BERKELEY PUBLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCE & ENTREPRENEURSHIP (BJMSE) (VOL. 13 NO. 7)
ISSN: 1098–5331 SEPTEMBER, 2020
Berkeley Research and Publications International,
Bayero University, Kano, PMB 3011, Kano State, Nigeria.
Nigeria, West-Africa. +234-708-717-3247
MEDIATING EFFECT OF ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JOB SATISFACTION AND PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL A STUDY OF SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN KADUNA STATE: A PILOT STUDY
*DR. AHMAD A. MAIYAKI; & **MRS LAMI MUSA YARO
*Department of Business Administration and Entrepreneurship, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria **Department of Business Administration, National Open University of Nigeria, Abuja.
The paper test a small amount of sample data on the mediating effect of organizational justice on the relationship between job satisfaction and performance appraisal among secondary school teachers in Kaduna state. In conducting survey, it is paramount to examine the instruments to be used such as content and face validity, reliability and the normality of data need to be tested for consistency and reliability base on the on revised version by expert which comprises some Academicians and head teachers, a few data were analyzed using the statistical software SPSS version 25. The results reveal that the instrument is reliable for data collection and processing. In addition the data for pilot study show evidence of reasonable regularity.
Keywords: Organizational justice, performance appraisal, job satisfaction. Secondary school teachers, Kaduna state, Pilot Study.
IMPACT OF ENTREPRENEURIAL OPERATIONAL ACTIVITIES ON ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN FCT, ABUJA, NIGERIA.
Dr. E.T. OMOLUABI, Ph.D.
Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Management and Social Sciences, Federal University, Gashua, Yobe State.
Governments have been under pressure to cut fiscal expenditures and reduce unemployment, especially following the 2007-2008 global financial crises leading to jobless economy. Over a similar period, there has been an increased on the need for governments to pursue economic growth, rather than merely focusing on macroeconomic indicators like GDP. These called for promoting sustainable entrepreneurship operational activity through the management of small and medium scale enterprises which empower employment and decent work for all. The main objective for this study is to determine the impact of entrepreneurial operational activities on economic growth and development through small and medium scale enterprises in the federal capital territory FCT. The specific objectives were designed to (i) access the significant relationship between entrepreneurial efficiency and employment generation (ii) examine the significant relationship between entrepreneurial growth and economic development in the FCT. The population of the study consisted of registered small and medium scale enterprises. Multistage sampling procedure was adopted in the selection of six area council in FCT for the study. 355 copies of structured questionnaire were administered to the respondent from the selected enterprises owners, out of which 305 were completed and returned. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were the techniques used to analyze the data collected. Major findings of the study revealed that: (i) There is a significant relationship between entrepreneurial efficiency and employment generation from the regression result (P. value = 0.004m, significant at 1%) (ii) The results of study also revealed that there is significant relationship between entrepreneurial growth and economic development with a T-value of 3.080 and P-value of 0.002. The study concluded that entrepreneurial efficiency, and entrepreneurial growth has a significant relationship with employment generation and economic development. The study recommended that promoting entrepreneurial operational activities among potential entrepreneurs is important, and government should create an enabling business environment that is free from kidnapers and general insecurity and foster entrepreneurship operations in the Federal Capital Territory chosen for the study
Keywords: Entrepreneurial, Operational Activities, Economic Growth, and Development.
EFFECTS OF ENTREPRENEURIAL MARKETING TOOLS ON CONSUMER ADOPTION OF POULTRY PRODUCTS IN ILORIN METROPOLIS
ISHOLA ABDULFATAI IDOMI; ZEKERI ABU PHD.; & IBRAHIM WAHEED
Department of Business and Entrepreneurship, Kwara State University, Nigeria.
Poultry farming is one of the most lucrative farming businesses to start up in Nigeria. This aspect of livestock farming presents one of the finest opportunity for entrepreneurs to make profit within a short time period and it is a significant contribution to job creation. Poultry firm as segment of SMEs in Nigeria are faced with several challenges resulting in inefficient operation and failure to survive in the market. Their unimpressive performance in recent year has generated a lot of concern among tier of government as well as research interests among academia. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of entrepreneurial marketing tools on consumer adoption of poultry products in Ilorin Metropolis. This study focused on poultry firms in three different local government area of Kwara State. In this study, proactiveness and opportunity-driven strategy were antecedents of entrepreneurial marketing, while consumer adoption acts as the dependents variable. This study used explanatory designs to collect primary data through quantitative methods. A total of 400 copies of questionnaire were distributed to the selected respondents using convenience sampling technique, whereas 383 were analyzed after removal of outliers. Cronbach alpha was conducted to ensure the reliability of the data used. The findings indicated that all predictors of entrepreneurial marketing evaluated were significantly associated with consumer adoption of poultry product. Based on correlation and multiple regression analysis, the study found that entrepreneurial marketing has a significant relationship with consumer adoption of poultry products. Besides, one out of two hypotheses tested shown a positive significant effect on consumer adoption of poultry products, while, opportunity-driven strategy indicated no positive significant effect on consumer adoption of poultry products. It was therefore recommended that poultry firms should focus on the proactiveness, and also opportunity-driven strategy to stimulate and enhance consumers to form an attitude towards their products.
