CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LAW, POLITICS AND HUMANITIES RESEARCH (CJLPHR)
VOL. 25 NO. 6 – SEPTEMBER, 2022 EDITION
Cambridge Research and Publications International,
Africa (Nigeria): CAHDC, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
Copyright © 2022 Cambridge Research and Publications International.
CHALLENGES OF DEVELOPMENT IN POST COLONIAL AFRICA: A STUDY ON PROBLEMS OF SURVIVAL IN NIGERIA
*BABA YAHAYA; *USMAN ADAMU; & **MAHMUD GOMA DAHIRU
*Department of History and International Studies, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai. Niger State. **Department of History and Diplomatic Studies, University of Abuja
The Nigeria society has been undergoing changes at an unprecedented rate. These changes occur in the political, economic and social life of the nation. Sometimes, these changes occur so rapidly, that most Nigerians have found it very difficult to keep pace. In the last twenty years, Nigerians has witnessed the most traumatic changes especially in the economic and social life of the nation under democratic dispensation. Some individuals within the nation have found it difficult to survive the hardships that have come with these changes. In fact, the situation has reached a point which threatening the survival of the country as a nation. It is on this background that this paper attempt to discuss some issues that stood as bottle neck to development in the post colonial Africa with a focus on Nigeria. It’s hoped that Africa countries with similar situation can take the path for their nation. Therefore this discusses the problems of survival and to suggest possible ways through which Nigerians and indeed Africa countries with similar situation may survive.
Keywords: Development, National Development, problem of Survival, challenges and Self – reliance.
PROLIFERATION OF SMALL ARMS AND LIGHT WEAPONS (SALWS) IN WEST AFRICAN SUB-REGION AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR NIGERIA’S INTERNAL SECURITY
1OKEREKE, EMMANUEL UGOCHUKWU; & 2ODAUDU, ROBERT O.
1Department of Political Science, Nasarawa State University, Keffi. 2Security and Strategic Studies, Institute of Governance and Development Studies. Nasarawa State University, Keffi.
Proliferation of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALWs) in Nigeria has continued to increase the spate of contemporary security challenges in the country despite efforts at multilateral and national levels to check misuse and illicit flow of SALWs. The purpose of the paper was to examine the implications of the proliferation of SALWs in West Africa for Nigeria’s internal security. The paper was built around the neo-functionalist integration theory, which laid-bare the need for sub-regional cooperation in checking the flow SALWs into Nigeria given the trans-national nature of production, reproduction and misuse of illicit SALWs. Data for the study were collected from secondary source and analysed using content analysis. Among other things, it was found that there is continuous and rapid increase in the flow and misuse of SALWs in Nigeria, and this has resulted in wanton killings in the country as well as destruction of properties of both individuals and government. It was equally found that proliferation of SALWs has increased the number of displaced persons and significantly retarded the development of the country. Among other things, it was recommended that ECOWAS member states should urgently establish a task force for ensuring strict implementation of ECOWAS Convention on the proliferation of SALWs with a view to enhancing internal security in Nigeria.
Keywords: Proliferation, Small Arms, Light Weapons, Security, Internal Security
NATIONAL SECURITY AND NIGERIA’S STRATEGIC DEPTH IN THE REPUBLIC OF CHAD: ISSUES, CHALLENGES AND WAY FORWARD
ZANNOU ANDRE CORNEILLE SEHOU
Department of Political Science, Abomey-Calavi University (State Nat University), Republic of Benin
From the contexts of the national security and strategic depth of Nigeria, the country is strategically located at the confluence of West and Central Africa. This dual geographical identity has been used by different Nigerian regimes to achieve regional and international balances. As for historical factor, Nigeria has a rich historical and cultural legacy due to the transnational dimension of its ancient empires and kingdoms. The foreign policy of Nigeria begins at its immediate borders, which is considers being of paramount importance to the country’s overall national interest, its security, political and economic well-being and survival. The Republic of Chad is one of Nigeria’s immediate neighbors that have a double standard impact on Nigerian national security and its strategic depth. But despite Nigeria‘s commitment to maintain cordial relations with her neighbours including Chad Republic, there are still issues of cross-border disputes, particularly around the Lake Chad Basin and armed incursions into Nigeria by Chadian bandits that are threatening the Nigeria’s national security. This paper therefore looked into the security implications of Nigeria’s contiguity with Chad Republic, and then proffered way forward. The paper concludes that; for Nigeria to address her security challenges in relations with Chad Republic, the country has to make sure that her national interests must supersede other external considerations.
