CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH AND INTELLECTUAL IN UNVEILING SUB-SAHARA AFRICAN POTENTIALS IN THE NEW MILLENNIUM
JULY 30, 2015
F.U.T.A., HILLTOP CONFERENCE HALL, AKURE,
- PROCEEDINGS (Vol. 3 No.1)
SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF USING THE LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENTS IN CONTROLLING COMMUNITY CONFLICTS IN RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA
*B. A. ODINWA & **F. E. NLERUM
*Department of Agricultural Education, Federal College of Education (Technical), PMB 11, Omoku, Rivers State. **Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics/Extension, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Nkpolu, Port Harcourt.
This study investigated the socio-economic effects of using law enforcement agents (LEAs) in controlling community conflicts in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area (ONELGA) of Rivers State. The objectives of this study were to: investigate the reasons for the use of the formal LEAs in controlling community conflicts in area, and determine the socio-economic effects of using the LEAs agencies in controlling community conflicts in ONELGA. A total of 216 respondents, selected through stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used in the study. Data obtained were analyzed, using mean scores and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for test of significance. The findings showed that: Community conflicts in ONELGA were not state of emergency cases that could attract the presence of the LEAs to the extent of living with the people in their communities (M=2.63), rather, government and the oil company(s) have special interests in crude oil and gas businesses in the area (M= 4.69). In terms of Social-economic effects, It showed that: kidnapping, oil bunkering and cutting of electric cables are recent events in the face of LEAs (M=3.45); there is very high cost of living in the area (M=3.19); and there is increased anti-social behaviours such as armed robbery, stealing and cultism (M=3.16). Based on the findings, this study recommends the following: (1) There should be a reduction in the number of the LEAs in the area since the identified conflicts in the study are not state of emergency cases, (2) Federal and state governments as well as the oil companies operating in the area with vested interest in the crude oil and gas deposits in the area should diversify into commercial agriculture, cottage industries and tourism, in order to create more employable and recreational opportunities that will occupy the people meaningfully, and (3) There should be good governance and transparent leadership in families, communities, clans, local government area and the state in general, through proper implementation of the laws/constitution of the land.
CONCEPT OF ARBITRATION AND LEGAL SETTLEMENT IN CIVIL ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS EXECUTION
-ENGR. GANA A.J
Istructe London (UK), ICE London (UK), Civil Engineering Department, College of Science and Engineering, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State – Nigeria
In the course of executing civil Engineering construction activities, disputes are bound to arise from the interpretation of contracts, misunderstanding and many other parts of the civil engineering construction activities unless an efficient scheme is in put in place to dispose disputes occurrence, it will lead to time wastes and expensive litigations in courts in some cases. An alternative modern approach to dispute resolution mechanism is through arbitration. This paper examines the concepts of arbitration and legal settlement in the process of executing civil engineering construction projects.
A TUTORIAL ON E-LEARNING PARADIGMS
*ISMAILA W. OLADIMEJI, **ISMAILA M. FOLASHADE
*Ladoke Akintola University of T technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria **National Open University of Nigeria, Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria
Online learning or e-learning is not only an important cost saving measure for corporations to train their staff and customers but it provides the flexibility and opportunities to reach out to a much larger audience. Schools and institutions have been using it to complement their existing classroom lectures. E-learning become the most used and popular teaching method in universities with availability of E-learning tools and techniques, development of technology communications and networks. This paper discusses the fundamentals of e-learning which include the trends of e-learning, e-learning modalities. Also, various learning paradigms were highlighted up to date with the inclusion of blended learning. The literature of the past review on relationship of e-learning paradigms was updated too. This work also brought to light the pedagogical designs of optimizing the e-learning paradigms. Furthermore, various management and administrative requirements of e-learning paradigms were discussed. And finally, different methodologies of evaluating e-learning paradigms were pointed out and analysed.
