues that there is no better time than now to have a changed value system that promotes the voluntary exercise of franchise by the electorate devoid of any pecuniary inducement. Besides, the provisions of the Electoral Act are quite commendable in handling electoral matters in Nigeria, but an urgent need to back it up with political will is required.
Keywords: vote buying, legitimacy, syndrome, imperatives and legal sanctions
THE CAUSES, EFFECTS AND PROSPECTS OF INFLATION IN NIGERIA: A PARADIGM SHIFT
*KEKE KYRIAN.I; **VEN EGESI JINATHAN .C; & ***UCHECHI DIKE
*Department of Social Studies, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri. **Imo State Polytecnic, Omuma, Oru East, Imo State. ***Public Administration Department, Imo State Polytechnic, Omuma, Oru- East, Imo State
In recent times in Nigeria, the cost of goods and services have sky rocked and begging for attention. The naira seem so devaluated that any right thinking person will be forced to conclude that it is the currency with the least exchange rate in the country. But this was not so before. The naira was well appreciated and exchanged favourably with other country’s currencies. But surprisingly, the currency came crashing like a wrongly parked cards. This leaves much to be desired as the inflationary rate has continued to be on the increase every now and then that no one can actually predict what may happen economically in the country in the nearest future. Evidence on ground show astronomical increase in the cost of both goods and services, leave much to be desired. The All Progressives Congress, the party in power at the Federal level and in control of power at various state level have left a bitter taste on people’s mouth with all its lofty dreams and promises made during her campaign which left the previous administration parking. The state of affairs in the country does not give the people below the poverty line any dot of hope and the ruling party seem to be loss of ideas of what needs to be done to right the wrong. In their sheer carelessness they started with blame game of putting forward how the displaced People’s Democratic Party (PDP) crumbled the economy of the country. The above state formed the gamut of the study as we made concerted efforts to finding out what must be done. Several data collection techniques as interviews, use of questionnaire, textbooks, journals and the internet were used to garner data for analysis. The Endogenous Growth theory was used as theoretical framework, thereafter, conclusion was drawn.
Keywords: Causes, Effects, Prospects, Inflation, Nigeria.
ANALYZING THE USE AND LISTERSHIP PATTERN OF TRAFFIC UPDATES FROM OGBC AND ROCKCITY FM AMONG VEHICLE OWNERS IN ABEOKUTA METROPOLIS
*ABATI MOBOLAJI OLUWASEUN, Ph.D; & **KAREEM GANIY AJIBOLA
*Department of Mass Communication, Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro, Ogun State, Nigeria. **University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos State, Nigeria.
Many people think that listening to traffic reports on the radio is the most effective way to get people to drive safely and to protect the environment from needless traffic bottlenecks, which frequently cause noise pollution. Thus, this study examined how drivers in the Abeokuta metropolitan used and listened to traffic alerts on OGBC and Rockcity FM. The study’s goal was to determine the extent to which Abeokuta drivers were aware of the traffic updates programmes on OGBC and Rockcity FM. As part of theoretical research, uses and gratifications and social responsibilities were examined. The study used a survey method and created a questionnaire to collect data from chosen respondents within Abeokuta (North and South). The 23,543 licenced commercial and private drivers (Private and Commercial) in the state capital made up the study’s population, of which 210 were chosen using stratified sampling and purposive sampling procedures. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, a frequency table, and a straightforward percentage. According to the study, the majority of people was very familiar with and frequently listened to the traffic report programme on OGBC and Rockcity FM. Findings showed that Rockcity FM and OGBC drivers listened to traffic updates while travelling. The findings also indicated that drivers used the data from OGBC and Rockcity FM because they thought it was accurate. In order to alleviate traffic congestion, the study advised that radio stations should offer alternate routes whenever there is congestion on major roadways.
Keywords: Analysis, Use & Listenership pattern, Traffic Update, Radio Station,
ENHANCING PRODUCTIVITY OF TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN NIGERIA GERMANE FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
EHIGHEBOLO, IZIN ANNE
Department of Humanities and Social sciences, School of General studies, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo state, Nigeria.
Economic theory suggests that an educated population begets productive manpower that can propel economic growth and welfare of a nation. Tertiary institutions provide a great percentage of this desired manpower required for a nation’s economic growth and development. However, from 1948 when there was only one tertiary institution till 2022 when there are over 800 higher institutions, Nigeria is yet to have a robust economy driven extensively by knowledge, innovation and technology. Using a library-based method this paper juxtaposes the growth of tertiary institutions in Nigeria with the sector’s productivity which should impact economic growth and development. It argues that the quality of the educated workforce is the result of the unaddressed lingering challenges within the tertiary sector. These challenges include infrastructural decay; poor funding; dearth of qualified and motivated workforce; obsolete teaching methods; corruption and incessant strikes. Addressing these challenges resolutely and introducing relevant courses of study amongst others are suggested as possible ways of repositioning tertiary institutions to produce the necessary skilled, technical, innovative and professional manpower required for economic growth and development.
Keywords: Tertiary educational institutions, Manpower, Productivity, Economic development, Nigeria
THE EFFECT OF THE ALTAR FIRE ON THE RELIGION OF ANCIENT ISREAL
OGUN, SAMSON SUNDAY
Department of Humanities, School of General Studies, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi.
