INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICAL, BIOLOGICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE (IJMBPS) Vol. 7 No. 9
Berkeley Research and Publications International,
Bayero University, Kano, PMB 3011, Kano State, Nigeria.
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DETECTION OF MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE FROM DIABETIC PATIENTS
*NAZEEF IDRIS USMAN, *IBRAHIM UMAR KHALIL, **WADA NAFIU MUHAMMAD, **HADIZA MUSTAPHA GHAZALI
*Department of Microbiology, Bauchi state University Gadau **Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi
Klebsiella pneumoniae is an enteric bacterium responsible for urinary tract infection especially in immune-suppressed patients; recurrent use of commonly prescribed antibiotic led to the evolvement of the resistant strain. The study aimed at detection of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in diabetic patients attending General Hospital, Azare, between the month of September and December 2017. A total of sixty-two (62) urine samples were collected within the study area. Gram stain reaction, series of biochemical techniques and antimicrobial susceptibility test were conducted to identify the organism under investigation. The study reveals that 22(35.5%) of the total sample contained the organism Klebsiella pneumoniae. Other bacteria identified were Escherichia coli 38.7%, Klebsiella oxytoca 4.8%, Proteus species 5.6%, Pseudomonas species 3.2% and nothing were found on the remaining eight samples representing 12.9% of the total sample. Thirteen (13) of the isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae were found to be multidrug resistant on high profile gram negative disc impregnated with known concentration per gram representing 59.1% of K. pneumoniae isolates while the remaining K. pneumoniae isolates were found to be susceptible. The rate at which K.pneumoniae is occurring in Diabetic patients may lead to the occurrence of other secondary infections such as bacteriuria infection, colitis, and bacteria. It is concluded that K.pneumoniae is one of the most prevalent urinary tract bacteria found in Diabetic patients and they are mostly resistant to commonly prescribed antibiotics. Diabetic patients shall be oriented on a hygienic sanitary method to prevent infection with multidrug-resistant K.pneumoniae.
Keys: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Diabetic mellitus, UTI, MDR, Fluroquinolones
METALS ANALYSIS AND TOXICITY EVALUATION OF SOME TEXTILE AND DYEING EFFLUENTS IN KANO, NIGERIA USING ALLIUM CEPA BIOASSAY
1*ABDULLAHI, U.A. AND 2IBRAHIM, S.
1, 2 Department of Biological Science, Bayero University, Kano, P.M.B 3011, Kano State, Nigeria.
Insufficiencies in dyeing and textile processing coupled with incomplete sewage treatment system leads to indiscriminate discharge of large amount of dyestuff into water bodies mostly used for irrigation and fishing. These waste are potentially mutagenic and some are even carcinogenic. In this research, the cytotoxicity of three industrial effluents viz; African Textile Manufacturer (ATM), Kofar Naisa and Kofar Mata dyeing centre were evaluated using Allium cepa bioassay. The concentrations of some heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Zn, Fe, Cu, Co, Pb, Mn and Ni) were also determine. A sets of three small onion bulbs were cultivated in 25%, 50% 75% and 100% effluent concentrations (v/v) and a control for each sites. Root tips from each bulb were harvested and processed for cytological studies using squashing techniques. After 48hrs of exposure, cytotoxic effects of effluent on root tips (compared to control) showed root growth retardation which was more apparent at higher concentrations. This indicate that, the root growth inhibition was concentration dependent. Number of dividing cells observed and the Mitotic Index (MI) were also concentration dependent. There were decrease in number of dividing cells and MI with increase in concentration of the treatment. The effective concentrations that couses 50% effect (EC50) was 95% for ATM and K/Naisa dyeing point while it was 100% in K/mata dyeing point. Diverse structural aberrations and abnormalities were observed ranging from chromosomal bridge, which was apparent even at low concentrations of the treatment to cytokinesis failure, Micro Nucleus (MN) and nuclear buds or vacuolated nucleus. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)showed no significant different (P>0.05) in mean concentrations of Cr, Fe, Cu and Mn for K/Naisa and K/Mata dyeing centres, but there is statistical difference (P<0.05) for these parameters in ATM. Likewise, there is a significant difference (P<0.05) in the root growth of A. cepa exposed to different concentration of the effluent in ATM and K/Naisa sites but no statistical difference exist in root growth of A. cepa exposed to K/Mata effluents.
Keywords: Allium cepa, Bioassay, Effluents, Chromosomal aberration, Cytotoxicity, Mitotic Index
THE EFFECT OF HYPTIS SUAVEOLENS LEAF EXTRACTS ON THE LARVAL STAGES OF ANOPHELES AND CULEX MOSQUITOS
MUHAMMAD, R. H., SUFI, D. A., BALOGUN, J.B., DOGARA, M. M., MUHAMMAD, F AND ABDULLAHI, A.