Keywords: National Security, Strategic Depth, Nigeria, Chad.
DELHI CONFLICT OF SECULARISM AND THE VISIT OF FORMER PRESIDENT TRUMP TO INDIA
JIBRIN UBALE YAHAYA, PhD
Department of Political Science, National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN)
The crisis between thousands of protesters and police has turned violent ahead of former US President Trump’s arrival to India on Monday, 24th February, 2020 a week of demonstrations opposing the citizenship law has been on course to ease the path for non-Muslims from neighbouring Muslim-majority nations to gain citizenship in India. The law has sparked months of unrest against Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s Government. Mr Modi, has been cited that’’ the new law would save religious minorities such as Hindus and Christians from persecution in neighbouring Bangladesh, Pakistan and Afghanistan by offering them a path to Indian citizenship’’. However, many peace researchers was of the view that the area of contention in the Modi statement was that the law does not apply to Muslims, which many critics have cited that this action has weaken India’s secular foundations. On the night of 23 February 2020, a series of riots and violent incidents began at North East Delhi in which 42 people were killed and more than 200 people were injured. On the same day , Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) leader and former legislator Kapil Mishra demanded that the Delhi Police should clear the roads being occupied by people protesting the Citizenship Amendment Act, the National Register of Citizens (NRC) and the National Population Register (NPR). He stated that if this demand was not met, he would forcefully end the protests. Shortly after his statement, violent clashes began occurring across North East Delhi, resulting in civilian and police deaths. Three mosques were desecrated and burned by rioters, and several schools, shops, houses and vehicles were torched by rioters. The Delhi police have been accused by many eye witnesses of not doing enough to prevent the violence and in many instances, they are supporting the perpetrators. As at 28 February 2020, the police had registered 123 FIRs and arrested or detained around 600 individuals involved in the violence. However, the primary objective of this paper is to recommend an appropriate actions by government in recognizing public views at any stage of public policy formulation and respect for the fundamental Rights of individuals or groups equally from various religious background in the process of expressing their view through peaceful means like demonstration, advocacy and write-up.
Keywords: Peaceful Demonstrations, Protest, Riots and Public Policy.
مفارقة ازدواج الإشارات ومقارباتها التداولية في شعر إبراهيم أحمد مقري: مفارقة الرموز الصوفية الخمر أنموذجا
مصطفى إبراهيم شعيب
طالب الماجستير قسم اللغة العربية، جامعة أحمد بلُّو زاريا نيجيريا
يسعى هذا البحث إلى بيان مفارقة ازدواج الإشارات ومقارباتها التداولية في شعر إبراهيم أحمد مقري؛ مفارقة الرموز الصوفية الخمر أنموذجا، استوظف الباحث المنهج التداولي في الحديث عن ظاهرة المفارقة والمقاربة التداولية، ومفارقة ازدواج الإشارات، ومفارقة الرموز الصوفية عند الشاعر، ويتحدث البحث عن الشاعر وشاعريته وخصائصه الشعرية ومكوناتها، كما يهدف إلى تقديم تصورات علمية مفارقية ومقارباتها التداولية، فيما تحمل من الإشارات والمعاني المزدوجة، عبر الرمز الصوفي المتمثل في الخمر، ومن أبرز ما توصلت الورقة ما يلي: أن الشاعر أخذ النظرة الميتافيزيقية إلى الواقع الفيزيائي، حيث صور السكر المادي الناتج عن الخمر إلى السكر المعنوي الناتج عن العرفان الرباني، فربط بين العوالم الروحية المتمثلة في الكشف والأحوال والترقي والعوالم المادية المتمثلة في العنب والخمر والسكران لتمثيل النشوة والطرب بالفناء الصوفي في الله ورسوله. أن الشاعر جسد السنفونية الدرامية المفارقية بالعقل اللاواعي في الرمز الخمري ليفجر للمتلقي بحرا تداوليا يحمل في بوتقته تشفيرا دلاليا. وأن الشاعر يرسم في شعره مفارقة مملوءة بالتناقض اللفظي والمعنوي، حيث انتشى الأحوال الباطنية الروحية بالأحوال الظاهرية المادية، التي غالبا ما يكون مرجعها إلى المعاصي والمحارم، إلا أنه ربطها بالقرائن السطحية والعميقة يعثر عليها المتلقي بعد التأويل والتفسير الدقيق.