This research paper examines the effect of the altar fire on the religion of ancient Israel. The paper examines the etymology, origin and history of altar to the people of ancient Israel. Yahweism was a National religion of the descendants of Prophet Abraham; their religion was the greatest and most powerful institution in ancient Israel. The altar was the center of the religious practices and a symbol of the presence of Yahweh (God) apart from the Ark of covenant among the Israelites. Hence the altar, its significance, the fire and functions coupled with various manifestations in the Old Testament its physical and supernatural power have been identified. The concept of fire on the altar at burnt offering, its economic and spiritual implication coupled with duties of the priests at the altar sacrifice have been considered in this paper. In the ancient history, the non- presence of altar fire at sacrifice was regarded as an abomination to Yahweh. The paper identifies the altars of the present Christian church as the altar of the heart, and the ultimate sacrifice made “once for all” by our lord Jesus on the cross. The New Testament concept of the altar fire has been interpreted as the power of the Holy Spirit (comforter) and its fire. The Levitical emphasis that the altar fire should ‘not go out’ remains valid; therefore, this paper recommends strongly that the fire on the altar in the Old Testament should be our heart fire that should never go out if we are to sustain a good, sincere relationship with God.
Keyword: Altar Fire, Yahweh, Holy Spirit, Our Heart, Sacrifice and Burnt Offerings.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE ROLE OF COMMERCIAL DISPUTE ARBITRATION IN NIGERIA’S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
SULAIMAN SHEHU Esq.
Public Administration Department, School of Business Studies, the Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State Nigeria.
The term Arbitration has been used frequently in both legal and non-legal parlance. It is a method of settling a dispute(s) outside the conventional court process known generally as litigation. Arbitration has been increasingly significant in both commercial and non-commercial transactions especially now that cross-border commercial transaction is increasingly becoming the new norm. It is cheaper, faster, more confidential, efficient, and flexible, and gives the parties the liberty to choose who their arbitrator is. Most importantly, it carries the same weight as a judgement delivered by the court of competent jurisdiction. This essay is aimed at briefly discussing, among other things, the wider view against the old narrow view in which arbitration was viewed, especially, in developing countries like Nigeria. The essay also evaluates the indisputable reality that not everything is “arbitrable” i.e not every dispute can be referred to arbitration for settlement. The ‘exclusive jurisdiction’ and the ‘public policy’ concerning arbitral awards are also analysed. Some observations are made and recommendations are proffered. The scope of the essay is Nigeria, and to some extent, the Croatian and English laws and other relevant international jurisdictions would be considered, where necessary.
Keywords: Nigeria, UNICITRAL, Commercial, Arbitration, Award, Enforcement, Dispute
OBSERVANCE AND ENFORCEMENT OF ETHICAL CODES REGULATING RELIGIOUS COMMUNICATION IN NIGERIA
AMOS, KOLAWOLE ZECHARIAH, Ph.D.; ADEOSUN, ‘SHOLA, Ph.D.; & KAZEEM, SEMIU BABS.
Department of Mass Communication, Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Abeokuta, Ogun State
Observance and enforcement of ethical codes regulating religious communication has been a subject of controversy, especially in religious circles. Even when these codes are not respected, regulatory agencies saddled with the responsibility of ensuring compliance also appear conspiratorial or ineffective. Past studies concentrated on the spuriousness of the claims of miracles and testimonials contained in religious communication without investigating why compliance by religious leaders has been difficult. Previous works have also not investigated why it is difficult for regulatory bodies to sanction violators. The study employed the historical approach triangulated with interviews with selected clergy and heads of selected media organizations. The study revealed that a lot of religious broadcasters/leaders have been flagrantly violating the provisions of the code relating to religious broadcasting/advertising. The study also discovered that some of the preachers felt that NBC failed in clearly defining what is unverifiable, unprovable and unbelievable. The study also revealed that some station managers aid some of the religious leaders in violating ethical provisions. Regulatory bodies such as NBC and APCON should clearly define what constitute unverified and unprovable claims. Religious leaders found guilty of gross violations should be blacklisted; erring stations should also be heavily sanctioned to act as deterrent to others.
Keywords: Observance and enforcement, Ethical Codes, Religious Leaders, Religious Communication and Regulatory Agencies
FFECT OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE RATE INSTABILITY ON BALANCE OF PAYMENT POSITION IN NIGERIA
*AGUNUWA EKOKOTU VINCENT (Ph.D); & **ARIMITAN OMAMURHIEME GOODLUCK
*Department of Banking and Finance, School of Business Studies, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe, Oghara **Department of Mass Communication, School of Business Studies, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe, Oghara
The focus of this study is on the impact of the instability of foreign exchange rate on the balance of payment (BOP) position in Nigeria. This has become important since the instability of the exchange rate has been mostly blamed for the unfavourable BOP position in Nigeria. The main objective is thus to empirically ascertain the link between foreign exchange instability and the BOP. The study covered the period between 1980 to 2021. The co-integration and it’s error correction model (ECM) framework was adopted for the study. The findings revealed that the exchange rate variability (EXRV) had a negative and significant impact on the BOP. Openness of theeconomy (OPEN) had a positive and insignificant impact on the BOP. The statistical significance of the ECM shows a satisfactory speed of adjustment. The study therefore recommended from our findings, amongst others, that the monetary authorities should adopt more unconditional foreign exchange rate management policies
Keywords: Foreign exchange rate instability; Balance of payment position, Openness of the economy, Co-integration, Error Correction Model