BERKELEY PUBLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICAL, BIOLOGICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE (BJMBPS) (VOL. 14 NO. 3)
ISSN: 1211– 4401 DECEMBER, 2020
Berkeley Research and Publications International,
Bayero University, Kano, PMB 3011, Kano State, Nigeria.
Nigeria, West-Africa. +234-708-717-3247
COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON THE ADSORPTION OF RHODAMINE B AND MALACHITE GREEN FROM SIMULATED WASTEWATER ONTO BENTONITE CLAY
OK AKEREMALE1 AND S. E. OLASENI2
1Department of Science and Technology Education, Bayero University, Kano. 2Department of Chemical Sciences, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Nigeria.
Bentonite clay, a readily available adsorbent was employed in the investigation of the removal of synthetic basic dyes from simulated wastewater. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out for the sorption of the basic dyes, i.e. Rhodamine B and Malachite green onto the clay. The specific surface area (Sear’s method), point of zero charge (Solid addition method) and functional groups present on the clay were determined using the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The influence of process variables such as initial dyes concentrations, ionic strength, pH and contact time were also investigated. The isotherm equilibrium data were fitted to the linear forms of the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. The result of the Freundlich plots showed that both dyes were adsorbed onto a heterogeneous adsorbent surface with sorption capacities of Rhodamine B and Malachite green being 0.386 mg/g and 0.805 mg/g respectively. The data from the kinetic studies were fitted into the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Boyd kinetic models. Over the study of these parameters, the pseudo-second order and film diffusion mechanism was found to predominate in the adsorption process of the dyes. Process variables such as pH and ionic strength was found to have a significant effect on the uptake of both dyes.
Keywords: Bio-Sorbent, Synthetic, Simulated, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Adsorption, Adsorbent.
A PRELIMINARY SURVEY ON THE KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE, ON COVID-19 PANDEMIC AMONG RESIDENCE IN NORTH CENTRAL NIGERIA
EHOCHE, EDACHE ELIJAH1; ADEJOH, JOHNSON2; IDOKO, JOSEPH3; & CHIJIOKE, MADU2
1Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Minna. 2Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Abuja, Abuja. 3Department of Laboratory Science Technology, Benue State Polytechnic, Ugbokolo.
A preliminary survey on the knowledge, attitude and practice, on Covid-19 pandemic among residence in North Central Nigeria was conducted. An anonymous electronic network sampling survey as designed by e-survey was employed and a total of 203 respondents were investigated. The content of the survey includes the basic socio-demographic information of subjects and their knowledge, attitudes and practice about Covid -19 .as well as their approval for vaccination if available, satisfaction with the control measures adopted by the authorities, and the suggestions on the need for further research. The questionnaire avoided privacy information, and all questions were mandatory to ensure the response rate. The result showed that there were 84 female respondents (41.2%) and 120 male respondents (58.8%). majority of the respondents were students (36.5%) and unemployed youth (16.8%) as well as (49.5%) living in town. 76.3% of the respondent were not married and 16.8% were unemployed even as the greater part of the respondent (37.1%) earn below 20, 000 naira. 39.4% of the respondents use facebook while 56.1% use whatsapp for communication. On the level of knowledge and practice, 76.83% opined that people may be sick for 1-14 days without developing the symptoms. On the viral transmission 94.41% agreed that the transmission of the virus can be through direct contact with contaminated surfaces through eyes, nose and mouth as well as 78.35% responded that the virus doesn’t penetrate the skin. More so 92.04% of the respondents showed that older and sick people are more vulnerable to the disease with 98.86% showing that the most common symptoms may include fever, tiredness, dry cough and sometimes difficulty in breathing. Only 24.43% asserted that Covid-19 cannot be transmitted through social gathering, going put often, making direct physical contacts with people. Mean while, 21.02% showed Covid-19 is a punishment for immoral behavior. On the rate of the outbreak, 94.32% said it is scary. Only 55.11% asserted approval of the control approach by the government. However, 82.29% would agree with the response of the masses to government measures to control the spread. On the way forward, 98.87% advised the need for more research and 87.08% would approve of vaccination against the disease. The response on the need for more research ranks first followed by the response on the scariness of the outbreak; however, the response on “a healthy looking person cannot contract the disease” ranked the least. This implies that the respondents have a good level of knowledge and practice about covid-19 and necessary adjustments are needed to control or manage the spread of the pandemic. This is necessary for various government agencies, researchers and other policy makers towards the achievement of a better health and economic growth and development.