Keyword: Entrepreneurial marketing, proactiveness, opportunity-driven strategy, cognitive state, emotional state.
THE IMPACT OF WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT ON CORPORATE PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA
EDOUMIEKUMO ADESEWA RAMOTALAI
Department of Accounting, Niger Delta University.
This research is on the impact of working capital management on corporate performance in Nigeria. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of working capital management on corporate performance of quoted chemical and paint firms in Nigeria. The objectives are; to examine the relationship between working capital management on corporate performance of quoted chemical and paint firms; to determine the strength of the relationship between working capital management on corporate performance of quoted chemical and paint firms and; to establish equation for the working capital management and indicators determine corporate performance of quoted chemical and paint firms. The study adopted both the use of primary data from chemical and paint firms. Data were collected using the instrument of questionnaire. Data was analysed using the multiple linear regression. The research revealed that there is statistically significant effect of the Average Collection Period on firm’s sales growth in Nigeria. The Inventory Conversion Period has a significant negative effect on sales growth. Average Payment Period does not have a significant impact on sales growth while Cash Conversion Circle has a positive and significant impact on sales growth of the firms. The research is recommended to all Agro-based industries and industrial goods companies both the private and public ownership.
Keywords; Capital; management; performance; indicators; firms; corporate.
INFLATION AND NONLIFE INSURANCE BUSINESS IN NIGERIA: AN IMPACT ANALYSIS 1996 – 2018
1EHIOGU, CHIZOBA P. Ph.D; & 2 DURUECHI, H. ANTHONY Ph.D
1Department of Insurance and Actuarial Science, Imo State University, P.M.B. 2000 Owerri, Imo State – Nigeria. 2Departmentof Banking and Finance. Imo State University, P.M.B. 2000 Owerri, Imo State – Nigeria.
This study investigated Inflation and nonlife Insurance Business in Nigeria: An Impact Analysis 1996 – 2018. This work employed quasi- experimental research design was adopted since we do not have control over the variables of interest. The data for the study were mainly secondary data sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Statistical Bulletin 2018 edition and the National Insurance Commission (NAICOM) Statement of Accounts for various years. The Ordinary Least Square Regression technique was used to test the hypotheses of the study. Major findings from the study revealed that Inflation rate did not significantly impact on total premium, total claims and total asset generated by the nonlife insurance sector in Nigeria. The study concluded that inflation rate did not significantly impact on total premium, total claims and total assets of the nonlife insurance sector in Nigeria. Based on the findings of the study it was concluded that inflation rate did not significantly impact on total premium, total claims and total assets of the nonlife insurance sector in Nigeria. It was recommended that the insurance industry cannot overcome some its inflation challenges in isolation. The assistance of other financial institutions such as banks, pensions and capital market is needed to enable the industry to reach its full potential.
Keywords: Inflation, Nonlife, Insurance, Premium, Claims, Asset.
EFFECT OF HUMAN APPRESNTICESHIP SCHEME ON SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES IN SELECTED LOCAL GOVERNMENTS OF KANO STATE.
AKINTAYO ISMAEEL ADESINA
Department of Accounting Education Fed. Coll. of Edu. (T) Bichi, Kano State Pmb 3473 Kano State
The paper discussed various challenges of small and medium-sized enterprises. Human apprenticeship scheme was identified as one of the solutions to solve the challenges. The research questions addressed the extent to which inadequate capital, lack of managerial skills, improper accounting records, lack of business strategies, lack of succession plan and low educational background can be resolved through human apprenticeship scheme. The study employed questionnaires to gather needed responses from 250 apprentices carefully selected in the three local government areas of Kano state. Data were analyzed using linkert scale and decision of respondents was arrived at by using Mean statistical method. At the end, most respondents revealed that most of the challenges identified can be solved by the scheme. Recommendations were made to government to make cost of capital lower so as to make SMEs realize the main objective of government to solve unemployment crisis and consequently reduce poverty in our land.
Keywords: Human apprenticeship Scheme, small and medium-sized enterprises, manpower, managerial skills, standard of living, apprentice, technical and vocational skills, high-risk loan.
CHALLENGES IMPEDING EVENTS MANAGEMENT IN BIDA, NIGER STATE
*ONONOGBO KINGSLEY UGOCHUKWU **HABEEB MOHAMMED AISHATU; & **TSADO MARTHA N.
*Department of Leisure and Tourism Management, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State. **Department of Hospitality Management, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida
The purpose of this study was to assess the challenges facing events management in Bida, in order to reposition its events sector and enable the various stakeholders play positive roles that foster effective and efficient events management. Questionnaires were administered to eight events companies and interview schedule on relevant stakeholders for data collection. Data were collected and analyzed using frequency count and percentage, and the hypotheses subjected to the Chi-square analytical technique to ascertain the relationships between the variables. In this study, the alternative hypotheses were accepted. This implies that not only will the challenges of event management businesses in Bida adversely affect the growth of the event industry; poor customer satisfaction directly affects event management business in Bida. It was also discovered that lack of professionalism and government controls and policies especially on taxation have affected the prospects of events management in Bida necessitating poor customer satisfaction and sales volume. It was suggested that government should eliminate multiple taxations and regular training and retraining organized for staff of event management firms in Bida.