الكلمات المفتاحية: الشاعر، المفارقة، المقاربة التداولية، مفارقة ازدواج الإشارات، مفارقة الرموز الصوفية ومقارباتها التداولية الخمر أنموذجا.
USING PEER ASSESSMENT AND STORYTELLING TECHNIQUE ON DEVELOPING READING COMPREHENSION SKILLS FOR UPPER BASIC II STUDENTS IN KOGI STATE, NIGERIA
DR SALIHU ABDULLAHI GALLE1; ALAKU EMMANUEL MONICA2; & SULEIMAN SALAMATU KWOKU3
1Educational Research, Measurement & Evaluation Unit, Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education, Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nigeria. 2&3Department of Arts & Social Science Education, Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nigeria
Reading is an important language of communication skill and a highly complicated act that everyone should learn especially at the young age of schooling but, because of the techniques applying by the instructors students find it very complicated, therefore the researchers deem it feet to conducted a research on using peer assessment and storytelling technique on developing reading comprehension skills for upper basic II students in Kogi State, Nigeria. Three research questions with its corresponding hypotheses were used to facilitate the study using quasi-experimental design comprises two experimental groups (A&B) and one conventional group C. The population for the study consisted of all 1,122 upper basic II secondary schools were 90 were used as sample of the study from three schools. The researchers developed an instrument for data collection entitled ‘‘Reading Comprehension Achievement Test (RCAT). RCAT contained 15-items on reading comprehension skills; it yielded 0.74 validity index and 0.72 reliability index. Data collected was analyses using means and standard deviation for answering research questions while One-sample t-test and One-Way ANOVA were used to test hypotheses at 0.05 level of significant. Finding reveals that, there is significant difference between pre-test and post-test achievement mean scores of students taught reading comprehension skills using PA, ST technique, there is statistically significant difference in the achievements mean scores of students taught reading comprehension skills using PA, ST technique and those taught using CTM. It was recommended that, the teachers of English Language should use PA, ST technique to teach/assess students will enhance and develop reading comprehension skills among others.
Keywords: peer assessment, storytelling technique, reading comprehension skills, upper basic II students
MERCHANDISING VOTE AND CONSCIENCE, A ROD FOR DEMOCRACY’S BACK IN NIGERIA
AGIRI, ESEOGHENE JAMES; & MORKA, BLESSING C.
Delta State University of Science and Technology, Ozoro, Nigeria
The Nigeria electoral processes that were characterized by violence, fraud, snatching of ballot papers and boxes, falsification of results and other electoral issues are shifting grounds to vote buying and selling against the backdrop of the introduction of Biomodal Voters Accreditation system (BVAS). In Nigeria electoral process, small material goods, such as money or food are distributed to voters, right before and during an election in the hopes of receiving their votes. The electorates are enticed with or are given money, food or other items to vote for a particular party or candidate. Citizens with brilliant ideas not having the financial muscle are frustrated to edges until their ideas are successfully evaporated and those who have financial muscles see the position as a capitalist venture where they are meant to create commercial relationships with Nigerians and treat them as commodities rather than resources that need to be protected, refined and preserved. Nigerian Democracy is more or less a cash and carry democracy. The major objective of this paper is to examine merchandizing of votes, conscience and the effects on democracy in Nigeria using a qualitative research method which focused on secondary method of eliciting data from existing sources. The bourgeois democracy theory is adopted as theoretical framework for this study. This paper also peruses at the reasons for vote buying and effects on Nigeria democracy. This study finds that Nigeria electoral process has always been known for its chaotic nature masterminded by the bourgeois. The paper finally made some recommendations that would reduce vote buying in Nigeria electoral processes among others.