Department of Biological Sciences Federal University, Dutse Jigawa State Nigeria
The Continuous use of synthetic insecticides and its toxicity problem together with the growing incidence of insect resistance has called the need for novel insecticide. Plant extracts may be alternative sources that constitute a rich source of bioactive compounds that are biodegradable and environmentally friendly. Plants belonging to the family Laminaceae have traditionally been used in developing countries for their insecticidal and repellent properties against several insect species. Therefore, this research is aimed at determining the effect of Hyptis suaveolens leaf extracts on the larval stages of culex and Anopheles mosquito. The leaves of Hyptis suaveolens were collected from its natural habitat and shade dried in the laboratory, they were made into powder form and then subjected to Suxhelet extraction using methanol before phytochemical analysis was carried out. Different concentrations ranging from 100mg/ml, 200mg/ml, 300mg/ml, 400mg/ml and 500mg/ml were used to test the effectiveness of the extract on larval stages of Quilex and Anopheles mosquito in reference to a control group. The phytochemical screening of the crude extracts of Hyptis suaveolens had showed the presence of; Tannins, Saponins, Phlobatanins while Phenones, flavanoids and alkaloids were not detected. The mean number of larvicidal effect of Hyptis suaveolens on both Culex and Anopheles mosquitos’ larvae showed higher mortality at 500mg/ml and least mortality at 100mg/ml. The results obtained showed that Hyptis suaveolens leaf extract is effective on both larval stages of culex and Anopheles mosquitos, due to the phytochemicals constituents, however the plant is found to be toxic at 48 hours. Therefore more research on isolation and characterization of bioactive compound of the plant is suggested.
Keywords: Anopheles, Culex, Hyptis suaveolens, Leaf extract, Larval stages
ETHNOBOTANICAL SURVEY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF ANTIDIABETIC PLANTS TRADITIONALLY USED IN DUTSE METROPOLIS
KABIR, N1*., ABDULKADIR, B1. AND AUYO, M. I1.
1Department of Biological Science, Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State.
Over the years, it has been suggested that various medicinal plants have anti-hyperglycaemic properties which could help in the management of diabetes mellitus, a complex metabolic disorder. Despite the wide usage of plants for antidiabetic purposes, information of folk knowledge and potential for their therapeutic value is yet to be fully documented. The aim of present study was therefore to carryout ethnobotanical survey and phytochemical screening of common antidiabetic plants used for the management of diabetes mellitus in Dutse Metropolis. To achieve this aim, a semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and information about antidiabetic plants used in the study area and the most commonly cited plants were screened qualitatively for phytochemical compounds. Thirty informants within Dutse metropolis, majorily males (99%) that attended Arabic/Islamic schools (44%) with mean age 45.03±6.71 years divulged information on traditional antidiabetic medicinal plants. Of the twelve (12) plants cited belonging to ten (10) families, Moringa oleifera, Leptadenia hastata, Mangifera indica and Anarcadium Occidental were the most frequently cited antidiabetic plants. Moringa oleifera and Anarcadium occidental were rich in flavonoids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, alkaloids, anthraquinines and balsam, whereas saponins and balsam were not present in L. hastata and Mangifera indica respectively. The study documented that the most commonly used antidiabetic plant in Dutse metropolis, are rich sources of a range of biologically active phytochemicals as such could be considered as promising candidates for further scientific validation in the search for newer, effective and affordable anti-diabetic drugs.
Keywords: ethnobotany, antidiabetic, Dutse, phytochemicals
KNOWLEDGE OF ESSENTIAL DRUGS AND ITS MANAGEMENT BY MANAGERS OF PRIMARY HEALTH CARE FACILITIES IN SOKOTO STATE, NIGERIA.
L.A. JAMIL 1, M.T.O IBRAHIM2, B.A ISAH2 AND A. CHIKA1
1Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto State, Nigeria. 2Department of Community Health, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto State, Nigeria.
