BERKELEY PUBLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMANITIES & SOCIAL SCIENCE (BJHSS) (VOL 10 NO. 6)
ISSN: 1867-5839 SEPTEMBER, 2019
Berkeley Research and Publications International,
Bayero University, Kano, PMB 3011, Kano State, Nigeria.
Nigeria, West-Africa. +234-708-717-3247
THE FALLACY OF NIGERIAN FEDERALISM AND THE SEARCH FOR NATIONAL UNITY: LEGITIMACY AND THE PROBLEM OF NATIONAL IDENTITY
*ABDULRAHMAN DANGANA LUKMAN AND **AHMED MUBARAK MASHI
*Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria **Department of Political Science, Umaru Musa Yar’Adua University, Katsina
The area now known as Nigeria came into existence with effective British occupation after a series of efforts at pacification and conquest. Being characterized as a vast country with little tradition of unity; with people of different historical, racial, cultural and religious backgrounds; with special problems of communalism, regionalism, lingualism and casteism; and different social customs and differing concepts of law and society; a federal system was adopted to integrate the diverse groups of Nigeria. The arrangement is expected to be instrumental in forging national unity and preserving the separate social identities of the country. Paradoxically, while the political system continues to operate with minimum cohesion, ethnic mistrust and minority problems increasingly weakens the fabrics of Nigerian federalism. This paper however interrogates the trajectories of federalism and national unity in Nigeria. It adopts the Group Theory of politics which assumes that, society and the entire political process are nothing but a gigantic network of interacting groups where each group remains engaged in perpetual struggle for power and domination. The study adopts the quantitative research method for proper analysis. Findings reveal that, even though various measures were set up for the purpose of reconciliation of aggrieved groups; corruption, nepotism and tribal loyalty hindered the adherence to the basic principles of federalism in Nigeria. There have been accusations and counter accusations from all sections of the polity as to how powers are being distributed or how they ought to be distributed. As the country is still searching for national identity, federalism is thus threatened by both centripetal and centrifugal tendencies. The study recommends that, all stakeholders should reflects upon the appropriate federal system applicable to Nigeria and Nigerians; ensure the establishment of effective institutional frameworks; establish a system of sharing power and avert crisis associated with unequal distribution of power and resources.
Keywords: Fallacy of Federalism, Nigerian Federalism, National Unity, Legitimacy and National Identity.
EMERGING ISSUES IN COPYRIGHT AS IT RELATES TO INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT)
Baze University, Abuja.
The protection of copyright and its related rights are indispensable to human creativity, as it affords copyright owners protection against the unauthorized use of their works. Copyright violation is an emerging trend that is more prominent in the context of information and communications technology (ICT). Information and Communication Technology (ICT) plays a significant role in our lives, as it offers advantages such as enabling people to stay connected regardless of physical impediments, serving as a catalyst for economic growth and development, being a platform for transacting businesses locally and globally as well as providing access to varieties of services and products. Notwithstanding the benefits of technology as the originator of copyright and copyright-related industries, every technology has posed a potential threat to the copyright-based industries in the areas of computer programmes, databases and works incorporated into websites. These emerging issues ought to be addressed, if copyright protection is to have meaningful application. It is in the light of the foregoing that this paper addresses copyright as it relates to ICT, the Nigerian Copyright Act, and the drawbacks to the successful implementation of the Copyright Act and recommended amongst others the enactment of data protection laws, utilization of technological protection measures and series of copyright management system.
THE NATURE AND INCIDENCE OF GENDER BASED VIOLENCE AND SOCIAL WORK INTERVENTION IN THE NIGER DELTA.
OGBANGA MINA M (PhD).
Department of Social Work. Faculty of Social Sciences. University of Port-Harcourt, River State. Nigeria.