Keywords: Vote buying and selling, electorate constituents, money bags, political culture bourgeois, bullion van, corruption
THE USE OF ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION (ADR) IN NIGERIAN COURTS: THE SHARI’AH (ISLAMIC LAW) COURTS IN PERSPECTIVE
MARDHIYYAH MUNIR JA’AFAR
ABU, Zaria [Baze University, Abuja].
Disputes are an inevitable part of human existence hence the placement of various mechanisms to address them. Litigation is primarily used as the means of resolving rights-based disputes through the court system and this used to be the preferred choice for lots of litigants. However, the issues and challenges inherent in litigation such as its high costs, series of adjournments as well as destruction of relationships gave rise to other options. To address these issues and challenges, alternative dispute resolution (ADR), which is a means of settling disputes out of the courtroom, is utilised widely due to its numerous advantages. Nigeria is not an exception to disputes and the problems inherent in the adversarial system of dispute resolution hence the resolve of the Nigerian legal system in utilising ADR in courts. Consequently, courts such as the High Courts, Customary Courts as well as the Shari’ah Courts utilise provisions that are geared towards amicable resolution of disputes and in the context of the Shari’ah Courts, mechanisms such as Sulh (conciliation) and Tahkeem (arbitration) are used. This paper considers the use of ADR in Shari’ah courts of Nigeria and adopts the doctrinal research methodology from available literature. It is found out that the Nigerian legal system recognises and encourages the use of ADR in courts, where appropriate. Accordingly, it is recommended that ADR should be encouraged by judges and that awareness needs needs to be raised on the benefits of ADR.
Keywords: Alternative-Dispute-Resolution-Shari’ah Courts-Nigeria
CRITIQUE OF MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT IN OIL AND GAS SECTOR OF NIGERIA
DR C. O. OKWELUM
Delta State University of Science and Technology, Ozoro.
Since the finding of commercial oil in Nigeria, the State has been grappling with the problem of the human resources development. The nation is battling with it to show for the enormous mineral resources that are available to it and which it continues to squander. Even with the presence of the multi-national oil companies in Nigeria not much has been achieved in technology transfer in the past fifty years. The level of unemployment has risen to 33 percent and only about one percent of the population is employed in the oil sector. This paper which adopts the doctrinal method examines the various perspectives that manpower development in the oil and gas sector can be viewed. It finds that the State is tenacious in seeing that humans resource is developed to critical levels but the multi-national oil companies have no clear-cut commitment to same except as is necessary for profit maximization. It therefore calls for more public-private initiatives and fuller implementation of the local content doctrines and involvement of local content vehicles.
Keywords: Personnel management, Industrial Relations, Human Resource Development, PTDF, Local Content, Oil and Gas
LOCALIZATION OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA
EHICHANYA ANGELA NGOZI
Department of Fine and Applied Arts, Federal Polytechnic, Oko.
Petroleum resource dependent Nigerian economy along with poor governance, challenges the Nigerian textile industry. Moreover, there is a sheer lack of political will to formulate policies directed at industrial growth by the Nigerian political class. The growth of textile industry is essential if Nigeria is to foster structural change and translate its potentials. This article examines how poor policy implementation stunted the development of the Nigerian textile industry from 1985 to 2015. The textile industry’s decline reflects internal challenges and the failure to provide supportive policy measures and critical infrastructure for the growth of the sector. This is also related to Nigeria’s overreliance on petroleum at the expense of other economic sectors. This article focuses on the neglect faced by the textile industry. Our findings indicate that overreliance on petroleum resources emboldened imports of foreign made products especially from China. It calls for the application of an industrial policy to increase the competitiveness of the Nigerian textile industry globally. The article provides an understanding into the reasons for the collapse of the textile industry. It also contributes to the need for industrial policy consideration for resource dependent economies.