Keywords: Events management, events planning, event tourism, Bida, sustainable events management.
THE EFFECT OF CULTURE ON ELECTRONIC TAX ACCEPTABILITY AMONG CORPORATE TAX PAYERS IN BAUCHI STATE
1FATIMA BELLO; 2ALI USMAN; AND3 USMAN MOHAMMED BATURE
Accountancy Department Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.
This study assesses the effect of culture on electronic tax administration acceptability among corporate taxpayers in Bauchi State. The study adopted a cross sectional survey design and 344 questionnaires were distributed to corporate tax payers in Bauchi State using stratified random sampling technique. Data collected were subjected to tests of normality, validity, and reliability using IBM SPSS V.25. Correlation and linear regression analyses were used to assess the extent to which culture influenced the acceptability of electronic tax administration in the study area. The study found that culture has a significant influence on electronic tax administration acceptability in Bauchi State. It is recommended among others that the use of the new tax system should be made compulsory to taxpayers as this could contribute significantly in reawakening the old culture of tax administration among tax officials and payers in Nigeria. Furthermore, policy makers should come up with a mapping policy that will ensure the acceptance and use of the system nationwide as this will increase the tax base of the country.
Keywords: Culture, Electronic tax, Corporate, Acceptance
SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS’ LEADERSHIP STYLE AND JOB SATISFACTION OF OFFICE WORKERS IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN RIVERS STATE
NWEKE, EMMANUEL ONYEKACHI; & TAMUNOKUBIE PAUL
Department of Office Technology and Management, Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic, Rumuola, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.
The study investigated school administrators’ leadership styles and job satisfaction of office workers in public secondary schools in Rivers State. The population of this study consists of 50 principals public secondary school office workers in schools located among the rural areas in 5 local government areas in Rivers State, namely (Etche, Ahoada West, Okrika, Abua Oda and Ikwerre local Government Area). The population of the study is 50. Abua Odua (10 principal) Etche (10 principals), Ahoada West (10 principals) Okrika (10 principals and Ikwerre local Government Area (10 principals. The research design that was used in this study is correlational. The purposive sampling technique was used to since the entire population was studied. The instrument used to carry out the research was a self structured 15 items questionnaire, developed by the researcher. The questionnaire is tagged “principals leadership style and office workers’ job satisfaction (PLSTJS). The questionnaire has two sections. Section A and section B. section A is on demographic information of the respondents while section B is the elicit answer’s for the research questions posed in chapter one. The questionnaire was structured in a four point Strongly Disagree) = 1 point, Disagree (D) 2 point and Agree (A) 3 point and Strongly Agree (SA) 4 points. The validity of the instrument was determined by some expert in educational statistic in the field of educational management. They critically studied the items in order to effect corrections to ensure that it was appropriate and adequate for collecting relevant data for the study. Cronbach Alpha was statistically used to test the reliability estimate of .751 was obtained for the 15 (fifteen) items in section B of the questionnaire. Data collected for the study was analyzed using mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions while the chi-square was used to test the research hypotheses at 0.5 Alpha level of significance. The criterion mean that was used in scoring was 2.50, used as criterion score for research questions. The findings showed that three raised hypotheses are significant to office workers job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Rivers State. The study recommended in sum, that leadership styles by school administrators should be used in contingent to the needs of the office workers and organizational values.
Keywords: School administrators, Leadership styles, Office workers, Job satisfaction
THE EFFECTS OF CHANNELS OF DISTRIBUTION ON THE SALES OF NIGERIAN PRODUCTS
SAMUEL B. YUSUF1, MARK O. ATADOGA2, ZAHRAU B. MALAMI3 & BELLO A. DOGOJI4
1,2&3Department of Marketing, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi 4Department of Business Administration, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi
This study investigated the effects of channels of distribution in a selected Nigerian manufacturing company as it affects sales of its product. The quantitative research method was the instrument used to collect data for the study. A total of 300 copies of questionnaires were distributed to sampled consumers, distributors and marketing staff of the company, out of which 200 copies was retrieved back. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 15 and the t-Test statistical tool was employed to test the significance between the observed variables and the underlying construct. The findings revealed that the involvement of channels of distribution affects sales of product and that consumers prefer to buy from intermediaries than from producer channels. Based on the underlying assumption, the following were recommended for the study; that the channel members should influence several key decisions such as customer service, delivery, and maintain inventory control and the company should give adequate promotional support to the intermediaries, improve on delivery terms and also evaluate channel members regularly.
Keywords: Channels, Distribution, channel members, sales, product, consumers
EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION IN NIGERIA (1964-2014)
*ABUBAKAR SADIQ SALISU; **ABUBAKAR ABDULLAHI; *BILYAMINU ABDULLAHI; & *MUSA MUNKAILA
*Department of General studies (Economics unit), Gombe state polytechnic Bajoga **Department of General studies (Math and stat unit), Gombe state polytechnic Bajoga.