Keywords: covid-19, knowledge, practice, north central Nigeria
DETERMINATION OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (POPS) IN AFRICAN CATFISH CLARIAS GARIEPINUS) IN FISHPOND ALONG RIVER YEDZARAM MUBI, ADAMAWA STATE NIGERIA.
ZIRA, S. P1, SHINGGU, D. Y1 AND KIRI, B2.
1Department of Pure & Applied Chemistry, Adamawa State University, Mubi Nigeria 2Department of Animal Production, Adamawa State University, Mubi Nigeria.
The use of POPs has been confirmed detrimental to health and well-being over the years leading to a ban on their use especially by developing countries such as, Nigeria. Contrary to the ban, substances containing POPs have been observed to still be in use due to their low cost and effectiveness, especially for Agricultural purposes; residues from such usage run off into sediments and contaminate water and organisms such as African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) used as food sources thereby, availing consumers to ill – effects of POPs. In this research, concentration of POPs residues were determined in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus), water and sediment along River Yedzaram in Mubi Adamawa State; GC/MS was used to detect POPs residues in samples collected randomly from five different ponds, in Vimtim stream along River Yedzaram. A total of seven (7) POPs were completely undetected while eight (8) were found distributed in various concentrations in samples. Aldrin was found with highest concentration of 0.099 µg/kg in sediment and correspondingly 0.054 µg/kg in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus). One – way ANOVA statistical analysis was used to test the difference in concentrations of each POPs in each sample analysed; results were considered significant at a 5% level (p < 0.05), and the concentrations were found to be statistically indifferent. Hence, African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) sourced from that region is suggested to be contaminated and unsafe for consumption. It is recommended that efforts should not be relented in phasing out POPs residues, as well as surveillance on illegal use of the banned POPs until they are extinct.
Keywords: POPs, African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus), River Yedzaram, Pesticides
DNA FORTIFIED POLYPYRROLE NANOWIRES FOR HEXANE AND AMMONIA SENSING
MANSUR YAHAYA IBRAHIM
Chemistry Department, Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Nigeria.
Polypyrrole DNA templated nanowires were created by using simple fabrication method that applied DNA as a template on which to carry out the polymerisation. Their morphology, chemical state and electrical properties were analysed by microscopic (AFM, TEM and SEM), spectroscopic (FTIR, UV-Vis and XPS) and current voltage measurement (I-V) methods respectively. The nanowire films with a diameter of 3-12 nm were tested for their ability to sense ammonia and hexane gases which resulted in good sensitivity of 98% to 0.61 ppm of NH3 and 33% to 4.31 ppm of C6H14 and ultrafast recovery of 45-85 s for ammonia and 28-92 s for hexane gas with high repeatability. The current transients demonstrate the reversible type sensing to the gases (NH3 or C6H14) detection using as grown PPyDNA nanowire arrays sensor. Possessing good response recovery properties, linear dependence, repeatability, selectivity and long-term stability, demonstrate their potential to be use as ammonia and hexane gases sensors.
Keywords: DNA, Fortified, Polypyrrole, Nanowires, Hexane and Ammonia Sensing.
HEPATITIS B VIRUS (HBV) AND PLASMODIUM CO-INFECTION IN ASYMPTOMATIC CASES
GINSAU, M. Aˡ AND AHMED, U.A²
1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Science and Technology, Jigawa State Polytechnic, Dutse, Nigeria 2Department of Biological Science, Federal University, Gashua, Yobe State, Nigeria
Co-infection of hepatitis B virus and Plasmodium are likely happening in communities and to our knowledge, no investigation is done to realize it. This is likely happening among asymptomatic individuals. Asymptomatic stage serves as reservoir for re-start of transmission in areas where a disease is eradicated and it may progress to acute and chronic conditions. This study seeks to investigate the incidence of co-infection of the two pathogens considering their medical importance. Sero-chromatographic immunoassay method was employed in this study and result revealed 30% incidence. This is for a small population, 100 persons and one method was employed, we therefore, recommend for this kind of investigation in a larger population by multiple investigation methods such as liver biopsies, ultrasound, nucleic acid testing, among others.
