International Journal of Engineering and Technology Research (IJETR)
Vol 14 (2) September, 2018
Cambridge Research and Publications International,
Centre for African Humanity and Development Circle
(CAHDC), University of Nigeria, Nsukka,
Enugu State, Nigeria
Copyright © 2018 Cambridge Research and Publications International.
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MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF WELDED AISI 304L STAINLESS STEEL USING TUNGSTEN INERT GAS (TIG) AND MANUAL METAL ARC (MMA) WELDING PROCESSES
- SANUSI, O. ADEDIPE, S. LAWAL, O. OLUGBOJI
Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Infrastructure, Process Engineering and Technology, Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria
AISI 304L austenitic stainless steel is considered weldable by all types of fusion welding process. However manual metal arc (MMA) welding of austenitic stainless steel is often associated with probems such as residual stresses, cold cracking and inclusion in the weld metal causing premature failure. These identified welding defects can therefore be minimised by the use of tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process. The effect of tungsten inert gas and manual arc welding on the mechanical properties of AISI 304L austenitic stainless steel were investigated. A 300 x 300 x 10 mm plate of austenitic steel was cut into 8 pieces and each plate faces were chamfered at an angle of 300 and 2.5 mm root gap was maintained. TIG and MMA welding processes were used to join the plates in a single V butt joint. The strength of the weld joint was evaluated for impact, bending, hardness and tensile test. The result show that welding process has much influence on the mechanical strength of the alloy. TIG weld joint was found to exhibit higher yield and ultimate tensile strength of 416MPa and 530MPa respectively than the base metal and MMA shows the least yield and tensile strength of 354MPa and 423MPa. Impact energy of 222J was absorbed by the base metal, while TIG weld joint was 207J and MMA absorbed the least energy of 201J. Microhardness value was maximum at the weld metal for both welding processes and TIG joint was also found to give higher bending strength. Microstructural study also indicated that MMA weld metal showed more delta ferrite than the TIG welding.
Keywords: AISI304L stainless steel, Manual metal arc, Tungsten inert gas, Mechanical properties
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF POWER GENERATING COMPANIES UNDER THE NIGERIA’S POWER SECTOR REFORM
DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS,
UNIVERSITY OF PORTHARCOURT, RIVERS STATE.
This paper proposes a novel approach to the modeling and analysis of power generating companies under the Nigeria power sector reform. In particular, a model that describes the relationship between the generating companies was presented using the Lagrange multiplier method regarding the Kuhn-Tucker conditions without taken into consideration the transmission limitations and losses. The numerical experiments indicate the five GENCOS with different cost functions. The optimal solution of power output from each generating company is presented.
Keywords: Gencos, Power reform, Optimization. Kuhn-Tucker, Lagrange Multiplier, Optimal solution
DEVELOPMENT OF A ROBUST H-INFINITY CONTROLLER FOR A DC MOTOR DRIVE SYSTEM WITH A DEAD BAND NONLINEARITY
1R. S. SHEHU, 2SULEIMAN MUSA AND 3 IBRAHIM F. I.
1,2Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineeering, Kadpoly, 3Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi,
Motion drive mechnaisms are known to be highly noninear and widely used in manufacturing industries. In this paper, a robust H-infinity controller was develped for a dc motor drive with g nonlinear dead band. Using the frequency spectrum of the drive system the H-infinity robust controller was developed by minimizing system gain, the developed controller was then tested on the linear model cascaded with the nonlinear model of the dc motor model. Results of the system transient and steady state performances are generated that showed capability of the controller in mainaining desirable system behaviour despite nonlinear effect and disturbances.