The links between economy and the environment are manifold. The environment provides the resources and acts as a sink for emissions and waste while the economy through productive ventures pollutes the environment. This study explores the causal linkages between economic growth and environmental degradation in Nigeria using annual time series data spanning from 1964 to 2014 sourced from World Bank development indicators2019. The data analysis techniques used include unit root test, co-integration test, and Granger causality. The result of unit root test shows that all the variables are integrated of order one I (1) while Johansson co-integration test result indicates no long run relationship between the variables. The Granger causality result indicates a bi-directional causality between real GDP per capita a proxy for economic growth and carbon dioxide emission a surrogate for environmental degradation, economic growth squared and environmental degradation, population growth and environmental degradation a unidirectional causality running from economic growth to population growth as well as absence of causality between trade openness and environmental degradation. The study, therefore recommends that government should formulate policies that protects the environment without limiting economic growth and that people should be enlightened about the effects of rapid population growth on the environment.
Keywords: Economic Growth, Environmental Quality, Carbon emission, Nigeria
THE PERFORMANCE OF DEPOSIT MONEY BANKS ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
BELLO, BABATUNDE SIKIRU1; NWOKENKWO, BEN OLUBUNMI2; OZIMEDE, ELIZABETH IRAGBESON3; OGUNDEJI, SUNDAY TOLULOPE4; IDAOMI, TAIYE OLORUNFEMI5; & ABDULLAHI, IBRAHIM6
1,2,4&6Department of Marketing, Federal Polytechnic, Bida 3&5Department of Business Administration & Management, Federal Polytechnic, Bida
This study examined the effect of commercial banks’ performance on economic development in Nigeria, which aims to evaluating the impact of bank credit on economic development in Nigeria and to appraise the impact of growth in liquidity liabilities of banks on economic growth in Nigeria. The collection of data for this research work is done through the administration of questionnaire with the sample size of 20. However, the methods of data collection were both primary and secondary method of data collection. Also the hypothesis was tested using ANOVA and meaningful suggestions were put forward in order to realize the organizational objective. Findings were made among them that that bank credit advancement is a tool for economic development. also, that availability of bank credit advancement can increase entrepreneurial development.The study therefore recommends that credit to the private sector should be directed at priority sectors for its impact to be felt in the economy. Also, commercial banks should always give credit advance to the owners of entrepreneurship businesses, who have proven characteristics and behaviour together with business viability and authenticity which in turn will boost the Nigerian economy.
Keywords: Commercial Bank, performance, Economic development, Liquidity liabilities, Credit advancement
FORENSIC ACCOUNTANTS AND EXTERNAL AUDITORS: A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF THE DIFFERENCES IN SKILLS SETS AND TASK OBJECTIVES
GAD BHILIPNANDI EMMANUEL
Lecturer Department of Accountancy, Federal Polytechnic Bali, Taraba State, Nigeria.
Lately, governments and organizations have assumed vital role in supporting review of financial statements (audit) and building up another capacity, for example, the forensic accountant and external auditor to reduce any conceivable fraud and to add more confidence in the financial statements. Because of the crumple of partnerships, allegations towards evaluators (auditors) are in the increase regarding fraud detection; this has led to lack of trust by several outer clients. Subsequently, governments and organizations have issued several benchmarks and controls to adopt the role and the function of forensic accountants has emerged, to identifying fraud. In this way, the objective of this paper is to feature the forensic accountant role and external auditors and their duties to identification of fraud and the possible ways to prevent fraud.
Keywords: Accountants, External, Auditors, Evaluation, Differences, Sets and Task.
VALUE RELEVANCE OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION IN TELECOMMUNICATION COMPANIES UNDER IFRS REGIME
Accountancy Department, Federal Polytechnic Bali.
Nigeria has follow suit in compliance with international accounting standards. It is now a mandatory for Nigerian companies to comply with the International requirement of accounting standards. This paper investigates whether or not compliance with IFRS by telecommunication companies is value relevance to financial and economic activities in the country. A theoretical perspective on corporate reporting is employed based on Signalling Theory and using Ohlson method, of a sample of 5 telecommunication companies for a period from 2017 – 2018. The result of the study shows that telecommunication sector has the largest growth to the GDP at 13.2%, attributed to the activities of the year 2018; this indicates that the advent of technology has aided rapid dissemination of financial and economic information in the IFRS regime in Nigeria, thus increasing value relevance of financial information in the country. The result further indicates that value relevance has improved considering market value and book value of equity and earnings per share. Keywords: value relevance, IFRS, telecommunication
Keywords: value relevance, IFRS, Telecommunication
CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION AS VERITABLE TOOLS FOR FAMILY BUSINESSES PERFORMANCE: A PRAGMATIC EVIDENCE FROM LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA.
Department of Business and Management Studies, the Polytechnic, Ibadan, Nigeria
This study investigates the influence of creativity and innovation on Nigerian family businesses performance with particular reference to manufacturing sub sector in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study comprises a quantitative survey of 120 family businesses randomly selected among two thousand and fifty (2,050) family businesses that registered with Lagos State Ministry of Commerce and Industry. The data was gathered through a self-administered questionnaire to the respondents. The study covered only manufacturing subsector family businesses that have been in operation for not less than five years. Data analysis was performed with the aid of mean and chi-square. The result establishes that manager’s characteristics, size and age of the organization, and technological factors are the significant factors that influence adoption of creativity and innovation in family businesses. It was also revealed that creativity and innovation have a significant influence on family businesses performance. Consequently, the study recommends that family businesses in Nigeria should engage in creativity and innovation strategy and take advantage of closure of boarder by Nigerian government to develop new product that will make them to gain continuous relevance in the industry.