PRODUCTION OF BREAD FROM COMPOSITE FLOUR OF GREEN MATURED PLAINTAINS (MUSA PARADISIACA) FLOUR AND WHEAT FOUR
*LAWAL RUKAYAT AJOKE & **LATEEF OWOLABI JIMOH
*Dept.Of Food Science & Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi **Dept. Of Nutrition and Dietetics, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi
The feasibility of partially replacing wheat flour with plantain flour in bread making was investigated. Matured plantains (Musa paradisiaca) were pulped, blanched, dehydrated and pulverized. It contains adequate amount of dietary-fiber, vitamins such as; vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin-B complex and minerals. The protein content of composite breads ranged from 5.6 – 10.2%. No significant difference was observed in the nutrient contents of control (wheat bread) and composite bread at 5% level of plantain addition. Water and oil absorption capacities of composite flours increased with increasing levels of plantain flour in the blend. As the plantain flour content of the composite dough increased beyond 5%, alveograph values for dough resistance to extension, extensibility and mechanical work of dough deformation decreased. The oven spring and specific loaf volume decreased significantly with increased plantain content of blends. The flow and break strength of wheat plantain composite bread decreased with increasing dilution of wheat with plantain flour. Thus the mean scores for colour, taste and crispness/aroma were generally high for all bread samples containing 0–70% plantain flour. Technically, organoleptically acceptable breads and were formulated from wheat-plantain composite flours using up to 80:20 (w/w) % ratio of wheat: plantain flour as maximum acceptable levels of substitution for breads.
ANALYSIS OF CORRELATION COEFFICIENT OF NATIONAL PLANNING ON THE WELFARISM OF ABUJA URBAN DWELLERS.
– ADAMU BABA ABDULLAHI
Department of Geography, F.C.T College of Education Zuba-Abuja, Nigeria
This research examine the analysis of the cor-relation –coefficient of National Planning on the Welfarism of Urban Dwellers particularly Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC) FCT. The objectives of the study are to examine the socio-demographic characteristics of respondents, investigate and developmental efforts put in place through National Planning by the Federal Government of Nigeria to improve on the standard of living, assess the benefits of living in the study area, examine the challenges and determine possible solutions. Time frame for study is 2006-2015. Empirical data where generated from 230 respondents. Data generated were of three phases. Focus group discussion, pre-field data collection, reconnaissance and field observations. Interview schedule was also employed in generating data. Multi stage sampling technique was adopted to select the samples. Data generated was summarized using descriptive and inferential statistical methods such as frequency, percentages and karl peason product moment correlation to test the relationship between National Planning and Abuja Urban Dweller Welfarism. The result of the correlation reveal r2 = 026.94 at level of significant P<0.05. This positive correlation implies that improved social amenities provided in Abuja have better the life of Abuja Urban Dwellers.
THE EFFECTS OF HEAVY METALS CO-CONTAMINATED HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATED SITES ON BIOREMEDIATION
-UMAR MU’AZU TADAMA1, SAMAILA JAMILU2, OMAR A. WAFUDU3, HUSSAINI MUSA SULEIMAN4
1&2 Department of Chemical Engineering Technology, 3Department of Science Laboratory Technology, 4Department of Agric and Bio-Environmental Engineering Technology. Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria.
Environmental pollution resulting from hydrocarbon and their products is a wide spread phenomenon globally whether it comes from petroleum, pesticides or other organic matter. A mixture of several different chemicals is common and toxic environmental contaminants because they are toxic to all forms of life. The study of heavy metals and metalloids affecting the natural ecosystem its effects in environmental remediation is essential, especially with their potential toxicity to living matter. Metal toxicity depends on chemical associations in the environments. The indiscriminate disposal of toxic organic matter could lead to build up of heavy metals including Fe, Zn, Cd, Cu, Mn, Cr, Pb and Ni, in both soil and water of crudes impacts. Heavy metals are increasingly found in microbial habitats due to natural and industrial processes. Thus, microorganisms have been exposed to metal polluted environments for long time, which has forced microorganisms to develop several mechanisms to tolerate, resist or detoxify these metal ions by efflux, complexation, or reduction of metal ions, to use them as terminal electron acceptors in anaerobic respiration. It has been found that heavy metals greatly affect the biotransformation or biodegradation of organic pollutants by interacting with microbial enzymes or their cell walls, by interfering with the microbial general metabolism or by interrupting the functioning of the enzymes participating in the degradation of hydrocarbons.The efficient biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon often involves the manipulation of the environmental parameters to allow microbial growth and degradation to proceed at a faster rate, which include the availability of sufficient amount of oxygen or other electron acceptors, essential nutrients, the penetration depth of the hydrocarbon pollutants into the soil, and the nature of the soil. Usually, the application of bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites involves the injection of sufficient amounts of oxygen and nutrients to stimulate the oil degrading bacteria. This paper therefore has demonstrated that co-contamination of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons contamination of the environment has a significant negative effect of reducing the growth, development, and yield of bioremediation of the contaminated site.