Keywords: Industrial policy, Dutch disease, Manufacturing, Petroleum, Textile, Infrastructure
ASSESSMENT OF BUSINESS PERFORMANCE TOWARDS FINANCIAL RATIO ANALYSIS IN THE HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT AND TOURISM OPERATIONS
*DUPE MEDINAT JIMOH; & **UMMA MOHAMMED EL-RUFAI
*Department of Hospitality Management, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna State, Nigeria. **Department of Tourism Management Technology, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna State, Nigeria
It has been observed that managers in the hospitality and tourism industry assess the performance of their business based on operational activities rather than scientific analysis of financial figures. The implication of such approach is shallow understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the enterprise which could easily culminate into naïve as against pragmatic decisions. This paper examines the types of financial ratios and their relevance for objective assessment of business operations and decision making for sustainability in the face of competition. It is recommended that tourism services providers should employ ratio analysis as tools for measuring trends and relationships in trade.
Keywords: Financial ratios, Business performance, Sustainability, Tourism industry
SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION IN NIGER DELTA: A STUDY OF CHRISTIE WATSON’S SUNBIRDS FAR AWAY
SHEHU GARBA SUNUSI
Department of General Studies, the Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.
The global outcry of ecological degradation by human beings has been an emerging thematic focus in the creative oeuvres of writers and eco-critics in the literary domain as regards the degraded Niger Delta region of Nigeria and its consequent activism amongst her people. No doubt the Niger Delta is a region that has suffered gross neglect and devastation by oil companies who have continued to degrade the environment through oil spills and pollution which has poisoned the ecosystem. This has serious implications on the socioeconomic and political life of the people of the Niger Delta. The implications include exploitation, poverty, violence and insecurity, instability and hosts of others. This study adopts ecocriticism as its theoretical framework. Based on the findings of this research, it is evident that the unguided oil exploration activities by multinational oil companies as well as self-induced actions among characters spell doom on the environment as both living and non-living things become negatively affected in all ramifications. It is worthy of note that the author, has succeeded in using the text under study as channel of creating global awareness towards promoting environmental conservation and various means of entrenching peace in the fictional devastated Niger Delta environment.
Keywords: Socio-economic, political, implication, environment, degradation
DEMOCRACY, DEMOCRATISATION AND POLITICAL PARTIES: AN OVERVIEW OF NIGERIAS FOURTH REPUBLIC
Department of Social Sciences, College of Administrative Studies and Social Sciences, Kaduna Polytechnic
Consolidating democracy requires good governance by democratic regimes. It also demands upholding democratic values of popular participation, respect for the rule of law, free and fair elections and the independence of the judiciary. Good governance essentially promotes improved welfare of the people, transparency and accountability by public managers in the conduct of state affairs and reduces corruption to the barest minimum. This Paper examines the democratic consolidation in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic. The Paper argues that sustained poor political leadership has seriously threatened the survival of democracy in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic. The absence of good governance explained in terms of defective constitutional arrangement, corruption, economic mismanagement, undemocratic internal party politics, fraudulent electoral system, rule of man as against rule of law and lack of accountability and transparency are the major impediments to democratic consolidation in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic. The methodology for this paper is analytical. The paper recommends among other things that it is important to review the 1999 constitution for better governance.
Keywords: Democracy, Democratic Consolidation, Political Parties, Fourth-Republic, Nigeria.
EFFICACY OF PENAL METHOD OF SOCIAL CONTROL IN TACKLING INSECURITY IN NORTH-EAST OF NIGERIA
ANIEKAN J. MENDIE
Department of Business Administration and Management, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria.
The twin evils of insurgency and insecurity continually exist as negative social factors characterizing North-East of Nigeria, as if they are particular preserves of the region. Many reasons have been propounded and advanced as immediate and remote causes and drivers of insecurity in the region; and militarized and penal solutions have been proffered, yet insecurity rendering human and economic lives meaningless in the region persists. The persistence of insecurity problem is a clear attestation to the fact that solutions applied against it, are merely palliatory in effect. It is basically the concern of this paper, therefore to look at the efficacy or otherwise of the militarized and penal methods of social control so far applied against insecurity in the North-East Region of Nigeria. To that extent, this paper adopts doctrinal research methodology and taps into statute, books and internet materials in resolving its thematic concerns and makes recommendations for improvement of security situation in the region.