Keywords: Creativity, innovation, family Business, Performance, Strategy, Technology
DETERMINANTS OF AUDIT QUALITY IN NIGERIA: EVIDENCE FROM DEPOSIT MONEY BANKS
*MARY UZEZI, OKEKE; & **BRIGHT ONORIODE OHWOFASA (PhD)
*Department of Accountancy, School of Business Studies, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe-Oghara. **Department of Social Sciences (Economics Unit), Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe-Oghara, Delta State, Nigeria.
The study assesses the determinants of audit quality of listed deposit money banks in Nigerian for period, 2010-2019. The study argues that although quite a number of variables have been used as potential determinants of audit quality, inclusion of auditor’s busyness in any conventional model has been relatively scanty most especially in the Nigeria’s case. The study which utilizes a sample of five deposit money banks employed the ordinary least square methodology on data culled from the annual financial statements of the sampled banks. Accordingly, the study found that the impact of audit fees, audit tenure and audit firm’s size on audit quality is significantly positive. Contrariwise, auditor’s busyness exalted significant negative impact on audit quality in Nigeria. The paper therefore recommended that the present level of audit fees, audit tenure and audit firm’s size should be consolidated upon by management to build on the gains already recorded for greater results so as to further enhance the quality audit reporting of DMBs in Nigeria. Finally, auditors are advised to consider a manageable number of clients at a time in order to reduce their level of busyness thereby attaining a high level of efficiency in the audit quality portfolios.
Keyword: Audit Quality, Deposit Money Bank, OLS, Nigeria
DISTRIBUTED LEDGER TECHNOLOGY AND THE DISRUPTIVE ROLE OF INTERMEDIARIES IN 21ST CENTURY FINANCIAL SERVICES IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
*CHIMA, CHRISTIAN C. PhD; **AJAERO GRACE NGOZI; & *OBIAH, MMADUBUIKE EMMANUEL
*Department of Accountancy, Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo **Department of Computer Science, Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo
The study examined distributed ledger technology (DLT) and its disruptive role of intermediaries in the 21st century financial services, focusing on sub-Saharan africa. It adopted qualitative design, content analysis and pictorial data presentation to demonstrate the disruptive role. The study revealed that DLT can be efficient and effective in performing intermediary role in financial services. The technology enhances the speed and cost reduction in providing financial service transactions. The researchers concluded that DLT has the potential to transform the functioning of a wide range of financial industry. Its features can increase the transparency and traceability of products, data and financial assets, facilitate market access and improve the efficiency of transactions. Therefore, the paper recommended that quick and successful adoption and improvement of DLT in financial services to facilitate smooth financial operations and eliminate double spending for the customers in sub-Saharan Africa.
Keywords: DLT, Blockchain, Ledger, Intermediary, Financial Services
MANAGEMENT OF REJECTED MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS
MUSA UMAR FAROUQ
Marketing Department, School of Administrative and Business Studies, College of Administration, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi
Materials or goods sent to the buyer can be rejected for several reasons, some of which may include: Deliveries may be in excess of quantity ordered; Supplies may be of a different quality or grade from specification submitted by the purchaser; and Goods supplied could have deteriorated enroute the buyer’s business place. It is necessary to note that supplies rejected by the buyer automatically ceases to be his own. Ownership transfers back to the supplier if it had earlier been employed by the buyer depending on the terms of the sale regarding transfer of title. When supplies are rejected it is advisable to inform the supplier in writing and to request his confirmation of receipt of the information to which he may reply by raising a credit note in the buyers favour.
Keywords: Management, Rejected, Materials, Product, Deliveries, Excess, Qualities, Quantity, Order, Supplies, Submitted, Classification, Scrap, Redundant, surplus, damage, obsolesce, equipment, adequate, level, stock, analysis, schedule, periodical, item, reuse, adjust, open, techniques, commitment, values.
SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF WELFARE PROGRAMME OF N-POWER IN IBADAN OYO-STATE
NGOZI EDITH IYOHO
Social policy Department, Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research, Ibadan.
This paper examines the socio-economic implications of the welfare programme of N-power programme in Ibadan, Oyo-state. The descriptive survey research design was employed for this study to generate data. The population for the study comprised of 11,000 N-power beneficiaries in Ibadan, Oyo state. Purposive sampling technique was employed to select beneficiaries of N-power in N-Teach, N-Agro, N-Tech and N- Community Education. While a simple random sampling technique was adopted to select one hundred (100) respondents from each selected segment of sampled N-power programmes totalling four hundred (400) respondents for the study. Data collected was based on descriptive analysis. The result revealed that a good number of youths have benefited from N-Power programmes in Oyo-state since its inception. Based on the responses gotten from the respondents, it was concluded that welfare programme of N-Power has unimpressive socioeconomic impacts as most of the beneficiaries complained about the inability of the monthly stipends to meet up with their needs, and loss of a job is imminent after the expiry of the duration of the programme. The study also found that one of the major factors affecting the implementation of N-Power programmes is corruption allegation on the part of the implementers.
