INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING PROCESSING & SAFETY RESEARCH
VOL. 28 NO. 5 – JUNE, 2023 EDITION
CAMBRIDGE RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL,
Africa (Nigeria): CAHDC, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
SHUNT ACTIVE POWER FILTER USING ROBUST PID-CONTROLLER FOR POWER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT
ISMAILA YUSUF ADUBAZI, HAMISU USMAN AND NURADDEEN MAGAJI
Department of Electrical engineering, Bayero University Kano Nigeria.
The proliferation of power electronics equipment for both industrial and consumers used have led to degradation of power system network at the point of common coupling (PCC). This problem has resulted in poor power quality within the entire power system, which causes harmonics to developed. In order to remedy these lingering issues, traditional passive power filter was the earliest technology to mitigate the harmonics problems, but passive filters inherit draws back such as heavy in size, produced series and parallel resonances and can only mitigate few selected harmonics. However, a superior filter known as shunt active power filter is now the viable and tested solution to mitigate current harmonics produced by nonlinear loads. In this paper, instantaneous real and reactive power (P-Q) theory is proposed to extract the current harmonics as well as robust PID-controller to control the DC side voltage of the shunt active power filter. Hysteresis current controller is used to generate the switching signals of the voltage source inverter (VSI). MATLAB/SIMULINK environment is used for the simulation work. Simulation was done with different nonlinear loads in order to show the robustness of the proposed controller. Results of the total harmonics distortion was found to be within the stipulated imposed IEEE 519-2014 harmonic limit.
Keywords: shunt active power filter, power quality, harmonics, robust PI controller and IEEE-harmonics standard limit.
EFFECT OF ANIMAL BONE ASH AS A PARTIAL REPLACEMENT FOR CEMENT IN THE PRODUCTIO OF SELF HEALING CONCRETE
GANA A.J., FEKUMO S.W
The study presented is part the ongoing study which is aimed at finding more suitable, economic and cost effective materials to be used in the construction industry, while continuing to stay on the cutting edge of constructional technology. It involves the use of Animal Bone Ash (cattle) as a partial replacement for cement in the production of self- healing concrete. For over two decades the rise and return of self-healing concrete in the research of world of civil engineering has been on an increase. This has been tested and tried with several methods, one of such methods is the use of microbes for the precipitation of calcite particles, with the aim of sealing up the cracks that could be present in concrete due to various reasons. This project takes on the challenge of finding a more accessible and environmentally friendly manner in carrying out the goal of self-healing incocnrete. It involves the use of Animal Bone Ash at 0%,3%,6%,9% and 12% to replace cement in concrete production. A total of 90 cubes of 50x50x50mm and 30 beams of 100x100x400mm beams were produced to test the mechanical properties of the concrete, such as the compressive strength, flexural strength and water absorption. From the research carried out it was seen that the concrete sample with 12% replacement had the best compressive and flexural strength values, and that of 3% replacement had the least values in compressive and flexural strength, but the highest water absorption values. From the FTIR test carried out, it was seen that the highest present constituent material in the Animal Bone Ash used was CaO which was quite useful in calcite precipitation, though it was found to be on the low side in comparison (done by MICP testing) to a primary calcium source (calcium lactate) in the production of self-healing concerte. Though the use of Animal Bone Ash has its promises, it also has its limitations which can be further reviewed in future works to come.
