INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT
Vol. 9 No. 3 June, 2017.
Cambridge Research and Publications International,
Centre for African Humanity and Development Circle (CAHDC),
University of Nigeria, Nsukka,Enugu State, Nigeria.
Copyright © 2017 Cambridge Research and Publications International.
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SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND URBAN TRANSFORMATIONS: PANACEA TO AFFORDABLE HOUSING, BENIN CITY AS CASE STUDY
JOSEPH AHAMIEBALOYAI ISIWELE1 DR. OLUSEYI ODEYALE2 AND DR. ABRAHAM TAIWO2
1Department of Architecture, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State 2Department of Architecture, Federal University of Technology, PMB 704 Akure, Ondo State
Housing affordability has been widely recognized as an essential issue in creating sustainable built environment especially in the context of developing world cities. This paper discusses strategy of sustainable development and urban transformation as panacea to affordable housing and its impact in attaining the goals of sustainability in Nigeria. It also discusses the growing problems of housing affordability in cities of developing world, using Benin City in Nigeria as a case study with a view to ascertaining the extent of the problem as well as the challenges it poses to creating sustainable built environment. The data utilized in the paper was generated through systematic survey of 100 households in the five Local Government areas into which the city was stratified. Findings of the study revealed the problems associated with obtaining sustainable urban housing in the city of which affordability is a major one. The findings also revealed that sustainable development and urban transformation are key issues that must be taken into consideration as panacea to the constraints of affordable housing in the city. Thus, it was suggested that the institutional framework to promote, enhance and encourage affordable housing provision should be created in the city.
Keywords: Affordability, built environment, housing, sustainable development, urban transformation
AN APPRAISSAL OF BUILDING COLLAPSE IN NIGERIA: CAUSES AND REMEDIES
*ARC. MICHAEL O. AJUFOH AND * ARC MURTALA A. BABAJI
*Department of Architecture, School of Environmental Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi state
Building collapse are common problems in developing countries where construction materials are very expensive and constantly on the high, and building inspection infrequent and most times nonexistence. The occurrence and subsequent drama and emotional topsy-turvy that greets a building collapse is one that is so common in the Nigerian society. The best building design in the world is for naught if a construction firm doesn’t follow the plan exactly. This paper delves into the issues surrounding building collapse, its cause, and remedies. But it starts with case studies from around the world and concludes with implications on real estate.
Keywords: Appraisal, Building, Collapse, Causes and Remedies.
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF LOW COST TOILET USING LOCAL MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY
1HAMIDU SHITUFA 2YERIMA MOHAMMED 3MOHAMMED ALIYU ABDULLAHI 4OSUNKUNLE ABDULMAGEED
1&4Department of Architectural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi 2Department of Quantity Surveying,, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi 3Department of Architectural Technology, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic, Bauchi
Lack of affordable sanitary facilities is one of the nagging problems confronting the health sector apart from poverty. A healthy nation is central to all physical, social and economic growth. In most African countries, especially some states in Nigeria have not actually migrated to the next higher level in terms of hygiene as open defecation free (ODF) area. As a result of this, the Federal, State and Local governments are presently trying to achieve safe hygiene practices for a collective responsibility, sustainable waste management and benefits to the society. However, the management and operation of such sanitary facilities are too much of a heavy burden to bear due to some circumstances. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to examine the issues and challenges facing the design and construction of toilet and bathroom facilities using local materials and technology and to proffer evidence based solution to the menace of deteriorating sanitary facilities through a sustainable clean water and sanitation. In conclusion, a detailed study with relevant qualitative analysis showed an acceptable positive result. It was then recommended among others that at all levels, stake holders should fund, develop and promote health sector of the economy in terms of easy design, construction and renovations of temporary/permanent, public/private toilets.
Keywords: Construction, Design, Sanitation, Sustainable, Toilet.
BAMBOO AS A SUSTAINABLE CIVIL ENGINEERING MODERN CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES (PART 2)
*DR. ENGR. GANA A.J **DR. ENGR THEOPHILUS.T
*Civil Engineering Department, Collage of Science and Engineering, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara state **Civil Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State
The modern Civil Engineering construction materials has greatly contributed to the development and comfort of human’s lives to a greater dimension. The result in the use of construction materials is based on constant research which is the back bone of technological development and advancement of developing countries, of which Bamboo as a civil engineering construction material is a part. This study discussed on Bamboo as a suitable civil Engineering construction material in developing countries, its potential uses, advantages and disadvantages, basic properties, and characteristics strength values, of Bamboo. The study also proffered Recommendation study conclusion.