This study examined the nature and incidence of `gender based violence and social work intervention in the Niger Delta. It specifically focused on three purposively selected states in the Niger Delta; Rivers, Bayelsa and Delta. Descriptive and qualitative research designs were adopted to analyse and investigate the nature and incidence of gender based violence and implications for social work practice. Primary and secondary sources of data collection were adopted. Our primary sources derived largely from direct field data collected through the use of structured questionnaire which was administered directly to 1,200 participants in the study States. The sample size was derived through the Taro Yamane statistical tool, additional field data were sourced through Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) and Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) The qualitative data for the study were analyzed using tables and simple percentages. The findings of the study showed that gender based violence have been in existence while women remain silent in the Niger Delta.
Keywords: Gender, Gender based violence, Niger Delta, Social Work, Niger Delta
WAR AND STRIFE IN AFRICA: EMERGING ISSUES OF CONFLICT IN DARFUR
*ABDULLAHI MUSA ZANGO & **JIBRIN UBALE YAHAYA
Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution, National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN). **Department of Political Science, Nasarawa State University, Keffi.
The problem facing African States today is the emergence of various categories pockets of conflicts that has seriously affecting structures such as political process, economic, environmental and excessive violation of fundamental Human Rights in many African countries. Africa is one of the worst victims of violent conflicts in the world. Many states have been battered and collapsed as a result of the many fratricidal wars, intractable political conflicts and economic insolence. The people have become more pauperized, hopeless and helpless victims of wars, repressive and corrupt governments, and economic adjustments that have had devastating and conflict-worsening consequences. African conflicts are not only more prevalent than earlier period; it is more virulent and destructive because its implications lie within both the state and the region. This study attempts to answer the following questions; is there a positive relationship between the delayed response of the UN and the protection of economic interest of China and Russia in Sudan? And, did the conflict resolution mechanisms adopted by the UNAMID facilitate the resolution of the conflict in Darfur? The Structural Functional approach was employed as our theoretical framework. Using this approach, this study attempts to look at the factors that delayed the UN in responding to the Darfur crisis and also the strategies and constraints that affected the UNAMID in its attempt to carry out its function towards resolving the Darfur crisis. Methodologically, the study adopted the Ex Post Facto (After the Fact) design that invariably led to the sourcing of data through secondary sources. The paper has findings which revealed that the economic interests of China and Russia delayed the response of the UN to the Darfur crisis due to their continuous vetoing of the resolutions that seek to proffered solutions to the crisis, The papers has also gives another finding which equally revealed that even though the UNAMID tried in their efforts to maintain the cease fire agreement, there were still constraints that prevented it from bringing lasting peace and security to the Darfur region of Sudan. We recommend that the UN Security Council and African Union should take a more proactive role in Peacekeeping operations in the continent through equipping its peacekeeping force so that they will be able to achieve peace in the continent especially Darfur to prevent the loss of lives and the destructions of properties. The government of Sudan should eschew politics of racial cleansing and see the people of Darfur as part of their responsibility to protect and provide for. We equally recommend that China and Russia should not because of their economic interests and investments in Sudan continue to obstruct resolutions that will bring peace and security to Darfur as they have sworn to maintain peace and security in the world, which is one of the cardinal goals of the UN Security Council objective.
Keywords: Conflict, United Nations, Conflict Management, and Security Council
UTILIZING MOTHER TONGUE POLICY FOR EFFECTIVE BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMME: FOCUS ON LOWER BASIC IN YORRO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF TARABA STATE
ALI, AHMAD ALIKALI (PH.D)
Department of Languages and Linguistics, Taraba State University, P.M.B 116 Jalingo.