EFFECTS OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION INFORMATION TO FARMERS IN IMO STATE, (A STUDY OF ISU L.GA. IMO STATE, NIGERIA)
ANUMIHE E.C (1); J.O. OPARAOJIAKU(1), C.O OSUAGWU(1), R.A. IHENACHO(1) ,
H.N. OKORO(2) AND J.P.N IHEZUE(3)
- Department of Agricultural Extension and Management Technology, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo Ohaji, Imo State, Nigeria.
- Department of Horticulture and Landscape Technology Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo Ohaji, Imo State, Nigeria.
- Department of Crop Science Tech, Imo Poly Umuagwo
The study was on the effect of soil and water conservation information to farmers in Isu L.G.A of Imo State, Nigeria. In Spite of the various farming innovations adopted by the farmers in the area, yet productions is next to nothing hence people ask why? It was this background that this research was carried out. Data were analyzed by the use of means, simple percentage, and frequency counts. Data were analyzed with the use of simple random sampling technique to select fifty respondents. The result reveals that problems posed by poor soil and water conservation practices in the area includes poor fertility/yield, loss of farm to erosion, increased farm finance, poor returns from the farm activities, reduction in quality of farm produce among others. Most of the respondents in the study area get their information through Radio and Television (54%) and through friends (18%).
ELECTRICAL SERVICE IN BUILDING REQUIREMENTS
*ARIYANNINUOLA, ANTHONY & **ARUOTURE, E.O
*Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria **Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technology, Delta State Polytechnic, Itefe-Oghara, Delta State, Nigeria.
This paper is a study on the various types of electrical installation practices in buildings in Nigeria. The requirements for each type of electrical installations are discussed. The basic requirements for a standard completed electrical installation are mentioned and discussed. The consequence of not carrying out electrical installation according to the standard is enumerated. Also, the benefits of carrying out electrical installations according to regulation were not left out. Important calculation before electrical drafting work is discussed. Reference regulations pertaining to electrical installation are mentioned. Lastly, a typical electrical draft work and bill of quantities are illustrated and discussed.
INTEGRATION OF DIGITAL THERMOMETER WITH LOCAL BAKERY OVEN
TIJANI, B.O.,1 OLADOSU, D.A2 AND ASHIM, M.O1
- Department of Electrical Enginering, The Polytechnic, Ibadan2. Department of Computer Engineering, The Polytechnic, Ibadan
Local earthen bakery process involves the use of properly dried firewood as fuel for firing the oven. The use of biomass as fuel in local bakery operation places a burden on our forest resources as source of renewable energy. The judicious use of biomass is necessary to make local bakery operation eco-friendly. Estimate of the temperature attained and the quality of heat absorbed by the oven is done by guessing of baker, aided by past experience. This guess work cannot be as accurate as with the use of thermometers. Temperature measurement with thermometers will gives more accurate estimate of the heat absorbed by the oven for proper baking thereby justifying the need for a digital thermometer. In this work, a digital thermometer was designed, constructed and tested on three bakery ovens A,B and C different locations with satisfactory results within Ibadan metropolis. The test results were respectively 2350C, 2300C and 2380C for earthen bakery oven with temperature ranges between 2300C and 2400C, the test results were satisfactory. The use of the thermometer for accurate monitoring of oven temperature will ensure optimum use of biomass and thereby conserves our forest resources. It will also prevent wastage and lost of revenue which could arise as a result of over-baking and/or under-baking that could result from incorrect oven temperature.
METAL AND IONS EATING MICROBES INDUCED CORROSION OF REFINERY INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS
-UMAR MU’AZU TADAMA1, ENGR. A. A. ATIKU2, JANE PAUL3
1Department of Chemical Engineering Technology, 2Department of Agric and Bio-Environmental Engineering Technology, 3Department of Biological Science Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria.