Keywords: N-power, socio-economic, welfare, Nigeria and programme.
THE ROLE OF FOREIGN TRADE ON THE GROWTH NIGERIAN ECONOMY
NDIFE, CHINELO FRANCA (Ph.D)
Department of Business Administration, Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State, Nigeria
This study employed the descriptive research design in studying the role of foreign trade on the growth of Nigerian Economy. The study made use of secondary data the Gross Domestic Product of the various sub-sectors and the data on foreign trade. The data covers the period of 1991 to 2017. The regression analyses was used in testing the desired hypotheses. The models were fitted using the Least square multiple regression model. The data is of from a secondary source, gotten from the 2017 annual statistical bulletin. The results of tests of hypotheses have been presented in previous section. The results reveals that non-oil import and non-oil export have significant effect on the growth of the industrial sector of the Nigerian economy. The result reveals a positive relationship between non-oil import and the industrial sector of Nigerian economy. Also a positive relationship is found between non oil export and the growth of the industrial sector. The result also shows that non-oil import and oil export have significant effect on the growth of the service sector of the Nigerian economy. The result reveals a positive relationship between non-oil import and the service sector. A negative relationship is found to exist between oil export and the growth of the service sector of the Nigerian economy. The conclusion therefore is that not all aspects of foreign trade had significant relationship with the growth of Nigerian economy. This study therefore recommends better trade policies to better position the Nigerian economy among nations
Keywords: Role, Foreign, Trade, Growth, Nigerian, Economy.
THE NATURE OF TRANSFER OF RISK IN SALE OF GOODS CONTRACT: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS
*E. O. ENAKIRERU, PhD; & **IRENE, AIREN AIGBE (Mrs.)
*Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe- Oghara. **Department of Business Law, Faculty of Law, University of Benin.,
The transfer of risk in the contract of sale is a question of great practical significance because of its potential for harsh consequences that has intrigued numerous jurists, judges and practitioners since the Roman period. As a consequence of attracting so much attention, different theories about it have been developed and it is clear that there is more than one approach to the problem. This article critically examine the nature of transfer of risk in sale of goods contract with particular focus on the provision of section 20, 6, 7, 31, 32 and 33 of Sale of Goods Act of 1979, also briefly discuss the provisions in other International Trade Laws/Legal. Conclusion shall be drawn based on our analysis and recommendation made based on empirical facts deduced from varied legal systems, the passing of risk in sold goods is a problem of the greatest practical importance and one of considerable academic interest from Justinian to Rabel the passing of risk has been a controversial problem in the contract of sale.
Keywords: Transfer, Risk, Sale, Goods, Contract.
ASSESSMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES’ PERFORMANCE AMID COVI-19 PANDEMIC IN OYO STATE, NIGERIA: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION
1AYO-OYEBIYI, G.T, 2LAWAL, LATEEFAT OLAITAN, 3FASINA, OLAMIDE TOBILOBA
1Department of Banking and Finance, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree, Nigeria 2Department of Business Administration and Management Studies, The Polytechnic, Ibadan, Nigeria. 3Department of Purchasing and Supply, The Polytechnic, Ibadan, Nigeria.
The study assesses the effect of COVID-19 on the performance of SMEs with particular reference to Oyo State, Nigeria. A survey of two hundred and fifty (250) Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) were randomly selected from one thousand nine hundred and sixty-five (2,465) that registered with the Small and Medium Enterprises Development Agency of Nigeria (SMEDAN) in Oyo State. A structured questionnaire design for the study was used to elicit information from the respondents. Data analysis was performed with the aid of simple percentage, mean, and Analysis of Variance. The study establishes that novel lethal COVID-19 has a strong relationship with SMEs’ performance. It was also revealed that the majority of SMEs have been anticipating of being out of business, while the majority of theme have laid off their staff due to the inability to meet their statutory obligations. The probable cause of this scenario is that majority of SMEs did not have access to emergency loans and credit facility available for small and medium enterprises as palliative measures from financial institutions and government respectively. The study, therefore recommends that government, financial institutions, international agencies and philanthropists should come to their aid by providing palliative measures such as the judicious implementation of tax waiver introduced by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) during and after COVID-19 and free and fair access to 50 billion naira credit facility available for small and medium enterprises.
Keywords: COVID-19, SMEs Performance, Palliative, Credit facility, SMEDAN,
IMPACT OF MACROECONOMIC FORCES ON THE OUTPUT OF NIGERIA MANUFACTURING SECTORS
NYIKYAA, MIRIAM NGUAVESE1, NYIKYAA, PHOEBE TERDOO2 AND ILIYA BAWA, PHD3
1Department of Accounting, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa – Nigeria 2Department of Accounting, Babcock University Ilishan Remo, Ogun State – Nigeria 3Department of Business Administration, Federal University Lokoja Kogi State – Nigeria
In Nigeria, borrowing for investment is highly discourage because the lending rate is high. The growth level is been affected by a lending rate that led to increase in production cost. The current lending rate policy does not give serious attention to manufacturing sectors. The study objective is to assess impact of macroeconomic forces on manufacturing sectors output. Using data for the period of 2013 – 2018 from statistical bulletin of CBN. Using regression analysis on the identified variables. The study revealed that high lending rate prevent manufacturing sector to perform as expected and its led to high production cost which translate to high cost of goods. The study conclude that the action by CBN on market interest rate affect financial asset prices, Promotion of policy transparency in order to reduce inflation was recommended. In addition, the policy on lending rate should be that which could encourage investment in the manufacturing sectors.