Keywords: Effect, Animal Bone Ash, Partial, Replacement, Cement Production, Self-Healing, Concrete
SHIP STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY OF ALUMINIUM STIFFENER PANEL FOR CONSEQUENCE REDUCTION
PROF DR OLADOKUN SULAIMAN OLANREWAJU
The aluminium stiffener panels in ship structure are paramount to ensure safety and to guarantee the structural strength and integrity of the ship. The aluminium stiffener panel is very important to ship building, especially when the ship faces collision or unstabilized structure; the aluminium stiffener panel tends to increase bending moment, vertical shear force and stresses. This study investigates the strength of the aluminium stiffener panel at the amidship bulkhead with different shapes and typesin order to determine the strength of the aluminium stiffener from its features. AA 5083-H116 aluminium stiffener panel used has been approved by the recognized organization for shipbuilding. The aluminium stiffener panel has been tested using bending moment test and compressive load to obtain the highest endurance. Three types of aluminium stiffener panels, which are a flat shaped, L-shaped and T-shaped panel, are used in order to obtain the best panel ability for a better ship structural system. The aluminium stiffener panel is tested at the area where it is different to determine area where they are affected by extreme heat due to the welding results and fabrication. The result has showed that the aluminium stiffener panel in shipbuilding process effect in an area without extreme heat is more stable.
Keywords: ultimate strength, heat affected zone, collision damage, aluminium stiffener panel, bulkhead, amidships.
RADIALOGICAL DETERMINATION OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENT OF MAHOGANY (ROOT, STEM AND LEAVE) AROUND NNPC REFINERY KADUNA
GAZARA, A.B. 1, A. DANLAMI1, A. ANGO & M. S. AHMAD2
1Department of Physics with Electronics, School of Applied Science, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic Zaria. Nigeria. 2Department of Physics Kaduna State University, Kaduna Nigeria.
Radiological determination of radioactive elements of mahogany (root, stem and leave) using Gamma ray spectroscopy was carry out “The sample were collected around NNPC Refinery Kaduna State. The method used was sodium iodide Gamma ray spectroscopy detector. The result shows that 40K which has 102.3, 102.9 and 102.6 Bq/kg, in mahogany (stem, root, and leave) respectively while that of soil is 102.3 Bq/kg, While for 226Ra mahogany (stem, root and leave) 49.5, 40.2 and 50.9 Bq/kg while that of soil is 38.5 Bq/kg also that of 232Th for mahogany (stem, root and leave) 46.1, 45.7 and 49.3, while that of soil is 53.5 Bq/kg the above result were found to be below the standard limit (Karl Heinz 2018) that all radioactive element should be within 125Bq/kg, and that of United Nation Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2019) to be 21-145Bq/kq. It was recommended that other research of other radioactive elements in mahogany (stem, root and leave) may use little quantity of it, so that to avoid feature cancer
Keywords: Radiation, Refinery, Soil, Water.
DETERMINATION OF ECONOMIC POTENTIALS OF MANGANESE MINERALIZATION IN TUDUN KUDU, GIWA, KADUNA, FOR STEEL MAKING INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA
JUMARE GAMBO; ISMAIL BALA JIBRIL; & MUHAMMED SALAM
Department of Mineral and Petroleum Resources Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic
Nigeria is home to valuable manganese deposit that hold immense potential as raw materials for industrial applications like steel production, and other electrical appliances. However, the current level of manganese exploitation in the country is significantly underutilized, necessitating appropriate processing to attain desired qualities for optimal utilization. This study presents a comprehensive characterization of manganese ore from the Tudun kudu area of Giwa local government, Kaduna state, Nigeria, focusing on its petrological, chemical, and mineralogical properties. The ore samples were taken from the field and prepared in the laboratory by cutting chips from lumps, grinding and polishing the surfaces, and mounting them on slides for microscopic analysis. The chemical composition was determined using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), while the mineral phases were identified using X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The results revealed the presence of heavy minerals and a segregated distribution of minerals in the samples. The XRF analysis indicated a manganese content of 74.81% MnO and 62.16% Mn, along with significant amounts of Fe2O3 9.56% and Al2O3 4.1%, The major mineral phases identified included Pyrolusite (MnO, 1.098) spessartine (Gondite) (3MnO,Al2O3), Silicon oxide (SiO2,0.98), Almandine (Fe3Al2SiO2) and Quartz (SiO4,1.056). These findings highlight the potential of the Tudun kudu manganese ore as a raw material for various industrial applications, including steel, batteries, and electrical appliances. However, further processing is required to attain desirable qualities for effective utilization. The study provides valuable insights for the development of suitable beneficiation processes to enhance the quality and economic viability of the manganese ore in the region.