Availability of essential drugs in Primary Health Centres (PHC) is a key indicator to access to appropriate treatment and the availability is exclusively dependent on effective and efficient management of essential drugs. It becomes necessary to manage drugs properly and adequately because drugs serve as a linkage between the patient and health services. Consequently, their availability or absence will contribute to positive or negative impact on health. To determine the knowledge of essential drugs and drugs’ management skills of health managers in Primary Health Care (PHC) facilities in Sokoto State, Northwest Nigeria. The study participants were primary health facility managers with their corresponding PHCs across Sokoto state. The study was cross-sectional and descriptive. Sixty-six primary health care managers and their corresponding health facilities participated in the study. The mean age of the health managers was 43 years with 46 females and 20 males. Both age, years of experience and qualifications impact greatly on their knowledge of essential drugs and its management and this observed difference was statistically significant (FE χ2 = 11.64, p = 0.003; FE χ2 = 8.45, p = 0.015 and χ2 = 32.18, p = 0.001), respectively. Qualifications, years in service and age of PHC managers are some of the factors affecting knowledge and management of essential drugs by the PHC managers. Training and re-training of PHC managers on essential drug’s management and provision of essential drug’s management support tools by the Sokoto State Ministry of Health, more specifically the State Primary Health Care Development Agency (SPHCDA) are strongly recommended.
Keywords: Essential, Drugs, Management, Primary Health Care, Facilities.
ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT (POME) USING ANAEROBIC DIGESTION IN REAL OIL MILLS PALM PLANTATION, ODUKPANI L.G.A, NIGERIA
ENI, D. IMOKE AND MUMA, C. BILI
Department of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Calabar, P. M. B. 1115, Calabar – Nigeria
This study analysed the physico-chemical properties of palm oil mill effluent (POME) before and after biogas extraction using the anaerobic digestion method. Two locally manufactured anaerobic bio-digesters were used for the digestion of the POME, one for the control and the other for the catalysed sample. The samples were digested for a total of 110 days. Samples for laboratory analysis were collected on the 60th day of the experiment (referred to as mid digestion) and the last day of the experiment (referred to as end of digestion). Standard routine laboratory techniques were used to analyse the samples. The results revealed that fresh POME is acidic (with a pH of 4.43) whereas anaerobic digestion gradually leads to a drop in its acidity (from an average of 4.43 to 4.83 in the control and also 4.43 to 5.50 in the catalysed setup) translating to a drop in acidity in both setups. The organic carbon content of the samples was high (27.37% to 30.89%). Likewise, the nitrogen content of the samples also increased (0.73% to 1.38%). The carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio of POME dropped from 37.5 to 22.38 at the end of the digestion process. Dissolved oxygen (DO) showed a remarkable increase while biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased in the both experimental setups. Also, Magnesium, electric conductivity, total dissolved solids and nitrate increased while the chloride, Sodium and Potassium contents decreased in both the control and catalysed experimental setups. Findings revealed that the anaerobic digestion of POME leads to a drop in acidity, COD and BOD, it therefore does not only serve as a resource from which valuable biogas can be obtained but could also serve as value added means of POME treatment with an added advantage of the digestate being quality compost that can be used as biofertilizer. It is also recommended that the microbial aspect be studied in a similar study.
Keywords: palm oil mill effluent (POME), anaerobic digestion, bio-digester, biogas and chemical oxygen demand (COD).
EFFECT OF BOVINE (CATTLE) RUMEN CONTENT DIET ON THE WEIGHT GAIN BY WEANER RABBITS (Cuniculu cuniculus) IN MUBI METROPOLIS ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA
1BUBA, Z.M., 2YUSUFU, S.D., 1PHANUEL, H.
1Department of Zoology, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria. 2Department of Biological Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
The effect of sun dried bovine rumen content (DBRC) as a diet on weight gain of Weaner Rabbits in Mubi Metropolis was evaluated. Ten (10) Weaner Rabbits of four to five (4 – 5) weeks of age were randomly paired in five (5) hutches as control and treatment groups labeled T1 to T5. The control group (T1) received 0% DBRC and the treatment groups (T2 – T5) were given 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% DBRC, respectively for eight (8) weeks. The Results showed that the rabbits with 20% DBRC (T3) had the highest feed intake followed by those with 30% DBRC (T4). The highest weight gain was recorded in the group with 30% DBRC, followed by those on 40% DBRC, while the control group (0% DBRC) put on the least weight. The group fed on 40% DBRC (T5), however drank more water than the other groups. It is therefore, recommended that 30% to 40% DBRC can be used to replace maize in the diets of Weaner Rabbits and Sanitation Agencies can encourage rabbit farmers to utilize BRC in their feed to serve as a tool for waste management.
Keywords: Bovine, Rumen Content, Weight-Gain, Rabbit, Mubi.
EFFECTS OF COWPEA APHID-BORNE MOSAIC VIRUS INFECTION ON GROWTH AND SEED WEIGHTS OF COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) GENOTYPES
SALAUDEEN, M. T., SALA, J. Y., GANA, A. S., IBRAHIM, H., BELLO, L. Y. AND MUHAMMAD, A. N.
