INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCE VOL. 6 NO. 1, DECEMBER, 2017 EDITIONS, ISSN: 1939-8466
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EFFECT OF DIFFERENT METHODS ON THE PRODUCTION OF CHEESE FROM COW`S MILK
*HASSAN1, A. MUSA2, N.U. AND SHITU3, F.A.
1Science Laboratory Technology Department, the Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, P.M.B. 0231, Bauchi-Nigeria 2Science Laboratory Technology Department, the Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, P.M.B. 0231, Bauchi-Nigeria 3General Studies Department, the Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, P.M.B. 0231, Bauchi-Nigeria
The fresh milk sample was obtained from Birshin Fulani in Bauchi local government area and it was used for the production of cheese butter using local and laboratory methods which were subjected to the titration and the result for the average titre values were used for the determination of the percentage free-fatty acid in local and laboratory cheese. The percentage yield of free-fatty acid concentration in local cheese is 5.08 and laboratory cheese is 3.67 from the result obtained, it is good to consume local cheese.
Key notes: Cheese, Butter, Fresh milk, Free-fatty acid, Local and Laboratory methods.
AN ANTI-COUNTERFEITING SYSTEM USING QUICK RESPONSE CODE (CASE STUDY OF PHARMACEUTICAL DRUGS IN NIGERIA)
BENI Z. ZAKKA1 G.N OLUWOLE JOLA2 NASU MBIMI WORMI3
Computer Science Department Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria1 Electrical Electronics Engineering Department Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria2
Counterfeiting has had devastating effects in the global market and more especially in recent times. This can be attributed to the fact that counterfeiting has become more sophisticated and as the world transforms into a “global village” its effects are more adverse and far reaching than ever before. Closer home, Nigeria is no exception and is among one of country most affected by the continued trade in counterfeits in the region even as industry-wide efforts are made to contain it. Nigeria has instituted diverse strategies in the fight against counterfeiting with a view to eradicating it and in recognition of its far reaching effects. Recent reports in the telecommunication industry in Nigeria, suggest that more than half of the population has a mobile device and the number of Nigerians accessing the internet through their mobile devices continues to soar. Additionally, smart phones have continually become cheaper putting them within reach of a majority of Nigerians. The research seeks to opportune on these developments, to provide consumers with a simple, efficient and effective technique to authenticate if a product is genuine or otherwise before making a purchase. Through the use of mobile technology, this research proposes a mobile web authentication solution that can be used to establish the authenticity of products. The solution is available to web enabled smart phones with camera capabilities and a custom Quick Response (QR) code Scanner application with consumers receiving a message verifying or rejecting the authenticity of a product.
Keywords: Anti-Counterfeiting, System, Response, Pharmaceutical Drugs.
EFFECT OF MAIZE STORAGE FORM ON INFESTATION BY THE MAIZE WEEVIL SITOPHILUS ZEAMAIS (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE) IN BAUCHI ENVIRONMENT.
ABUBAKAR I.A* HARUNA, Y* GARBA, A**. AND CHIMDI, G.*
*Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi. **Department of Forestry Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.
An experiment was conducted at the Federal Polytechnic Bauchi to compare the levels of infestation and damage by the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais on shelled, unshelled and maize stored with the husks intact. The maize variety TZESR-W was used for the study. Completely Randomized Design with five replications was used for the study. The results indicated that there were significant differences among the maize storage forms in their resistance to the maize weevil damage. Maize stored on the cob and maize stored with the husk show low number of live weevils and low percentage of damaged grains. Number of seeds damage was positive and significantly correlated with number of insect responsible for damage ( r=0.93**) while it was negative and significantly correlated with number of insects responsible for the damage (r= -0.79**). However, seed damage was positive and significantly correlated with number of insect responsible for damage (r=0.85**). The level of damage was significantly higher in the shelled maize grains than in those stored on the cob and with the husk intact.
Keywords: Maize storage, weevil, Bauchi Nigeria.
A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR QUANTIFYING THE EFFECT OF A RANDOM DISTURBANCE ON THE RELATIVE HUMIDITY-AIR TEMPERATURE INTERACTION: MEASURING THE EXTENT OF THE ERROR BETWEEN THE INTERACTING DATA
1JAMES GALADIMA, E. N. EKAKA-A2
1Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai,Niger State, Nigeria 2Department of Mathematics and Computer Science,Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
In order to build a mathematical model that describes the relative air temperature interaction, it is imperative to quantify the effect of a range of the random noise intensity values of 10.1, 0.1 and 0.01 on the p-norms error with respect to the infinity-norm error classification. By using a MATLAB algorithm, we have shown that a random noise intensity value of 10.1 has a relatively bigger effect on the infinity-norm error value with a zero random noise intensity whereas the random noise intensity values of 0.1 and 0.01 respectively do not show any change on the infinity-norm error value of 8.799999999999997. These novel results which we have not seen elsewhere are presented and discussed in this study.