Keywords: Efficacy, Penal Method, Social Control, Insecurity, North-East, Nigeria.
RELIGION: A UNIFYING INSTRUMENT IN A MULTI-ETHNIC GEOGRAPHICAL ENTITY LIKE NIGERIA. AN APPRAISAL
*VEN EGESI JONATHAN. C(PHD); **VEN DURUJI SIMEON UGOCHUKWU(PHD); & ***MRS NWARU CHRISTIANA (PHD)
*Imo State Polytechnic Omuma – Oru East , Imo State. **Department Of Religion And Cultural Studies, (A.I.F.C.E) Owerri-Nigeria. ***Imo State Polytechnic Orlu- East, Imo State.
Religion as a concept has attracted various definitions and explanations over the years. In the words of various sociological scholars it is considered any relationship between man and the super- humans. To certain scholars of various works of life religion and religious groups may attract diverse meanings. Nigeria no doubt has been seen or known to be a country with different religious inclinations. It will not be out of place to say at this point that certain people see religious groups in Nigeria as just a few. That actually is not true. Nigeria has many religious groups in it. Be that as it may. The question is that from sociological angle or perspective, religion is considered one of the sub-structures making up the society. That in essence underlines its imperativeness. But every right thinking person will ask is to wht extent has religion in Nigeria played the expected roles that it is expected to play? If no, what factors has actually hindered it from carrying out the expected functions. This research is occasioned by the fact that religion has fallen short in it discharging the roles it ought to discharge without anyone having sufficient answers to factors have been responsible. Various data collection techniques served as instruments of data collection in the course of the study. They included oral interviews, use of questionnaire, textbooks, the internet and journals to mention just a few. The interactionist school of thought was adopted for this study to serve as theoretical framework. The work concluded with the scholars making their unreserved recommendations on how religion can still take its pride of place in Nigeria.
Keywords: Religion, Unifying Instrument, Nigeria, Ethic Group.
THE IMPACT OF EXCHANGE RATE ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NON-OIL EXPORT IN AFRICA: EVIDENCE FROM OIL AND NON OIL PRODUCING AFRICAN COUNTRIES?
BAWA HASSAN; & MOMOH ABDULAZEEZ ONOSHOLE
Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of General Studies, Auchi Polytechnic Auchi, Edo State
This study analysed how Exchange rate, Capital flows and Economic growth influence non-oil export in African countries. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of exchange rate devaluation, taxation and capital flow on non-oil exports in Africa. This study adopts Power of Purchase under a system of inconvertible paper money; the speed of commerce between two monetary forms is regulated by the general buying forces of the two monetary forms in their respective nations, according to the parity hypothesis. The OLS results neglect the effect of heterogeneity associated with the individual countries and could cause substantial bias. The Panel unit root test is employed to investigate the stationarity of the panel series. The panel co-integration suggests a strong evidence of long-run equilibrium relationship between exchange rate, capital flows, economic growth and non-oil export in African countries. The results of the short run dynamics (error-correction model), which shows the response of non-oil exports to each of the regressors, as well as the error-correction mechanism. An examination of the results show a lagged positive effect of non-oil export on current non-oil export, implying a positive relationship between past values of non-oil export and current values of non-oil export in African countries. The Panel ARDL cross sectional analysis option provides a ready analysis of the extent to which the countries faired. The results of the panel GMM show that lagged non-oil export has a positive and significant effect on current export. Finally, conclusions and recommendations are made.
Keywords: Exchange Rate, Capital Flows, Economic Growth, Influence Non-Oil Export, Africa.