Keywords: Interest rate, manufacturing output, lending rate, inflation rate, financial institution, saving.
CRUCIAL ROLE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN POVERTY ERADICATION, JOB CREATION AND ITS CHALLENGES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
CHUKWU CHIBUGO HAPPINESS
School of Business Education, Federal College of Education (Technical) Bichi, Bichi, Kano State.
In recent decades now, entrepreneurship has been at the fore of the quest for the development of the nation and is exerting its dominance in business education literature. There has also been observable wave of interest on the role of the economies of nations. The crux of this paper is a clarion call to examine the economics of developing nations from abject poverty, high level youth unemployment that will provide quality employment opportunities, realistic poverty eradication and sustained overall growth. After broad overviewed of what a developing nation is, particular attention is given to what entrepreneurship is perceived to be in developing countries and its potentials in unleashing the desired growth and development. The paper shows that entrepreneurship is a major key to enhancing the growth and development of developing countries. It also recommends that developing countries should dismantle constraints and adopt the policy required to develop the necessary infrastructure for connecting markets in a sustainable way through aggressive, dedicated and focused entrepreneurship development. The paper concludes with a few recommendations.
Keyword: Entrepreneurship, developing countries, poverty eradication and job creation.
AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF EMPLOYEE COMMITMENT ON ORGANISATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC, BIDA NIGER STATE
*IBRAHIM ABUBAKAR MIKUGI; *SHAFII MUHAMMAD HAMISU; *FASHGBA OLAMIDE IFEOLUWA & **KPANGA ANN
*Department of Business Administration and Management, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 55, Bida, Niger State **Registry Department, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 55, Bida, Niger State
No organization can perform at peak level unless every employee is committed to the organization’s objectives. Hence, it is important to understand the concept of commitment and its feasible outcome as the most critical in all organizational analyses. In today’s competitive and dynamic world every organization is facing new challenges regarding competitive organizational performance and creating committed workforce. This paper examined the effects of employee commitment on performance of organization with particular on the Federal Polytechnic, Bida. Both descriptive and explanatory research methodologies were adopted in achieving the objectives of the paper. Quantitative data were obtained using five point numerically Scaled Likert-Type questionnaire which was administered among selected sample of three hundred and twelve (312) respondents. Data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Findings revealed that there exist a significant relationship between motivation and employee’s commitment, it further revealed that Job satisfaction has a significant impact on employee’s commitment and also Employees’ commitment determines organizational performance. The study recommended that the Management of the Federal Polytechnic, Bida should ensure that workers are adequately motivated in order to boost their commitment thereby enhancing organisational performance. The paper also recommends that institution should map out programs for provision of special incentives to deserving workers in order to boost their sense of job satisfaction and to increase their commitment.
Keywords: Commitment, Employers, Employees, Organisation, Performance.
COMPENSATION STRATEGIES AND EMPLOYEE RETENTION: ANY CORRELATION?
*AMOO, A.A1 (MRS); *SAKA T.A2; & **DANGANA, K.A3
*Department of Business Administration, Institute of Finance and Management Studies, Kwara State Polytechinc, Ilorin **Department of Purchasing and Supply, Institute of Finance and Management Studies, Kwara State Polytechinc, Ilorin
Due to competitions for scarce skills, the attraction and retention of quality employees has emerged as the biggest challenge in human resource management. This has resulted in a high turnover rate in most firms especially in Nigerian banking system where employees continuously move from one bank to another within short periods of time. This study was designed to examine the relationship between compensation strategy and employee retention. The study utilized a quantitative research design and 126 employees of selected Deposit Money banks in Ilorin Metropolis were randomly selected as research participants. A well-structured questionnaire were administered to participants. The findings revealed that profit Sharing was found to be a significant predictor of Extra-working times (EWT=0.919), Job Loyalty (JBL=0.88), and Flexible Working Hour (FWH=0.829) which contribute to employee retention in the sampled banks at 5% level. Further were the findings that financial and non-financial compensation strategies are good predictors of favorable working conditions that contribute to the employee retention in the banks (F=216.977 and P < 0.05). Other findings revealed in the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) was the true indication that organizational culture and healthcare were insignificant at 5% level. The study concluded that the most attractive banks to work for were those that allow their employees autonomy to be creative, providing flexible working conditions and environment, and other related compensation strategies. Therefore, the study recommends that management of the banks should maintain a desired level of benefits, attractive salary packages, training opportunities and restructure the culture of the banking firms by implementing appropriate healthcare policies that will be beneficial to employees in the sector so as to increase loyalty and higher retention rate in the banking industry.