Keywords: Quantifying, Random, Disturbance, Relative, Humidity.
The applications of MATHEMATICS TOWARDS GENERATING and sustaining interest IN LEARNING MATHEMATICS
Department Of Mathematics And Statistics, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi
This study reviewed literatures related to application of mathematics toward sustaining interest in learning mathematics. The study arose as a result of lack of interest exhibited by most students learning mathematics in our secondary schools. The researcher observed the nature of the subject as a key factor that makes the learner not to develop interest in mathematics. In the course of this research work, two types of interest were indentified namely situational and individual interest. To stimulate and sustained interest in our learners, application of mathematics is important to other disciplines and there should be meaningfulness of task and student involvement ; thus encouraging students to be self-controlled and self-regulated while learning , promotion of group work and discussion in lessons and most importantly the effectiveness of teaching- learning process.
Keywords: Interest, Learning, teaching
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF COWPEA (Vigna unguiculatus L.) STORAGE METHODS IN BAUCHI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA (A CASE STUDY OF GWALLAMEJI)
1CHIMDI, G. O. AND 2JIBRIN, M. S.
1Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi 2Department of Horticulture and Landscape Technology, Bauchi State College of Agriculture
Examination of the comparative effectiveness of Actellic liquid, Chilli pepper, Bark of Neem, and Airtight condition in controlling cowpea beetles Acanthosclides obetectus in stored cowpea grains. Data collected includes; number of dead bruchids, number of cowpea seeds with holes, percentage damage of seeds. Results showed that Actellic liquid (insecticide) excelled other treatments with high mortility rate of Acanthosclides obetectus. Percentage of cowpea seeds was low (19.76 %) Pepper (T2) performed well by eliminating all the weevils bot not as fast as Actellic liquid, percentage of seed damage was low (20.06), but higher than that of T1. Bark of Neem (T3) eliminates the weevil as well, number of seeds without hole was high, percentage damage seeds was low (28.26 %), but higher than that of T1 and T2. The airtight condition was also effective in eliminating all the Acanthosclides obetectus. It is therefore suggested that Actellic should be used for the control of Acanthosclides obetectus. However due to the cost and health hazards associated with it usage. Pepper can be used as a substitute, because is cheap, save and environmentally friendly.
Keywords: Cowpea, Storage methods
MODELLING THE EXCHANGE RATE VOLATILITY USING GENERALISED AUTOREGRESSIVE CONDITIONAL HETEROSKEDASTICITY (GARCH) TIES MODEL EVIDENCE FOR NIGERIA
AISHATU KAIGAMA1 AND BAKARI HARUN RANN2
1Department of Statistics, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Borno state, Nigeria 2Department of Maths and Statistics, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
Exchange rates are important financial problem that is receiving attention globally. This study investigated the modelling the exchange rate volatility using GARCH models by using monthly average exchange rate data over the period of 1981-2012 consisting of 384 observations. The result from all the models shows that volatility was persistent (i.e exceed 1) indicating GARCH (1,1),(1,2),(2,2) models variance are not stationary but for ARCH(1,1),(1,2),EGARCH(1,1)(1,2)(2,2) models (i.e below 1) indicating the variance is stationary. ARCH and EGARCH models show the existence of statistically significant, the ARCH (1,1),(1,2),and EGARCH(1,1)(1,2)(2,2) models are found to be the best models, they have all the parameters of the variance being significant and with lower information criteria. Test of normality for the residuals of the models established indicated that they are not normally distributed, while the Q-test for serial correlation indicates that the residuals of the models suffers no serial correlation. . Government policy should restrict all transaction in Naira only.
Keyword: volatility, ARCH, GARCH, EGARCH, VARIANCE, EXCHANGE RATE, NIGERIA
THE PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF YOGHURT PRODUCED FROM SHEEP’S MILK AND COW’S MILK.
¹LAWAL RUKAYAT AJOKE; ²LATEEF OWOLABI JIMOH; & ²ADEBUSOYE MICHAEL SUNDAY.
¹Dept. Of Food Science & Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi² Dept. Of Nutrition and Dietetics, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.