Keywords: Asymptomatic, Co-infection, Hepatitis, Plasmodium, Virus
DETERMINATION OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND SCAVENGING EFFECTIVENESS OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF TERMINALIA CATAPPA IN GEIDAM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF YOBE STATE, NIGERIA
MR MOHAMMED AUDU, MR. MUSA MOHAMMED GARANDAWA AND MR. UMAR DAN AZUMI
School of Science, Department of science laboratory technology; Mai Idris Alooma Polytechnic P.M.B 1020 Geidam, Yobe state, Nigeria.
Medicinal plants have been identified and used throughout human history, plants have ability to synthesize a wide variety of chemical compounds. Many of which are efficacious and contain compounds that are potential drugs which require further examinations. Plants are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites such as tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids and flavonoids etc., which have been found to possess to antimicrobial properties in vitro. Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit or quench free radical reactions and delay or inhibit cellular damage. Although, almost all organisms possess antioxidant defence and repair systems that have evolved to protect them against oxidative damage, these systems are insufficient to prevent the damage entirely. However, antioxidant supplements, or foods containing antioxidants, may be used to help human body reduced oxidative damage. Studies on the nutritional value and biological activity of the kernel of Terminalia catappa revealed that it has a good digestibility, exerts a strong antioxidant activity, possesses anti-HIV properties, anti-asthma properties, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, antibacterial and hepatoprotective properties. The fresh leaf of Terminalia catappa was air dried under laboratory condition, was ground into fine powder extracted with methanol using cold infusion method and partitioned using solvent of gradient polarities such as n-hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. Methanol crude extract, n-hexane portion, ethyl acetate portion, n-butanol portion and aqueous portion revealed the presence of carbohydrate, cardiac glycoside, flavonoid, terpenoids, saponins, tannins and alkaloid. However, soluble starch, phlabotannins and glycosides were not found in the extracts. The methanol crude extract showed the percentage inhibition of 98.25 at 10ug/ml, 97.40 at 20µg/ml, 96.94 at 30µg/ml, 96.63 at 40µg/ml and 97.10 at 50µg/ml; n-butanol portion showed the percentage inhibition of 95.75 at 10ug/ml, 96.40 at 20µg/ml, 96.15 at 30µg/ml, 96.40 at 40µg/ml and 96.15 at 50µg/ml; n-hexane portion showed the percentage inhibition of 95.50 at 10ug/ml, 95.65 at 20µg/ml, 95.80 at 30µg/ml, 95.75 at 40µg/ml and 95.75 at 50µg/ml; ethyl acetate portion showed the percentage inhibition of 78.35 at 10ug/ml, 87.65 at 20µg/ml, 95.00 at 30µg/ml, 94.75 at 40µg/ml and 94.70 at 50µg/ml and the aqueous portion showed the percentage inhibition of 94.40 at 10ug/ml, 95.10 at 20µg/ml, 96.00 at 30µg/ml, 95.50 at 40µg/ml and 96.05 at 50µg/ml.
Keywords: Terminalia catappa, Phytochemicals, Proximate analysis, Elemental analysis, Secondary metabolites
ANTI-OXIDANT, MINERIAL NUTRIENT AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF NIGERIA GROWN RIPE AND UNRIPE TOMATO (Solanum esculentum) COLLECTED FROM SANGO MARKET, SAKI, OYO STATE
*IMRAN, MUSAH OLALEKAN, *LAWAL, ISMAIL AJEROGBA, *AZEEZ, GAFAR OLATUNJI AND **OLAGOKE, HALIMAH BUKOLA
*Science Laboratory Technology Department, the Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki. Oyo State. **Lautech Open and Distance Learning Centre, Ladoke Akintola University (LAUTECH), Ogbomoso, Oyo State.