This paper details how certain types of microbes miles underground, survive without oxygen or sunlight by feeding on metals like iron and manganese using them in their metabolic processes, and cause corrosion in oil pipelines onshores and offshores, rail way tracks; and metropolitan water pipe lines. This bacterium is a type of anaerobic prokaryote known as sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which changes sulfate to sulfide as part of its normal metabolism and respiration. SRBs are found throughout the environment in soil, marshy lands and marine sediment. They play a vital role in the global cycling and transport of sulfur and other elements. Some varieties of SRB create a slimy biofilm on the inside of natural gas and oil pipelines, creating a narrowing of the pipe as well as corrosion. The corrosion, caused by the bacteria utilizing the metal for its sulfide production creates damage that is both extensive and costly in the oil and natural gas industries. The biofilms form because the bacteria are essentially fishing for food, according to Garret Voordouw, PhD, professor of microbiology at the University of Calgary. He points out that the inside of a pipeline has few nutrients for bacteria, but they have adapted to become more efficient at harvesting the sulfates they need. “When an environment is nutrient poor and is flowing, it’s a good idea to attach to a surface. That way, you are exposed to more goodies than when you flow with the flow,” he said. He likened it to the way some bacteria attach themselves to rocks in Alpine streams where almost pure water offers little food. “If the bacterium was suspended in the stream, it would just float with the water and not get any nutrients. But if it attaches to a rock, forms a biofilm and the water flows past, it can sample a high amount of water.” The paper also unravels the actual mechanisms of how the bacteria can perform chemical reduction of metals–and weaken pipes.
THE IMPACT OF RANDOM NOISE INCLUSION ON THE CO-EXISTENCE STEADY STATE SOLUTION AND THE CARRYING CAPACITY OF INTERACTING PHYTOPLANKTON SPECIES.
1 O. C. AARON-MANDAH & 2 E. N. EKAKA-A
1Department of Mathematics and Statistics, School of science, Rivers State College of Arts & Science. PH Nigeria 2Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt Nigeria.
Two phytoplankton species has the ability to interact and co-exist under favourable marine conditions. But in some environments, most interacting habitats are exposed to some marine perturbations like temperature change, see level rise, over fishing and oil spillage, to mention a few. In this work we have investigated the impact of these environmental perturbations (in the form of a random noise inclusion) as it affects the co–existence and interaction of the both phytoplankton species. We have found out that for a little noise inclusion, the phytoplankton species are more susceptible to the ecological risk of existence.
DETERMINISTIC STABILITY ANALYSIS USING A NUMERICAL SIMULATION APPROACH.
-E. AKPODEE & E. N.EKAKA-A
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of science,Rivers State University of Science and Science and Technology,Port Harcourt Nigeria
The interaction between two plants species can be defined through the process of a mathematical modelling. Quantifying the impact of the intrinsic growth parameter values on the type of stability for two interacting populations is a formidable mathematical problem. We have used a technique of a numerical simulation to study these pioneering research problems. These novel contributions have not been seen elsewhere; they are fully presented and discussed in this study.
LEVINASIAN PERSPECTIVE OF POLITICAL VALUE COMMITMENT: ANTIDOTE TO AFRICAN EMANCIPATION
VICTOR OGHENEOCHUKO JEKO
Department of Philosophy, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka
This paper has the sole objective to critically examine the implications of Levinas’ ethics as applied political philosophy. This involves a critical examination of the concept of dialogue in African political value and African emancipation, from the purview of Levinas’ moral obligation as the debt we owe to the Other. Levinas’ ethics is the philosophy of Otherness; the humanism of the other human person. It is radical humanism or radical openness of our socio-political world. Freedom is not just the absence of impediments or constraints but obedience to the universal law of reason. This paper shall analyze the notions of Levinas’ political theory relative to the face of the other and the politics of difference and otherness. This paper appreciates and appropriates the deep logical insight offered by Levinas’ contemporary political philosophy into African emancipation, ethics, politics, African political value, the problems of the ethics of global peace which has been distorted by violence. Violence has been antithetical to global order and it disrupts the projects of our humanity. We have lose every sense of our humanity which has put our contemporary social world at a cross road. Africa, as a continent is not immune from the current global violence and crises facing the world. Levinas’ ethics is the ethics of the good life. Levinas’ ethics is ethical metaphysics and it reminds us of human moral universe; it reflects on the fact that we as humans are inextricably governed by the web of network of cosmic order and social order. Levinas’ ethics reveals the crucial importance of ethics, politics, history, culture to human society. Africa can learn from this Levinasian tradition of the cosmic network of social process.