Yoghurt is one of the oldest fermented milk product consumed all over the world and it is produced by fermenting milk with lactic acid bacteria which responsible for development of typical yoghurt flavor. Fermentation is one of the oldest methods practiced by human beings for the transformation of milk into products with an extended shelf life (Tamime and Robinson, 1999). The conversion of lactose to lactic acid in fermented products has preservative effect on as the pH of cultured milk inhibits the growth putrefactive bacteria and other determined organisms, thereby prolonging the shelf life of products (Eissa et al, 2011). Yoghurt is nutritionally rich in protein, minerals and vitamins and the values differ due to a number of reasons such as sources of milk, processing methods and ingredients used. Worldwide, cow’s milk is most commonly used to make yogurt but milk from water buffalo, goats, sheep, camels and yake is also use various different part of the (Castro, 2004).
COASTAL SOIL EVALUATION FOR MAIZE CROP PRODUCTION IN TERENGGANU REGION OF MALAYSIA
USMAN MUHAMMAD ISHAQ
Animal Production Technology, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State.
This paper deliberates on the results of the characteristic physical analysis of some coastal soil in the district of Kuala Terengganu and Kemaman because they are weak and unproductive and they are considered as marginal soils. As they are too sandy (> 82%), weakly structured, less ability to support plant development and having a somewhat extreme soil temperature. The research was conducted in three selected locations in the East Coast area of Terengganu, Malaysia and lie at the elevations in a range between 0-5m above sea level. This study, land evaluation (FAO, 1976) was conducted using secondary data beforehand published by Roslan et al. (2010). Virtually all profiles indicate no clear difference of horizons, and they are more of sandy fractions (95-98 %), silt and clay content are below 4%. By soil taxonomy, Baging series is classified as sandy, isohyperthermic, siliceous, typic, quartzipsamments. RhuTapai is named sandy, siliceous, isohyperthermic, arenic, alorthods, Rudua is identical with sandy, siliceous, isohyperthermic, arenic, alorthods and Jambu belongs to sandy, siliceous, alorthods, isohyperthermic, arenic. The outcomes of land suitability evaluation using land characteristics of maize with the actual class suitability of Baging (N1;w,f) growth suitable for at Rhu Tapai(S3;f), Rudua (S3;w,f) and Jambu (S3;f) are all marginally suitable class. While the potential classes of these soils are improved with ameliorants, the following potential classes were realized; Baging (S3;f), indicates that Rhu Tapai: ( S3;f) cannot be effortlessly mended due to the fertility and soil physical characteristic nearby, along with Rudua (S3;f) and Jambu is (S3;f).
Keywords: Coastal Soil, Soil Observation, Suitability of Maize Crop, Taxonomy.
ANALYSING HIV CARRIERS IN GOMBE STATE USING TIME SERIES ANALYSIS
ABDULMUAHYMIN A. SANUSI1 BABATUNDE ISIAQ2 AND ADEPOJU A. AKEEM2
1Department of Mathematics, Federal University Kashere, Gombe State. 2Department of Statistics Computer Science Kano University of Science and Technology.
This paper describes an empirical study of modeling and forecasting time series data of HIV carriers in Gombe state, Nigeria. The MA methodology was used for forecasting the annual data collected from the year 2002 to 2016. The Unit root test was conducted and the Information Criteria has shown that MA (4) is appropriate. A ten-year forecast was made from 2017 to 2026, showing the drastically fall in the HIV status in the state. These forecasts would be helpful for policy makers to foresee ahead of time the HIV trend, and the possible fluctuations intervals of the HIV time series data for the period forecasted.
Keywords: HIV data, Unit root test, MA Model, Forecast.
VALUATION OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA BASED PRODUCTS AGAINST TERMITE INFESTATION ON TRIPLOCHYTON SCLEROXYLON WOOD IN DAMATURU LOCAL GOVERNMENT, YOBE STATE OF NIGERIA.
AKWARANDU KARACHE E*., ALABI ADEDAMOLA S**., FILANI GBENGA S.***, ADEBISI ATILADE A.**, ALKALI USMAN U* AND SULEIMAN GAMBO S*.
*Forestry Technology Department, Yobe State College of Agriculture, Gujba, PMB 1104, Damaturu Post Office. **Department of Forestry Technology, Oyo State College of Agriculture and Technology, Igbo Ora, Oyo State ***Department of Forestry, Ministry of Environment Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State.