Tomato is important source of antioxidants such as polyphenols, ascorbic acid, tocopherols, Beta-carotene and lycopene which are not compulsory in diet but, when present in sufficient level, prevent chronic disease through the inhibition of the harmful effects of free radicals. Tomato can provide an important proportion (85%) of antioxidants in the human diet through carotenoids and phenolic compounds. Mineral Nutrients and Phytochemical composition of ripe and unripe tomatoes were investigated in accordance with standard procedure, as this is the aim of this work. Fresh Tomato (Solanum esculentum) of both ripe and unripe was properly collected into a polythene bag from Sango market in Saki, Saki-west Local Government of Oyo State. Mineral concentrations were determined by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The Mineral nutrients revealed high concentration of Cu (6.43±1.00) and (11.53±1.00) compare to Fe, Pb, Cd and Zn. The antioxidant composition values of unripe tomato are vitamin C (45.58±1.00), vitamin A (0.42±1.00), Beta-carotene (18.74±1.00), and Lycopene (6.36±1.00). For ripe tomato are vitamin C (26.83±1.00), vitamin A (2.33±1.00), Beta-carotene (7.01±1.00) and Lycopene (31.67±1.00). The aqueous extract and Ethanolic extract prepared from both ripe and unripe tomato showed qualitatively a marked presence of Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Steroid, Tannins, Terpenoids, Saponnins, Anthraquinone, Glycoside and Reducing sugar in ripe tomato and shows little difference in unripe tomato. The results of analysis revealed those phytochemicals that are of high antibacterial properties and pronounced antioxidant.
Keywords: Tomato, Anti-oxidant, Phytochemicals, Vitamins, Minerals, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
COCCIDIOSIS IN DOMESTIC PIGEON: REVIEW ON DIAGNOSIS, CONTROL, AND PREVENTION.
Department of Animal Health and Production Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bali. Taraba state.
Coccidiosis in domestic pigeon (Columba livia) is still considered as one of the main diseases affecting performance of the birds reared under intensive production systems. The disease is most commonly seen in young pigeons and only rarely in adult birds. Infections in domestic pigeons are typically mixed and commonly include Eimeria columbarum and Eimeria labbeana. Although extensive research has been carried out using molecular techniques for the characterisation of Eimeria spp, practical use of these techniques are not available today, except in the research laboratories. There are a number of important diagnostic methods currently available such as oocyst counts, lesion scoring and clinical signs. The impacts of subclinical cases always go undetected. There are various chemotherapeutic agents available for the treatment of coccidiosis in pigeon. However, interpretation of the efficacy of anticoccidial agent is difficult. Another problem difficult to address include the growing resistance against other drugs, such as sulfonamides and amprolium. Coccidiosis in adult domestic pigeon as perceived by some not a major problem, economic impact of coccidiosis is underestimated and optimisation of anticoccidial programmes might be advantageous to the pigeon production. In addition to this, a link between subclinical coccidiosis and bacterial enteritis complicates choosing the right treatment. Implementing sound shuttle and rotation programs can be part of the answer in order to not only control clinical, but also subclinical coccidiosis. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview and interpretation of the, for the poultry industry, most practically relevant insights on diagnosis, control, prevention and the impact of coccidiosis on the overall gut health of domestic pigeon
Keywords: Coccidiosis, Eimeria, diagnosis, anticoccidial, toltrazuril
GENOTYPIC DIVERSITY OF BACTERIAL ISOLATES PRESENT ON SOME FOOD SAMPLES
1IHUM, T. A 2EFUNWOLE O. O. AND 2BUSARI, T. A
1Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute Ilorin, Kwara State 2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Osun State Polytechnic Iree.
Molecular characterization involves characterization at molecular level without any effect on the environment, development or physiological state of the organism. Biochemical characterization is the characterization of the biochemical state of the organism, which is affected by the environment, development as well as physiological state. The objective of this study was to molecularly characterize bacteria isolated from certain food samples (vegetable, cow milk and locust bean samples). Five bacteria isolates were obtained from the vegetable samples while two Lactobacillus isolates were obtained from cow milk and locust bean samples. The bacteria isolates were identified using 16SRNA GENE sequencing using the BLAST algorithm and were identified as Staphylococcus aureus CIP 9973; Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum Pec 1; Enterobacter cloacae AS10 Klebsiella aerogenes OFM28; Escherichia coli 2013C-3342; Proteus mirabilis UPMSD3; Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116; Lactobacillus plantarum NRIC 0383. Genotyping plays an important role to identify potential differences at genetic level as well as for epidemiological traceability of all the presented isolates
Keywords: Molecular, Bacteria, Characterization, Vegetables, Lactobacillus
TOXICITY STUDY ON ETHANOL EXTRACT OF FISCUS PLATYPHYLLA DELLE (MORACEAE) IN ALBINO RATS
1JUSTINE M. T; 2YAKUBU S.; 3LOHDIP A. M.; & 1CHIDAMA B N.