Keywords: Manganese deposits, Steel production, Tudun kudu, Petrological properties, Mineralogical analysis.
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF FPGA-BASED CONTROLLER FOR HYBRID RENEWABLE ENERGY APPLICATION
1EDAFE LUCKY OKOTIE, EMMANUEL 2OSAWARU OMOSIGHO
Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering Technology, National Institute of Construction Technology and Management (NICTM) Uromi, Edo State.
This work presents a proposed control model based on MPPT algorithm using P & O method implemented on an FPGA card. The focus of the work was to design and carry out software implementation of the proposed control strategy to track the maximum power point (MPPT) in the operating characteristics for a combine wind and solar power (hybrid wind/pv) system and extract maximum power under changing weather conditions. Model of the hybrid wind/pv system was done in MATLAB Simulink and HOMER software program and simulation testing for validation and evaluation of the control strategy was carried out. The adopted control algorithm was implemented in Xilinx platform on the spartan 3 FPGA card using ISE design suite 14.7 program. The Xilinx system generated VHDL file is added to the program and downloaded on the FPGA card. The MATLAB simulation results of the control strategy demonstrated an accurate operation of the control strategy and show that a smooth switching from MPPT mode to power tracking mode was obtained as the controller response’s time to changes in weather conditions was in 5μs.
Keywords: Spartan 3 FPGA card, Xilinx platform, ISE Design Suite 14.7 program, MPPT, P & O algorithm, Solar system, Wind system, Logic gates, MATLAB Simulink software.
A REVIEW ON TITANIUM NITRIDE (TiN) HARD COATING ON SOME STAINLESS-STEEL SUBSTRATES
ALIYU A. BABA1, BELLO ZUBAIRU2 AND M. A. BARKA3
1Department of Mechanical Engineering Tech., Federal polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State. 2Department of Chemical Engineering Tech., Federal polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State. 3Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering Tech., Federal polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State.
Titanium nitride (TiN) is a good coating material that gives a strong/hard coat over a material substrate. This study reviewed the surface modification of some stainless steel (SS 304, SS 316L and SUS 430) coated with titanium nitride (TiN) using physical vapour deposition method (Cathodic arc deposition). The characterization conducted with the aid of optical microscope (OM) from literatures and some mechanical properties (hardness and wear rate) were highlighted. The study indicated that titanium nitride (TiN) coating is more preferable on SS 304 due to the higher hardness (average) value of 2657 obtained compared to 1850 for SS 316L and 2276 for SUS430 using same coating process. However, the study showed that, SS 304 Stainless steel coated with TiN has low wear rate compared to the other two Stainless steel, and there is a reduction in the adhesion of the ball on the coated steel sample signifying a low wear mass. The coated material can be beneficial in the production of parts in door locking mechanisms, ball bearings surgical scissors, etc.
Keywords: Surface Modification, Characterization, Stainless Steel, Cathodic Arc Deposition, Coating.
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A 1K BASED AUTOMATIC TOLL TAX SYSTEM: A CASE STUDY OF SECOND NIGER BRIDGE IN NIGERIA
K U. UDEZE1*, J.E. CHIEGBOKA2 **
1,2Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Oko, Oko, Anambra State.
The developed system has the ability to collect toll fees from drivers directly from their bank account using a smartcard. The system is made up of a designed microcontroller based and has a barricade done with a servo motor to allow only vehicle with the approved collected toll fee to pass. The traditional development methodology was adopted for the development of this system. Top-down design approach was adopted for both hardware and software developments. The main sub units of the system include power supply unit, smart card unit, Keypad input unit, control unit, display unit and servo motor unit. This system works with the principle that when the driver swipes his card on the card reader, the system will request for a password, when the entered password is correct, it will deduct the cost of the gate fee directly from the driver’s account. If this transaction is successful, a signal logic will be sent to the servo motor to remove the barricade so that the vehicle can pass.