Termites’ attack on wood in use has been an issue of great concern in the Forestry and Wood industry. The non-durable but economically important wood of Triplochiton scleroxylon (obeche), which is one of the readily available and affordable woods in the construction and furniture industry today, will in a place like Damaturu, Yobe state of Nigeria, where termite attack on wood and wood products is very high (Olufemi et al., 2014, Oroke, 2014), be of little or no importance if adequate preservation measures are not taken to protect it; while at the same time, considerations have to be given to the economic, environmental and health cost of wood preservation. Equal number of wooden blocks from the same timber of obeche were subjected to three types of treatments namely treatment with Solignum, immersion in Neem extracts and Untreated or Control (N, S and C respectively) by immersing some of the blocks in a mixture of neem (Azadiratcha indica) seed oil and neem leaf extract, a mixture of solignum (chemical) with spent motor oil, and untreated (control) respectively and placed randomly inside an abandoned termite infested structure in Damaturu metropolis, Yobe state. After eight weeks, results showed that while there was a 27.82% reduction in weight in the untreated wood (C) due to destruction by termites, there was only 11.59% in S, while the least affected was N, with 10.28% reduction in weight. Though both the use of solignum and neem extracts showed very significant reduction in the level of termite attack, neem extracts (seed oil + leaf extracts) when compared to the control (untreated wood), N showed a slightly higher, but insignificant resistance compared to S at 5% degree of freedom. The results show that N is more effective in preservation of Triplochiton scleroxylon wood under the study period and condition. It is suggested that the use of solvents in diluting neem seed oil, scarification or incision of wood surface and hot treatment during application can make the wood to absorb preservatives better, thus making possible the use of the economic, environmental and health advantages of the neem products organic preservative.
Keywords: Azadiratcha indica, Scarification, Solignum, Obeche, Wood in use
ISOLATION, ANTI-TUMOR AND ANTI-OVARIAN CANCER ANALYSIS OF PURE COMPOUND FROM THE LEAF OF ANNONA MURICATA LINN. (ANNONACEAE)
1.*UKWUBILE, CLETUS A., 2. CYNTHIA T. SAMAGORO, 3. BALOGUN JOSHUA B.
- Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bali, Taraba State 2.Department of Pharmacognosy and drug development, Gombe State University, Gombe, 3. Department of Biological Science, Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State Nigeria,
Ovarian cancer remains the leading cause of death from gynaecological malignancy. More than 60% of the patients are presenting the disease in stage III or IV. In spite of combination of chemotherapy and surgery, the prognosis stays poor for therapy regimen. The leaves of Annona muricata were extracted and then fractionated by column chromatography. In vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed with fractions and with an isolated compound on ovarian cancer cell line, at concentrations of 6.25-200 μg/mL for crude extract and pure compound. Cytotoxicity was measured after 24, 48 and 72 hours using MTT assay. In vivo cytotoxicity was tested on ascites, developed in the abdomen of albino mice after inoculation with human epithelia OV7-CDNA-20µL cells intraperitoneally. Cytotoxicity of the crude extract and pure compound for the cell line at all time points IC50 was greater than 10 μg/mL, at 48 hours (95% confidence interval ; t-test). Both the crude plant extract as well as the pure compound of A. muricata leaf killed the cancer cell at a final concentration of 200 μg/mL and 100μg/ mL respectively at all concentrations. Mean survival time (MST) and percentage increase in life span were highest in group IV with values 3.0 ± 0 .03 and 5±0.05 respectively at 1000 mg / kg body weight (b.w).Packed cell volume (PCV) and Non-viable tumors cell counts (NVC) showed progressive increase as the dosage increased from 10 -1000 mg/kg in all the groups while viable tumor cell counts decreased in all the groups as compared to doxorubicin. The study showed that A. muricata leaf has potent anti-ovarian cancer effects against ovarian cancer cell line, and represents a source for ovarian cancer therapy.
Keywords: Ovarian cancer, Annona muricata, MTT assay, Cytotoxicity, tumor cell.
ON THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS IN THE PREDICTION OF BIODIVERSITY: COMPARISON WITH THE LOCAL MINIMUM PREDICTION
ATSU, J.U.1. AND EKAKA-A, E.N.2
1Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar, Nigeria 2Department of Mathematics, Rivers State University, Nkpolu, Port – Harcourt, Nigeria
In the context of a parameter estimation of model parameter values that define a dynamical system, the relative importance of each model parameter is a significant idea in the context of model validation and model prediction. A small model parameter variation is popularly associated with a high sensitivity value whereas a local minimum sensitivity value with a small sensitivity value between interacting data and local sensitivity are important dimensions of sensitivity analysis with respect to a model prediction. This study has comprehensively evaluated the effect of both small variation and a bigger variation of the intrinsic growth rate on the prediction of a biodiversity loss. We have utilized a computational approach to select the best-fit intrinsic growth rate of the forestry resources biomass which in this scenario is 697 which has predicted a 0.3914 percentage depletion of biodiversity loss. This novel results which we have not seen elsewhere are presented and discussed quantitatively in this paper.
Keywords: Best-fit, intrinsic growth rate, sensitivity analysis, biodiversity loss, model validation, model prediction, dynamical system, interacting data