1Department of Chemistry, College Of Education, Hong, Adamawa State, Nigeria. 2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria. 3Department of Chemistry, University of Jos, Jos Nigeria
Ficus plytaphylla Del. (Moraceae) possess medicinal properties that are effective in the management of tuberculosis, cough and other ailments, and has been commonly used in traditional medicine. This study was therefore undertaken to investigate the toxicity of Ficus platyphylla Del. so as to ascertain its safety in traditional medicine. Samples of the plant were collected from Madagali Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria, during fruiting and flowering season. It was air dried, powdered and extracted in ethanol. The extract was further distilled using rotary evaporator at the temperature of 450C to enhance its concentration. Different concentrations of the alcohol extract were prepared in distilled water; 1%, 2%, and 3% were administered orally to groups A, B and C respectively for 14 days. The reaction of the rats to the extract were investigated and compared with the control. The results obtained showed some degenerative changes in the brain, lungs, and intestine as well as reduction in the red blood cells, white blood cells, packed cell volume and hemoglobin below their normal values. The result further showed that the severity of the extract was dose dependent.
Keywords: Ficus Platyphylla, stem-bark, albino rats, toxicity
PHYTOCHEMEICAL SCREENING AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF EPIPHYTIC NEEM LEAVES TAPINANTHUSDODONEIFOLIUS EXTRACTS AGAINST SOME SELECTED CLINICAL ISOLATES
ISAH, U.B.; ALIYU, U.; & ABUBAKAR, S.B.
Department of science laboratory Technology, School of Technology, Kano state Polytechnic.
The laboratory scale experiment was conducted to determine the phytochemical constituents and antibacterial activities of epiphytic neem leaves (Tapinanthusdodoneifolius) extracts on some selected clinical isolates. The samples were collected using polythene bags to avoid unnecessary contamination of the plants, and it was collected from the BUK old site garden. The phytochemical screening and antibacterial test was carried out in the Chemistry and Biology laboratory respectively in BUK. The result obtained showed that carbohydrate, glycosides, steroids, alkaloids, phenol, saponins and falvonoids are present in the ethanolic extract, however chloroform extract showed a presence of glycosides, phenols and carbohydrates only. Furthermore there was no significance difference between the ethanolic extracts against bacterial isolates (p<0.05).
Keywords: Phytochemical Screening, Bacteria, Epiphytic, Tapinanthusdodoneifolius and Neem
EVALUATING THE NUTRIENT AND ANTINURIENT COMPOSITION OF MONODORA MYRISTICA (NUT MEG) FOR USE AS FEED ADDITIVE
CN KANU1 AND P. I. ONUEGBU2
1Department of Food Technology Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State, Nigeria. 2Department of Science Lab Technology Federal Polytechnic, Oko Anambra State.
A research work was carried out to evaluate the nutrient and anti-nutrient composition of raw and toasted Monodora myristica spice to be used as feed additive. The proximate, vitamin and mineral composition and anti-nutritional factors were evaluated. The result from proximate analysis showed that raw Monodora myristica had moisture (10.10%), dry matter (89.90%), ash (8.84%), crude fibre (9.64%), ether extract (28.60%), crude protein (15.75%), nitrogen-free extract (37.17%) and Gross energy (469.08kcal/kg) while toasted noted moisture (8.24%), dry matter (91.76%), ash (9.40%), crude fibre (6.24%), ether extract (21.54%), crude protein (25.38%), nitrogen-free extract (37.44%) and Gross energy (445.14kcal/kg) respectively. Vitamin and mineral composition of Raw Monodora myristica noted ascorbic acid -184.60(g/100g), thiamin- 0.77(mg/100g), riboflavin-0.15(mg/100g), niacin-18.00(mg/100g), calcium- 4.62%, magnesium-2.01%, sodium-0.45%, potassium-1.20%, phosphorus-0.61%, nitrogen-2.52%, copper-23.24(mg), zinc-98.20(mg), iron-15.82(mg), lead-0.30(mg) while the toasted had ascorbic acid -240.46(g/100g), thiamin- 0.98(mg/100g), riboflavin-0.14(mg/100g), niacin-16.44(mg/100g), calcium- 5.22%, magnesium-2.01%, sodium-0.33%, potassium-1.38%, phosphorus-0.78%, nitrogen-4.06%, copper-19.15(mg), zinc-25.26(mg), iron-14.51(mg), lead-0.26(mg). The anti-nutrient contents of raw Monodora myristica noted alkaloid-4.14(mg), flavonoid-12.88(mg), saponin- 0.32(mg) and tannin-0.31(mg) while toasted recorded alkaloid-3.84(mg), flavonoid-11.45(mg), saponin- 0.29(mg) and tannin-0.18(mg) respectively. A significant difference (p<0.05) was observed in the nutrient and anti-nutrient composition of raw and toasted Monodora myristica seed.