Keywords: H-infinity Controller, Dead band, Nonlinearity, Transient, Tracking error.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENHANCED DIGITAL IMAGE COMPRESSION USING MODIFIED INTELLIGENT BEHAVIOUR OF FIREFLY ALGORITHM
- A. ABDULKAREEM, A. M. S. TEKANYI, I. YAU, K. A. ABU- BILAL AND H. A. ADAMU
Communication Engineering Department, and Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
The transformation in mobile networks and multimedia communications makes image and video compression an important aspect of digital image processing. The main aim of image or video compression is to reduce the size of the image or video (redundancy) with little or no degradation in terms of image or video quality for an effective transmission and storage. The three main problems identified in image processing are size of the image window, frame rate and quality if the input image. This paper presents a comparative analysis for digital image compression using Firefly optimization technique. A total of six (four acquired and two benchmark) sample video data were used to implement the achieved technique. Frames were extracted from the video data and stored in form of images in a buffer. The implementation of the standard Firefly Optimization Technique (FOA), Modified Firefly (mFOA) and finally application of luminance enhancement model to achieved the enhance mFOA (E‑mFOA) yielded a positive result. Simulation results showed that, the proposed method E-mFOA is efficient with an improve compression ratio and peak signal to noise ratio. The mFOA based technique produced a PSNR percentage improvement of 7.34%, 3.30%, 4.90% and 5.75% over the standard FOA on the same sample frames. Furthermore the mFOA also obtained a PSNR percentage improvement of 3.46% and 3.86% over the standard FOA on the Akiyo.avi and Forman.avi benchmark video frames.
Index Terms: Image Compression, Standard FOA, mFOA, PSNR and Luminance Enhancement
LUBRICITY ANALYSIS OF NEEM AND CASTOR OILS AND THEIR BLENDS IN MACHINING MILD STEEL
OLAWALE, KAZEEM BABALOLA
School of Technical Education (Secondary), Federal College of Education (Technical) Bichi, Kano State, Nigeria
The mineral oil and sulfonates have been the basic source of cutting fluid formulations, but their uses have been questioned nowadays as regards to cost, health and environmental issues. The use of vegetable based cutting fluids is increasing and minerals based cutting fluids are likely to be replaced with vegetable based cutting fluids. The present study assessed the lubricity of blended oil from Castor and Neem seeds. These oils were extracted by mechanical method. The blends were formulated as follows; 90% Neem oil + 10% Castor oil, 80% Neem oil + 20%Castor, 70% Neem oil + 30% Castor oil, 60% Neem oil + 40% Castor oil and 50% Neem oil + 50% Castor oil. The oil obtained was investigated for physicochemical parameters and fatty acid profiles. The fatty acid in Neem oil showed the present of: oleic acid (41.9%), linoleoic acid (19.50%), stearic acid (18.68%), palmitic acid (15.56%) linolenic acid among others.Similarly, the fatty acids obtained in Castor oil were palmitic (0.46%), Stearic (0.72%), Linoleic (4.4%), Linolenic (0.2%), Dihydroxylstearic acid (0.69%) and ricinoleic acid (90.58%).. Lubricity of the formulated cutting fluid was tested using four balls tribo meter tester and the results obtained showed that minimum Wear Scar Diameter of 0.13 mm which is the least among the formulated oils was found at 60% Neem and 40% Castor oil, this implies that this formulation has maximum lubricity ability in terms of friction reduction as compared to other formulated oil and conventional soluble oil and therefore, it is the optimum sample. The formulated cutting fluids were tested in machining of mild steel. The chip thickness formed using the formulated cutting fluid at 90rpm was found to be 0.203 mm which is higher than that of the conventional cutting fluid obtained as 0.17 mm at constant depth of 2 mm; the high chip thickness value is due to its better lubricity property which allows for better metal removal rate, good surface finish and continuous chip formation.
Key words: Lubricity, vegetable oil, Castor oil, Neem oil, mineral oil and cutting fluid.
INTEGRATION OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS INTO THE NIGERIAN ENERGY MIX
- A. KASSIMU1, A. M. ORAH2 AND U. A. ABU3
1Air Force Research and Development Centre, Kaduna, Kaduna State. 2Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State. 3Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Idah, Kogi State.
Recently the power sector has undergone series of reforms and efforts are towards improving the situation in the generation of power despite the glaring corruption facing the power sector. Much has been done but the progress has been very slow. The country’s energy needs is growing geometrically and the current energy production is obviously inadequate to encourage industrialization and foreign investors’ participation, thereby stunting national development. Despite safety concerns, this paper gives an overview of nuclear technology with respect to electricity generation, examines the current applications of nuclear technology in the country, explains the viability and reliability of nuclear power plants as an index in the Nigerian power sector for improving the nation’s energy production and supply to meet the energy needs for now and the future. The paper also highlights the environmental implications of nuclear power plants.