EVALUATION OF THE KILOWATTS (KW) EENERGY CONSUMPTION FOR A MINI PALM OIL FACTORY OPERATION
OKOTIE LUCKY EDAFE1, COLLINS OSIDE2
National Institute of Construction technology and Management (NICTM), Uromi, Edo State.1,2
This paper presents the analysis of the electric energy consumption in a complete process of palm oil processing machine. The amount of energy used up at each stage was computed and the value of energy used was summed up for all the stages and this gives an indication of how much energy was used up for the effective running of a palm oil factory mill having electric energy operated palm oil processing machine. A 50 tons capacity palm oil mill located in Amendokhian community Esan North LGA was used as a case study. The result of this study showed that the total electricity consumption for production process at the study 50 tons capacity palm oil mill is 594.7 kW out of a generated amount of 600KW at the factory site using a gas thermal generator. This means that the factory needs about 85% of the total generated energy at the factory site.
Keywords: Boiler, Sterilizer, Thresher, Palm oil, efficiency, turbine, thermal energy, Slip
DEVELOPMENT OF HYPERTHERMIA/HYPOTHERMIA AUTOMATED BLANKET DEVICE
1OLADOSU, D. A., 2BELLO, A., 3OYEDOKUN, O. M., 4ADENIRAN, A. A
1Department of Computer Engineering, The Polytechnic, Ibadan 2Department of Mechatronic Engineering, The polytechnic, Ibadan 3Adeseun Ogundoyin Polytechnic, Eruwa, Oyo State 4Department of Civil Engineering, The Polytechnic, Ibadan
Over the years, hundreds of thousands of infants and adult death were ascribed to intrinsic thermal deregulation in the extremes of ambient temperature. Wrapping feverish people in wet sheets and immersing them in cool baths helped to lower body temperature.Hot water bottles and blankets were used to warm hypothermia victims. This manual control method of patient temperature in most cases is not convenient, accurate, reliable and adequate. Hence, there is need for an automated means of controlling these conditions. Today, hyperthermia/hypothermia blanket or pads which are medical devices that have in-built temperature regulator or thermostat, capable of raising or lowering the body temperature are used. Such blankets or pads circulate water through them at pre-set temperature level to increase or lower body temperature. These devices are expensive and not available in most African health care centres. In this work, the hyperthermia/hypothermia device was developed to proffer solution to temperature abnormalities in human, and to make the device available and affordable to most African health care centres.
ASSESSMENT OF NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY IN SOIL OF ZARIA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KADUNA
GAZARA, A.B.1, BELLO S1, M.S. AHMAD2, A. DANLAMI1 & A. ANGO.
1Department of Physics with Electronics, School of Applied Science, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic Zaria. Nigeria 2Department of Physics Kaduna State University, Kaduna Nigeria.
Assessment of Natural Radioactivity in soil of Zaria Local Government Area, Kaduna state was carried out . A portable Geiger-Mueller tube-based environmental radiation dosimeter was used for the measurement of backround radiation. A total of 55 samples of soil were collected and analysed in university Ibadan using NaI Detector and the results shows that in the soil samples, the activity concentration of 238U ranges from 53.57B/kg to 106.5B/kg ,while 232Th range between 52.24 to 209.49B/Kg and 40K range between 13.44 to 128.71 Bq/Kg . The average activity concentrations level is higher than the corresponding worldwide mean value for soils as reported by UNSCEAR in 2000. We recommend further Research should be carryout in the study area with different instrument and sensitization action will be take place especially for the 238U and 232Th in the soil samples of the study area.
Keywords: Geiger Mueller, Radiation, Soil.