Keyword: Monodora myristica, toasted, raw, anti-nutrient, nutrient.
DIETARY INTAKE, ANTHROPOMETRY AND BLOOD GLUCOSE OF MORINGA USERS AND NON USERS WHO LIVES WITH DIABETES
*1ADEOSUN, F.F., 2 OGBEBA, J., 3ABODENYI, V.A. AND 1ABDULLAHI, Y.J.
1Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi state, Nigeria. 2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi. 3Department of Agricultural & Bio-Env Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.
Studies have shown the antidiabetic effect in humans of Moringa oleifera among many other uses. This study is aimed at cwho visited Specialist Hospital Jos, Plateau state. It was a cross sectional survey, where 200 questionnaires were administered to randomly selected respondents who visited the diabetes clinic of the facility. Data on socio-demography, food intake using 24 hours dietary recall, anthropometry using weight and height measurements and blood glucose using glucometers were obtained. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20 was used to analyze data. The results shows that 52% of PLWD in this study consumed MO. Majority of MO users consume it weekly (48.1%); Moringa leaves (47.1%); check blood sugar after consumption (76.9%); were >46 years (36.5%), female (52.9%), secondary school leavers (32%), married (51%) and full time house wife (40%). Overweight (34.6%;35.4%) and obesity (42.3%;57.3%) are pronounced in both users and non-users of MO respectively among PLWD. The mean energy intake of both users (2550.21Kcal) and non users (1658.11Kcal) were below the RDA(2950Kcal) and the mean fiber intake of users(49.12g) was above RDA(38g) but non user (26.27g) was below the RDA. The fasting blood sugar of users of MO shows lesser hyperglycaemia (29.8%) than that of non-users (47.9%) in this study. In conclusion, MO users had better fibre intake, protein, anthropometry and less hyperglycaemia than non-users among PLWD.
Keywords: Dietary Intake, Anthropometry, Blood Glucose, Moringa, Diabetes
EFFECTS OF WATER TURBIDITY ON HUMAN HEALTH A STUDY OF GBARAMATU KINGDOM IN WARRI SOUTH – WEST, DELTA STATE – NIGERIA
Department of Biology, Nigeria Maritime University, Okerenkoko, Delta State-Nigeria.
This paper examines the effect of water turbidity on Human Health in Gbaramatu Kingdom. Turbidity in water is a measurement of how cloudy or murky a body of water is. It also measures the cloudiness of water and indicates water quality and filtration effectiveness. Turbidity is caused by particles of soil, organic matter, algae, metals, or similar matter suspended in the water column. These particles scatter light and make the water appear cloudy or murky. Secchi Disc (SD) is used to measure the amount of water turbidity. Bore-holes, sea and rain water are the major sources of water here. Higher turbidity level is often associated with higher level of diseases-causes micro-organisms such as viruses, parasites and some bacteria. These organisms can cause symptoms like vomiting, dizziness, skin rashes and lung irritation. Most of the diseases such as diarrhea, dysentery, cholera, and enteric fever prevail due to unsafe drinking water clubbed with the environmental factors. Many of the diseases caused by the human consumption of impure water are preventable if proper health and sanitation standards are enforced. Effort should be put in place by the Government to ensure the provision of treated, safe and quality drinking water such as drilling of bore-hall. Well and Bore-hall water which serve as the sources of water should be treated. Water Safety Plan (WSPs) should be used to monitor sources of water quality, the effectiveness of coagulation and clarification, filtration and disinfection performance in a water treatment plant, and the effectiveness of distribution system management.