REVIEW OF CARBON EMISSION CONCERN OF INDUSTRIALIZATION: EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FROM NIGERIA
*AGANAH KAUNA; *BADEJO TAOFEEK OLUWASEUN; & **SULYMAN ABDULMAJEED OLAYINKA
Corporate Affairs and Information (CAI) Department, National Productivity Centre, Oyo State Office. **Productivity Capacity Building (PCB) Department, National Productivity Centre, Oyo State Office
This review investigated the impact of industrialization on carbon emissions in Nigeria during 1981-2016, within the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis. Estimation of the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model provided both long-run and short-run results. Industrial value added and urbanization are major determinants of manufacturing carbon emission in Nigeria in both the long-run and short-run. There is little evidence of the validity of inverse-EKC hypothesis in the Nigeria’s industrial sector (with manufacturing carbon emission) in the long-run but much evidence in the short-run. Increase in the urbanization rate leads to reduction in manufacturing emission in the long-run but a rise in the emission in the short-run. In the long-run, industrial share of output (GDP) and urbanization are the two main drivers of transport carbon emission in Nigeria, while only urbanization has significant (negative) effect on it in the short-run. The industrial share of output has a significant positive influence on transport carbon emission in the long-run. There is little evidence of the validity of the EKC hypothesis in the Nigeria’s industrial sector (with transport carbon emission) in both the long-run and short-run. Therefore, industrialization and urbanization drive industrial carbon emissions in Nigeria. These findings inform recommendations well articulated in the paper.
Keywords: Industrialization; carbon emission, time series modeling, Urbanization, Output, Industrial Value Added and Nigeria
INVESTIGATING THE COGNITIVE DEMAND OF TEACHER – MADE MATHEMATICS TEST IN MISAU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, BAUCHI STATE NIGERIA
BABAYO MUHAMMAD OTHMAN
Department of psychometrics, AD Rufa’i College of Education, Legal & General Studies Misau, Bauchi State
The study investigated the cognitive demand of teacher-made Mathematics test in Misau Local Government, Bauchi State, Nigeria. The study adopted Causal comparative (Ex-post factor) design from total population of fifty-seven (57) Mathematics teachers consisting of 46 males and 11 females, A total of 174 sample of TMT was retrieve from teachers, and is restricted to mathematics teachers from public senior secondary schools, all the population was used for this research. The researcher developed a Test Investigation Guide (TIG) for TMT. One research question was answered and four hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05level of significant. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistic; frequency counts and percentages to answer research question, while Chi-square (cross-tabulation) was used to test the four hypotheses. The study revealed that, 56% teachers’ in Misau Local government set their test item to measure higher cognitive demand whereas about 44% of their items measures low cognition. The frequency of cognitive level of test items found on TMT between experience and in-experience teachers is retained but rejected in-relation to qualification. Lastly, there is no significant differences among teachers’ on placement of specific verbs in testing cognitive functioning of students with regard to working experience and qualification, the study recommended that teachers’ level of awareness should be raised to the level that they expand the status of their test items to measure the remaining aspect of cognition. Regular workshop and seminars on Bloom’s Taxonomy should be extended to the various levels of cognition. Teachers’ should update their status regarding verb usage on the context of the item and the complexity of the action for testing different depth-of-knowledge levels. Doing this would help teachers in the development of instructional methods that efficiently uses student’s limited cognitive processing capacity to stimulate their ability to apply acquired knowledge and skills to new situations.
Keywords: cognitive demand, Mathematics teacher- Made Test, Test Investigation Guide, hypotheses, Bloom’s Taxonomy
THE NIGERIAN EXPERIENCE IN OIL CARTELS AND GLOBALIZATION
C.O. OKWELUM, PhD
Delta State University of Science and Technology, Ozoro
In the 2020s Nigeria has started to reach breaking points in insurgency, banditry and self-determination agitations all being informed by mineral resources control. The oil cartels have not shown obvious impact or interest in these issues except OPEC which has since its inception been in the vanguard of regulating prices. The emergence of heightened globalization has equally seen the activities of both the eastern and western countries in the surge to control the Nigerian oil business space. There are emerging evidence that the current insecurities in the country have some connection with natural resources. This paper which employs the doctrinal method surveys the existence of the various oil cartels and their influence on the Nigerian oil business vis-à-vis the emerging influence of globalization. It finds that OPEC is the main cartel influencing oil and gas issues in Nigeria and that the influence of globalization is emerging and urgent. It therefore calls for attention be focused on the dynamics of competition for Nigeria’s immense mineral and strategic resources before it gives way to a spring.
Keywords: Oil Cartels, Globalization, OPEC, Oil Refiners Association.