Keywords: Bamboo, suitable civil Engineering modern construction Materials, developing countries.
IDENTIFICATION AND POSSIBLE SOLUTION TO EXPANSIVE SOILS IN MUBI, ADAMAWA STATE.
MATHIAS Y. JACOB A, KWAJI B.
Department of Civil Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State.
A geotechnical evaluation of the soil in GRA of Mubi, Adamawa State was carried out to ascertain the causes of rampant cracking of walls and slabs on buildings in the area. Properties of the soils studied were the natural moisture content, specific gravity, grain size gradation, consistency characteristics, compaction, X-ray diffraction analysis, permeability, consolidation, and California Bearing Ratio tests. Tests on these properties were mostly on disturbed samples. Test results showed that the soils are silty clays of low to medium plasticity, and of A – 7 class (equivalent to CL of Unified Soil Classification System). The linear shrinkage and liquid limit values tended to classify the soils as marginally swelling in nature. The low value of losses on ignition values also classified the soils as inorganic silt clay. The high group indexes (GI) of 14-15 of the soils rated them as poor subgrade. The results showed that the soils exhibit some swelling characteristics. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the presence of quartz –α low (silicon oxide – SiO2), montmorillonite and microcline (potassium aluminum silicate – K(AlSi3)O8 in the samples. Consolidation test results also showed that structures on the deposit need deeper foundation to make settlement moderate and acceptable.
Keywords: Identification, Possible, Solution, Expansive. Soils.
ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS IN DEVELOPING NATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
NJOSI ANWILIKA JUSTINA
Department of Industrial Safety and Environmental Technology, Petroleum Training Institute P.M.B 20 Effurun, Delta State, Nigeria
Environmental hazards are either man-made or may occur as a result of the dynamics of natural processes. They have had devastating negative impacts on man all over the world. The developing nations with less resource are worst hit when faced with environmental hazards of large magnitude because of the huge resources needed for rehabilitation and reconstruction. Reviewing extensive literature, this paper has examined the types of man- made environmental hazard as well as some hazards, which are caused by nature. It was identified that the man-made hazards can be controlled by man to a large extent while less control can only be placed on natural hazards. Possible ways that the developing countries may reduce the impacts of environmental hazard are suggested in the paper. Environmental hazards are not limited to the developing nations; a more general approach in the discussion of the different types of hazards was adopted for sustainable development.
Keywords: Environmental hazards, impacts, developing nations, natural, induced hazards and sustainable development.
EFFECTIVE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN URBAN NIGERIA: A PERENNIAL CHALLENGE.
1A.O.J. ADEBOWALE (MCOMEG, MNAPE, MNMGS) 2H.A ADIMULA (PhD)
1Petroleum Engineering & Geosciences Department, Petroleum Training Institute, Effurun Delta State, Nigeria 2Research and Development Department, Petroleum Training Institute, Effurun Delta State, Nigeria
Solid waste management is an interesting and important aspect of urban and rural planning. It is also quite challenging as it has been observed in the research leading up to this paper. This work examines some of the challenges which can result from poor solid waste management. It examines 3 major urban centers in Nigeria – Lagos, Ibadan and Kano; outlining the waste management system(s) currently in place as well as highlighting the challenges in their execution. The worst waste management problems are identified and workable solutions are suggested.
Keywords: Solid waste, Waste management, Nigeria, Urban centers, Challenges, Solutions
URBAN SPRAWL AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: LESSONS FROM BENIN CITY, NIGERIA
1 Department of Architecture, Federal University of Technology, PMB 704 Akure,
2 Physical Planning Department, Auchi Polytechnic, PMB 13, Auchi, Edo State
This paper focuses on Benin City, Nigeria as an example of a developing world city that is characterized by many of the problems associated with urban sprawl brought about by the unplanned and uncontrolled spatial expansion of the city. Recent studies show that about 45 percent of the urban population in Nigeria lives in informal settlements. Growth of these unplanned settlements has been associated with many land and environmental related problems. The paper takes a look at how the goals of sustainable development can be achieved through the efficient use of sustainable planning and urban design concepts in the management of the incidence of urban sprawl in the city. Methodological approach includes review of the literature, a field investigation of unplanned or squatter settlement in selected part of Benin City and description of its developments and physical transformation. The paper notes that strict compliance with planning laws by developers, along with the imposition of development taxes and congestion tolls on commuters are ways of curbing the rise of urban sprawl and consequently achieving sustainable development. Findings show that little attention paid to the nature and root cause of these squatter and unplanned settlements by the policy makers. The paper recommends the restructuring of the urban planning system in Benin City and Nigeria in order to effectively control urban development and management.