Department of Crop Production, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria
Cowpea is an important food source and livestock feed in sub-Saharan Africa. It is also integrated in the traditional cropping system with the aim of improving soil fertility. Unfortunately, growth and seed production are hamphered by several viruses, one of which is Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV). To date, use of resistant varieties is the best management approach. The objective of this study was to identify cowpea genotypes with desirable growth and seed weight. Twenty four cowpea genotypes were evaluated against CABMV using completely randomised design with three replications. Cowpea seedlings were mechanically inoculated with virus extract at 10 days after sowing. Plant height, number of leaves per plant, leaf diameter and seed weight per plant were recorded. Data were subjected to analysis of variance at p≤0.05 and mean separation was accomplished with Duncan Multiple Range Test. The virus impacted severely on the cowpea plants. However, the cowpea genotypes 98K-1092-1 and 11D-24-40 were the best for seed weight per plant (1.4 – 1.6 g). Therefore, both genotypes are recommended to farmers in areas that are prone to CABMV infection order to enhance food sufficiency and nutrition security.
Keywords: Seed weight, resistant varieties, cowpea, CABMV, nutrition security
1AHMED, U. U. 2 NASIRU, H. 3Prof., S.I. AJAYI, 3Prof. T.O. OJO And 4ZAKARIYYA, U. U.
1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Technology, Kano State Polytechnic. 2School of General and Applied Science, Shehu Idris College of Health Science and Technology, Makarfi, Kaduna State. 3 Department of Home Economics, Faculty of Education, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria 4 Kano State Ministry of Education, GGSS Kano, Kano State Nigeria.
The study set out to assess the nutritive value of soft, fried and dried soybean cheese (Tofu). It revealed that macro nutrient average composition present in three forms of soybean cheese (Tofu), STB (soft Tofu), FTF (fried Tofu) and DTB (dried Tofu) were found to contain: Moisture: 9.67%, 4.22%, 6.22%, Ash: 3.37%, 3.34%, 3.79%, Protein: 29.79%, 20.48%, 21.46%, Fat: 23.26%, 24.26% and 19.73% respectively. The result of mineral analysis indicates that STB (soft Tofu) had the highest composition of Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, and Phosphorus respectively followed by FTF (fried Tofu) and DTB (dried Tofu). The result of vitamin concentrations were analyzed as mg/L, for Vitamin A, B, and C, the FTF or fried Tofu was found to be more in Vitamin A concentration than the two other forms of Tofu, but FTF or fried Tofu and DTB (dried Tofu) had similar concentration of Vitamin B and differs in Vitamin C concentration with STB (soft Tofu) having more concentration than others. Soybean cheese (Tofu) is a plant protein that plays a significant role in the diet of a consumer.
Keywords: Soybeans, Soft Tofu, Fried Tofu, Dried Tofu and Consumer.
STUDIES ON ALGAL BLOOM DISASTERS IN KANO CULTURE PONDS
1 AMINU MUSA BRINGA & 1 AHMED YUSUF ABDULLAHI
1 Department of Basic Studies, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, P.M.B 0231, Bauchi State of Nigeria.
Algal blooms are often dangerous in aqua-culture ponds. The bloom affects the water quality, the most severe of which being oxygen depletion leading to mass fish mortality. They also release toxic substances which are hazardous to the cultured fish. In this study, two bloom ponds within the old Kano city were selected. The species of aquatic plants, that is, phytoplankton, responsible for the formation of bloom were sampled and identified. Zooplanktons and other organisms surviving under bloom condition or habitat were also sampled and identified. Similarly, physiochemical parameters of the pond water and their relative concentration were also analyzed. The result showed that the most common and widespread organisms responsible for the bloom were the green algae (chlorophyceae) such as Spirogyra, chlamydomonas, chodatella, volvox and closterium species, and the blue-green algae (cyanophyceae) such as Anabaena, Spirulina, and Massartia. Others include Diatoms, Euglena, Chroomonas, and Scenedesmus species. The condition of the pond water indicated that the concentration of phosphates and nitrates were remarkable very high. The presence of these organisms, algae and others, in the ponds under abnormal condition of the water further illustrates ecosystem dynamism. The ability of them to withstand low oxygen level and other abnormal condition of physiochemical parameters of the water confer on them status of water pollution indicators.
Keywords: Algal blooms, Culture ponds, Water quality, Phytoplankton, & Zooplankton.
EFFECTS OF REPLACEMENT OF SYNTHETIC VITAMIN PREMIX WITH PLANT BASED VITAMIN ON THE GROWTH PERFORMNANCE AND SURVIVAL OF CLARIAS GARIEPINUS FINGERLINGS.