Keywords: Uranium, Nuclear fission, Energy, Reactors, Thermal stations, Hazardous wastes.
SOLAR ENERGY: NIGERIA BEST FEAT TO WIPE OUT ITS ELECTRICITY NEEDS
1MUSA HALADU 2AMINU YAU 3 ABDULLAHI GALADIMA
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa state
The paper discussed the solar potential for sustainable energy generation in Nigeria the numerous issues involved in harnessing solar energy and clearly raised some attempt to enable Nigeria tap into this huge potential. Records indicate that, Nigeria lying in the tropics received abundant sunshine suitable for the propagation of solar energy. Due to numerous disadvantage of conventional fuel source when compared with solar energy and the recent giant strides in improving solar cell efficiency using photo voltaic cell device that convert 40.8% of light that hit in to electricity, Nigerian needs to reposition its self by inventing in this valuable resource to secure the energy need future of our economy. This paper shows some feat Nigeria has made to effectively eradicate the electricity needs of its population.
Keywords: photo voltaic, feat, solar energy.
EQUILIBRIUM ISOTHERM MODELLING OF NATURAL GAS ADSORBED ON SAWDUST ACTIVATED CARBON
UMAR HAYATU SIDIK
Department of Chemical Engineering Technology, School of Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic P.M.B 35 Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria.
Sawdust being a waste abundant has chosen as a precursor for preparation of activated carbon via microwave induced potassium hydroxide activation for methane storage. Porous carbon was used as a potential for methane adsorption at ambient temperature. The ideal methane adsorption capacities of the activated carbons were conducted using volumetric adsorption equipment at pressures (5-30 bar). The obtained experimental data were correlated with common adsorption isotherm models (Freundlich, Langmuir, Sip, and Toth). Sip model shows better fitness with the regression coefficient (R2) 0.9800. The findings revealed the potential of kinetic and isotherm models in methane adsorption applications.
Keywords: activated carbon; Freundlich; Langmuir; Sips; Toth.
DEVELOPMENT OF AN AUTOMATIC TIMING CONTROL SWITCH (ATCS) USING ATMEGA328 MICROCONTROLLER TOWARDS SOLVING PROBLEM OF ELECTRICAL POWER WASTAGE
SALAKO, E. ADEKUNLE
Department of Computer Science, FCT College of Education, Zuba-Abuja, Nigeria.
Preserving electricity has become progressively significant as energy rates and shortages have increased. People can strategically deploy a number of techniques to make a reduction on the electrical usage. Any organization that wants to advance must, therefore, embrace time management and proper conservation of electrical power supply. This can be achieved by controlling wastage in the limited power supply. The wastage of electrical power cannot be over-emphasized in FCT College of Education, Zuba-Abuja as many lighting bulbs, street-lights, electrical fans are always ON even when not in use. One of the principal problems is an attitude to always ON these electrical appliances when needed and OFF when not in use. In the ideal case, the electrical appliances should be switched OFF when not in use, but the real case in the College community showed that electrical appliances such as electric bulbs and fans are always ON from the morning to the night. Humans are prone to forget things easily. The college community is characterized by electrical power wastage. However, the motivation for this research was to curtail the electrical power wastage and reduce the high cost of electricity. Even, if the management had employed someone with the responsibility of switching ON and OFF the appliances, the monthly salary of such employee could never be justified with what this research had achieved. This research was designed to control ON and OFF time of any electrical appliance connected to its output and can as well be used as a digital clock. The objective of this research was to control the ON and OFF state/time of an electric bulb. The design included a microcontroller (Atmega328) that will be programmed to achieve the timing operation: The Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) displayed the ton (Time ON) and the t0ff (Time OFF); four buttons set the hour and the minutes; and the relay was activated whenever the time set elapses, causing the load (electrical appliance) connected to its output to be energized/dis-energized automatically. The developed system accommodated five daily plans for each day in a week. A time of 16:30 in GMT was set to test the ON switching. An electric bulb connected to the developed system was activated at exactly 16:30. Also, a time of 18:46 was set to de-activate the already ON electric bulb. The electric bulb was switched OFF at exactly 18:46.
Keywords: Automatic, Timing, Switch, Microcontroller and Electrical Power