Keywords: Scares Skills, Employee Retention, Competition Strategies, Working Condition, Financial and Non-financial Strategies
REMITTANCES INFLOW AND FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT: NIGERIA’S EVIDENCE
S.O. OLAWUMI1, ADENIRAN, E.G1., ADETOLA RAMAN2
1Dept. of Banking & Finance, the Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, School of Financial Management Studies, Saki.Oyo State, Nigeria 2Dept. of Accountancy, the Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, School of Financial Management Studies, Saki.Oyo State, Nigeria
This paper examines the impact of remittances inflow on Nigeria’s financial development. Remittance as an alternative source of finance in weak and under-developed nation is very significant in eradicating poverty and promoting economic growth. Opinion on remittance inflow and financial development are diverse, while it elicits a positive relationship in underdeveloped nations, developing and developed countries have not established a clear line of relationship between remittance inflow and financial development. Through expost-facto research design data were obtained relating to variables under study and analysed using simple regression. While testing hypothesis one, R2=34% meaning that the explanatory power of the model is low and appears to suggest that the included variables are not good predictors of BKDGDP. Also, F-statistic (0.16 ≥ x ≥ 0.05) being not significant implies that Remittance inflow has no significant impact on Nigeria financial development. Therefore, we do not reject the null hypothesis. In the second hypothesis, R2=58% indicating the variation in the dependent variable (BKDGDP), with moderate explanatory power, F-statistic (0.258 ≥ x ≥ 0.05) being insignificant implies that Trade Openness has no significant impact on Nigeria financial development. Therefore, we do not reject the null hypothesis. It was discovered that remittance inflow and trade openness have no significant impact on Nigeria financial development. This implies that although remittance inflow contributes to financial development it is not a significant factor determining it. The study recommends that, in order to optimize financial development therefore, trade openness should be encouraged while the associated cost of remittance inflow should be minimized to encourage the use of appropriate channel.
Keywords: Financial Development, Remittance, Trade Openness, Gross Domestic Product
STAFF EVALUATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY: THE NEXUS
*BASHARI HADIZA1,; & **BELLO DOGOJI ADAMU2
*The Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. **Department of Business Administration, the Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi
This study examined the relationship between annual staff evaluation and organizational performance, enhance productivity in an organization and determine training needs of workers, also helps an organization to place employees in tasks they are best suited for in order to improve productivity, when productivity is improved it leads to increased earnings in the organization. The study adopted a descriptive design. A twenty-item unstructured questionnaire was used to assess 450 randomly selected staffs on effect of staff evaluation on organizational performance in Ramadan Press Ltd, Bauchi, Nigeria. Three research questions and two hypotheses were used as guides to the study. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The major findings revealed that there is a significant and positive relationship between staff Evaluation and Organizational Performance, and that staff evaluation is useful in improving the productivity as well as identifying training need of employees in an organization. Because of its importance management of the organization should educate the employees on the purpose of Staff evaluation exercise so that they are clearly aware that it is not a weapon of punishment but an instrument designed to assist them to grow and improve, and management should organize course for managers on how to carry out a successful staff evaluation of their subordinates.
Keywords: Staff Evaluation, productivity, training, appraisal, Organizational performance.
EFFECT OF SHOP BEHAVIOUR ON CUTOMER LOYALTY AMONG SELECTED PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTS IN MAIDUGURI METROPOLITAN COUNCIL, BORNO STATE
MOHAMMED HASSAN1 & ALI BABA MUSAMI2
Dept. of Marketing, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri
This study examined the effect of shop behaviour on customer loyalty among pharmaceutical chemists in Maiduguri Metropolitan Council. The population of the study was three hundred and ninety thousand six hundred and seven (390,607) with a sample size of three hundred and ninety nine (399) respondents obtained using Yamane formula. Data was collected using structured questionnaires administered to the respondents. The data collected was analysed using multiple regression analysis with the aid of statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). The major finding of the study revealed that there is significant effect of shop behaviour on customer loyalty among pharmaceutical chemists among Maiduguri Metropolitan Council. The study recommends that, store attendants should endeavour to welcome customers with open mind by offering warm courtesy and respect, also managers of the stores should focus attention on committed and loyal customers whose expectation is to remain in the organisation.
Keywords: Shop Behaviour, Customer Loyalty, Pharmaceutical Chemists
IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE ON ECONOMIC DEVELOMENT IN NIGERIA
AMINU ALABI OPOTU; YAHAYA ADAMU BABADOKO; AND ALFA MOHAMMED DANLAMI
Department of Social Sciences, Federal polytechnic, Bida, Niger State
This paper analyses the impact of government expenditure on economic development between 1986 and 2019 in which we categorize government expenditure into total government capital expenditure and total government recurrent expenditure while economic development is proxy by per capita income as foreign direct investment and gross fixed capital formation serve as control variables, using dickey fuller unit root test and autoregressive distributive lag model some of the result are, total government capital expenditure and total government recurrent expenditure are positive and statistically significant in both short and long run whereas the control variables are positive but statistically insignificant in both short run and long run leading to recommendation that government should increase total capital expenditure and encourage savings by increasing the interest on savings among others.
Keywords: Impact, Government, Expenditure, Economic, Develoment.