*1OJE E.O., 2ORIRE A.M., 2BAKE G.G, 1NASIRU I, AND 1ISA, S.I
1Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, National Biotechnology Development Agency, Lugbe, Abuja, Nigeria. 2Department of Water Resources, Aquaculture and Fisheries Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger-State, Nigeria.
The present study was conducted to determine the growth and survival of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings fed diets with various levels of plant based vitamin premix namely Adansonia digitata pulp (Baobab) and Tamarindus indica The fingerlings mean weight ranged between 2.0g to 2.5 g and were stocked in circular ceramic oval tanks measuring 0.6 m x 1.5m at a density of 20 fish/tank. Fish were fed 42% crude protein diets at 0%, 3%, 5% and 2.5% of both plant vitamin premixes which were commercially blended and the synthetic vitamin mineral premix. The fingerlings were fed at a rate of 3% of the total body weight and later readjusted to 5% based on the consumption of the feed. Feeding was done twice daily at 0800, 1600, . Feeding rates were adjusted based on the average weight of the fish after every sampling period. The experiment involves seven experimental diet with three replicates. The fish were given the experimental diets for a period of 8 weeks. Results showed no significant differences in the weight gain and survival rate of the catfish fed with diets that contains baobab pulp (adansonia digitata), tamarind (tamarindus indica) and normal synthetic or commercially available vitamin mineral premix. Fish fed with no Premix had stunted and retarded growth. Water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen, pH and temperature were not affected by the addition of plant vitamin premix at the level of 5% in the diet of African catfish fingerlings.
Keywords: Clarias gariepinus, adansonia digitata, tamarindus indica and Synthetic premix.
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ALLIUM CEPA AQUEOUS EXTRACT AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI
*CHONOKO, U. G., ABDUL-AZEEZ, U. M. AND SULAIMAN, S. S.
Department of Applied Science, College of Science and Technology, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria
The antibacterial activity of raw aqueous extracts of Allium cepa against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli that are common causes of nosocomial and urinary tract infections was investigated using cup plate dilution method. The results showed that the ethanolic extract of Allium cepa was observed to have the widest zone of inhibition (21mm) against E. coli at 0.8mg/ml-1 concentration, which was followed by the hot extract yielding inhibition of 20mm against S. aureus at the same concentration. The minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) of Allium cepa extract against the test organisms was obtained at 0.2g/ml-1. This investigation implied that onion has antibacterial activity against the test organisms and thus justifying the use of allium cepa in the folkloric treatment of bacterial infections due to these organisms.
Key words: Antibacterial Activity, Aqueous Extracts, Allium cepa, Nosocomial infection, Ethanolic Extract, Minimum inhibitory Concentration(MIC), Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.
EFFECT OF SALICYLIC ACID ON CONTROL OF POSTHARVEST DISEASE (BOTRYTIS CINEREA) OF TOMATO FRUITS
1NASIRU YAHAYA AHMED, 2SANI ISA ABUBAKAR AND 3MOHAMMED ABUBAKAR CLARKSON
123Department of Agricultural Technology, School of Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic P.M.B 05 Bali, Taraba State Nigeria
This study systematically reviews that Salicylic acid enhanced stress tolerance, maintains firmness and reduced decay in tomato fruit. The fruits were wounded and treated with SA at low concentrations (0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 mM SA) and high concentrations (10, 20 and 30 mM SA), whilst the sterilized fruits with 10% ethanol solutions were included as control in the experiment. The fruits were inoculated with Botrytis Cinerea spores 10 minutes after the treatments and incubated at 101 and 85 – 90% relative humidity for 17 days in every succession. The result revealed that treatments with high concentrations of SA have the greater inhibition effect of Botrytis cinerea on the tomato fruits. While the low concentration treatments resulted to a marginal inhibition effect and shows no much significant difference with the control (Appendix I). Statistically significant (p<0.05) minimum lesion diameter was observed on fruits treated with 20 and 30mM SA as compared to 10 mM SA. The mixed Anova result has shown there is a significant effect of SA concentration on lesion diameter. Similarly there is significant effect of time on lesion diameter, the interaction between time and SA concentration is also significant. Finally, postharvest treatment with SA and increase in concentrations has enormous potential use as an alternative to chemical fungicides in inhibiting postharvest decay on tomato fruits and possibly prolong the shelf life. Thus, the findings have significant contribution to reduce economic postharvest losses of perishable fruit and evidence to researchers.
Key words: – Botrytis Cinerea, Salicylic Acid, Tomato fruits, Postharvest treatment.