Keyword: Water, Turbidity, Human Health, Gbaramatu
WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS BY MAGNETIC FIELD
*MIJINYAWA SANI LABARAN; & **ABDULLAHI M.AUWAL
*Science Laboratory Technology Department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi. **Mathematics and Statics Department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.
This paper discusses application that employs magnetic field as an aid in wastewater treatment. The magnetically assisted wastewater treatments are presented and compared in terms of performances with those of conventional treatment systems. The advantages and limitations of magnetic field application are discussed in order to evaluate their environmental benefits. The main conclusion from the literature is that magnetic field application has the potential to improve the physical performance in terms of solid-liquid separation mainly through aggregation of colloidal particles. The application is also significant in influencing the biological properties through the improvement of bacterial activity. Both of these enhancements lead towards increase in efficiency of the water and wastewater treatment performances.
Keywords: Magnetic field, water and wastewater treatment, solid-liquid separation, aggregation, performance efficiency
IMPACT AND ERADICATION OF WATER HYACINTH (EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES) IN NIGERIA
1RABIU SABO; AND 2UMAR SABO
1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Mai Idris Alooma Polytechnic, Geidam, Yobe state. 2Department of Agriculture, Umar Suleiman College of Education, Gashua, Yobe state.
Once water hyacinth entry into a community water bodies, often it’s become hard to eradicate and looks as it has come to stay. One of the worse impacts of water hyacinth is the destruction of biodiversity which well thought-out enormous. Farming as well as economic losses to water hyacinth are always excessive. Control is not an easy task, because mechanical control is considered costly; chemical/herbicides control requires permanent application while biological control is considered delayed and sometimes mixture of achievements as well as failure. Nigeria may adapt from countries that make used of this weed to create opportunities and jobs for its populace.
Keywords: Impact, Eradication, Water Hyacinth, (Eichhornia Crassipes), Nigeria.
STUDY OF FRAGILITY OF ERYTHROCYTES IN VERTEBRATES (NORMAL HUMAN CELL, HUMAN SICKLE CELL, COW, SHEEP, GOAT AND CHICKEN) IN SOKOTO, NIGERIA
YUSUF SARKINGOBIR; UMMU TUKUR; & NAFISA ABDURRAHMAN ASHAFA
Department of Biology, Shehu Shagari College of Education, Sokoto, Sokoto state, Nigeria
Erythrocytes are important in the transport of oxygen to the tissues in the body. The need to preserve the integrity of erythrocytes played by their membranes is enormous.This work studied erythrocytes fragility in some vertebrates (normal human cell, human sickle cell, cow, sheep, goat and chicken), using the standard method. The results revealed that, normal human red blood cells (NHRCs) have lower fragility than sickle cells (SCs).Haemolysis (fragility) was higher from cow down to goat’s red blood cells(RBCs).Chicken’s RBCs possessed highest level of fragility, surpassing all. Conclusively, there are varying levels of fragility among vertebrates (erythrocytes).
Keywords: Erythrocytes, erythrocytes fragility test, red cells, NaCl , osmosis, mean cell volume , surface-are – volume- ratio
ASSESSMENT FOR LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE OF PREGNANT WOMEN ON THE UTILIZATION OF LONG-LASTING INSECTICIDE TREATED NET AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN BAUCHI STATE.
*HASHIMU UMAR; **ADAMU MOHAMMED; ***ABDULLAHI MOHAMMED JAWA; & ****MAAM KYARI
*Bill and Melinda gate college of health technology Ningi Dept of Community health, P.O. box 57, Ningi LGA, Bauchi State. **Local Government Education Authority, Potiskum, Yobe State. ***Home Affairs Information and Culture Overseeing, Ministry of Budget and Economic Planning, Yobe State ****College of Nursing and Midwifery Maiduguri. [Maryam Abacha American University of Niger, Maradi Niger Republic.]