Keywords: Informal settlement; planning; spatial expansion; sustainable development; squatter settlement; urban sprawl
a mathematical MODEL FOR THE CONTROL OF toilet infections in nigeria
YUSUF, I.1*, BAWA, M.2 AND MAYAKI, Z. I3
1Department of Computer Science, Niger State College of Education Minna, Nigeria 2Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University Lapai, Nigeria 3Department of Mathematics, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria
In this paper, a new mathematical model was developed to control the transmission dynamics of toilet infections in Nigeria. The disease-free equilibrium and the effective reproduction number were obtained. Using the Lyapunov stability technique, the disease-free equilibrium was found to be globally asymptotically stable whenever and unstable if otherwise. Numerical simulations were carried out to confirm the analytical results. Findings revealed that although toilet infection morbidity decreases with time, no single control strategy is sufficient to control toilet infection in Nigeria and the worst of the three strategies is treatment. Each of the single control strategy proved to be effective only at 100% coverage rate which is impossible in the country considering the poor water supply and the attitude of people towards environmental sanitation and personal hygiene. However, a 90% coverage rate of the combined strategy is hereby recommended as a feasible solution to the control of toilet infection in Nigeria.
Keywords: Toilet infection, Global Stability, Effective Reproduction Number
PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF COARSE AGGREGATE IN CONCRETE USING BLACK OLIVE SEED
OSAKWE, C.E., NASIRU A., AND YAHYA I.A.
Department of Civil Engineering, Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola, Nigeria.
This study presents an investigation of the use of black olive seed (BOS), as a partial replacement material for crushed granite aggregate (CGA). The effects of replacing CGA commonly used in concrete with BOS on concrete properties such as workability, strength, and bulk density were investigated. Furthermore, some physical and mechanical properties of CGA and BOS were comparatively examined. Findings from the study show that BOS has higher water absorption value compared to CGA. Conversely CGA has a relatively higher aggregate impact and specific gravity values compared to BOS. The compressive strength, workability and density of concrete containing 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% of BOS as partial replacement for CGA in concrete with a mix ratio of 1:2:4 and water/cement (w/c) ratio of 0.55 were determined. A total of 90 cubes of size 150 x 150 x 150 mm were casted and cured in water for 7,14 and 28 days after which compressive strengths and bulk densities of the cured cubes were determined. The result of the tests indicated that the compressive strength and bulk density of the concrete produced decreased as the percentage of the BOS was increased in the concrete mix. Conversely, the workability of the concrete mix was found to decrease with increase in the percentage of BOS in the concrete mix.
Keywords: Black Olive Seed, Bulk density, Compressive strength, Workability, Lightweight Concrete
IN-DEPTH ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF FLUVIAL MORPHOMETRY ON RIVER CHANNELS OF SOME SELECTED SUB-URBS COMMUNITIES IN FCT ABUJA, NIGERIA
Dr. ADAMU ABDULLAHI BABA Ph.D,
Department Of Geography, Fct College Of Education Zuba – Abuja
The study is on in-depth analysis of the impact of fluvial morphometry stream on river channels of some selected communities in federal capital territory Abuja. the objective of the study is too examine the impact of solid wastes deposits on river channels and its subsequent expansion of the river channels through, the aid of hydraulic process, multi – stage sampling techniques was employed. Ten rivers were selected as sample, interview scheduled and focus group discussion involves 50 respondent, time frame for the study was 2010 – 2015 results revealed a strong negative correlation 0.024 at 0.05 level of significance between solid waste, deposit and river channel width and expansion of between 14 – 16 metres is recorded annually. A total of 90.6 metres is recorded for the period under study and this has been a very dangerous trends for houses, schools, offices, markets and shops located near those river channels
Keywords: In-depth Analysis, impacts, fluvial morphometry, river channels, communities, Abuja FCT.