This study was carried out to determine the level of knowledge of pregnant women on the utilization of long-lasting insecticide treated net among pregnant women in Bauchi state. Aiming at to determine the level of knowledge of pregnant women, their understanding on the importance of the utilization of long lasting insecticide treated net, the methodology of the study is descriptive cross sectional study of pregnant women in three randomly selected wards at two selected local governments in each senatorial zone of Bauchi state , The researcher divided the study area into three (3) strata following the division of senatorial district in the state that is North zone (Katagum).Central Zone and South zone. (Bauchi). the study conducted among pregnant women in Bauchi State only. The result shows that The study revealed that pregnant women lack Knowledge on the utilization of Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets in Bauchi State.
Keywords: LLITN Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Net, ANC Antenatal Care, Pregnant-women, Knowledge, Utilization
THE EVOLUTION OF THE ETHNOBOTANY OF ACHA (Digitaria exilis staph) IN SOME COMMUNITIES OF PLATEAU STATE FROM THE 1970S TO DATE
TOY BENJAMIN DANCHAL1; WANDIYAHEL TITUS1; & EMMANUEL BULUS2
1Biological Sciences, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria. 2Biology Department, Umar Suleiman College of Education PMB 02, Gashua, Yobe State.
Acha (Digitaria exilis Staph) most times referred to as “the grain of life” in many parts of Africa is indigenous to Africa and one of the oldest cereal crops in the continent which has been cultivated for thousands of years by Africans. The genus “Digitaria” has over 300 species with just a few cultivated either as fodder or for human consumption. Despite its ease of cultivation, Acha has been listed as one of the neglected crops of Africa and also as a lost crop due to neglect by researchers, farmers etc. the work on “The evolution of the ethnobotany of Acha (Digitaria exilis staph) in some communities of Plateau State from the 1970s to date” aimed at investigating the changes in the relationship of Acha with the indigenous people in some parts of Plateau State, Nigeria where Acha is mostly cultivated, the research work also aimed at finding the specific ethnobotanical areas of neglect and its impact on the people and how the plant can be rediscovered for the benefit of humanity. The work (which is an observational study) involved the use of two hundred and fifty (250) questionnaires across three (3) local government areas in Plateau State where the crop is mostly cultivated. The results revealed a great change in the ethnobotany of Acha from the 1970s to date with a reduction in production as many farmers have turned to other crops which they believe to bring more income and easy to cultivate due to mechanization. Hence, there is a great need for a turnaround and serious consideration to be made into the areas of research and making improvement in the cultivation of Acha as many pieces of research have shown Acha to be one of the greatest cereals with a lot of health benefits.
Keywords: Ethnobotany, Acha, Indigenous, Lost Crops, Neglected Crops.
A LITERATURE REVIEW ON THE USES OF PUBLIC RELATIONS IN PUBLIC HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
*DR. SALAMI, ABDUL-AZIZ O. **SALAMI, OYINDAMOLA A.
*Department of O&G, State Hospital Ijaiye, Abeokuta, Ogun – State. **Department of Mass Communication, Gateway (ICT) Polytechnic, Saapade
Public relations or PR is a multidimensional discipline with no consistent definition. It is the discipline that looks after an organization’s status, with the aim of earning understanding and support and influencing public opinion and behaviour. PR is a planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain goodwill and mutual understanding between organization and its publics. Conventionally, PR belongs to marketing and is considered as a branch of promotional activities. However, some authors consider PR as a managerial function since it deals with the organization’s dealings with both internal and external public. The obscurity of PR will probably bring even more theoretical discussion among marketing and management professionals. The roots of PR reach far into the history, but the fundamentals of the modern concept of PR could be found in the revolutionary propaganda efforts against the British Monarchy during the American Revolution. Besides it’s used for commercial and political purposes. PR also plays an important role in the context of public healthcare communication activities. Like never before, PR in public healthcare is faced with so many challenges and expectations. Today’s PR has to deal with a broad viewpoint of health related issues and needs of target markets, together with taking into account financial aspects of healthcare services. The objective of this paper is to provide better understanding of the use of PR in the public healthcare system and to identify possible gaps in the available literature. The study adopts a mixed reaction method which combines descriptive, participants’ observation and survey technique used for the study. Moreso, the practical aspect of PR in the public healthcare could also be comparatively approached from both marketing and management perspective.
Keywords: public relations, PR, public healthcare, managerial function, organization.