Teaching and learning in Nigeria is guided by National Policy on Education, which stipulates that lower arms of basic education should be taught in mother tongue of the learners so as to attain its objectives. However, the level of compliance with this stipulation calls for urgent examination of mother tongue policy in basic education schools in Yorro local government area of Taraba State. As a quantitative research, descriptive survey method was adopted and the population stood at eight hundred and ninety-nine (899) comprising parents and teachers in lower arms of Basic Education Schools in the study area. Whereas two hundred and seventy-seven (277) constituted the sample size derived through Taro Yainene Formula and self-developed questionnaire titled ‘Mother Tongue Policy in relation to Basic Education Programme Questionnaire (MTPBEPQ)’ was used as the instrument for this study. The instrument was pilot-tested on 20 respondents in Jalingo town and yielded 68% coefficient via Cronbach’s Alpha Reliability Analysis. The data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) at 0.05 level of significance (with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences-SPSS. The findings revealed positive and significant impact of mother tongue on children’s communicative and cognitive skills in the lower arms of basic education in the study area. Among others, it was recommended that basic education programme should appreciate the language of its local communities so as to achieve its core mandate of effective communication among children in lower arms of basic education; and that there is every need to seek the services of qualified and experienced teachers in order to achieve core values of basic education. Based on the research findings, it could be inferred that as far as Yorro local government area of Taraba State is concerned, to a very large extent, mother tongue policy positively and significantly impact on basic education programme.
Keywords: Mother tongue, basic education, communication, cognition, learners.
PUBLIC RELATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE SERVICE DELIVERY: KENNETH DIKE LIBRARY UNIVERSITY OF IBADAN, OYO STATE NIGERIA
University Library, Bauchi State University, Gadau, Bauchi State
The aim of the study was to find out the public relations practices for effective service delivery in Kenneth Dike Library, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. It focused on how public relation can be used to improve the services of the library user and library staff. It was achieved through the following objectives; to examine public relation practices for service delivery, determine public relation effectiveness, to find out public relation challenges and suggest possible solution to the current public relations practices on service delivery in Kenneth Dike Library. A descriptive case study design was used to allow for in depth investigation and better understanding of the public relation service delivery to the users. In addition, both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used to collect information on the public relation practices and service delivery. The target population of the study comprises of students and library staffs. The sample size comprises of 218 which represented 2% of the entire population from the thirteen faculties of Kenneth Dike Library. Stratified Random Sampling technique was used to select a sample size from the population. The study structured questionnaires and unstructured interview to collect data for the study. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the data at 5% level of significance. Regression analysis was used to establish the strength of the relationship. The study concluded that public relation practice should plan and sustained to establish and maintain goodwill and mutual understanding between an organization/institution/firm and the public. It is clear that a public relation division is crucial in any organization including the library, any activity done in the library either directly or indirectly can be viewed as a public relation activity as long as it appears to promote the public image of the library. The study recommended that library authority should focus on proper staff straining to improve the professionalism in the library. Librarians must themselves take initiatives to improve interpersonal relationships with library users. Personal relationships and collaboration (including welcoming publicity in education programs) are a crucial matter towards the development of public relation.
Keyword: Public Relation, Library, Library Service, Service Delivery
LOVE, WEALTH, POWER AND AMBITION IN FORGIVE ME MARYAM OF MOHMED TUKUR GARBA
SHUAIBU RAMAT SULE
Department of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic Bali, Taraba State.
Garba’s novel, Forgive Me Maryam belongs to the genre of popular literature. It is endowed with core temples of literature. It exudes literary sublimity as well as capturing important issues of humanity. The theme of the novel centres on love, wealth, power and ambition. This essay articulates the frailty of man in handling the issues of love, wealth, power and ambition and the troubles therein as depicted in the novel.
Keywords: love, wealth, marriage, power, ambition, tragedy Area of Study: Literature
THE ETIQUETTES OF IKHTILAF (VARIATION OF UNDERSTANDING) IN ISLAMIC JURISPRUDENCE
ABUBAKAR ADAMU GIADE AND MUHAMMAD DANLADI MURTALA
School of Remedial and Continuing Education, A.D Rufa’i College for Legal and Islamic Studies, Misau, Bauchi State, Nigeria.
This write up is an attempt to study the etiquettes of ikhtilaf; variation of understanding among Muslim scholars and the to extend to which it can go in maintaining a cordial relationship between Muslim communities of deferent background and eras, more especially, the cotemporary Muslim scholars who at a time use the common variation of understanding in some branches of Islamic law; not in the aspect of dogmatic matters to cause conflicts between their followers; therefore it is hope that this write up will help in no small measures in bringing about good understanding in Islam.
Keywords: Etiquettes, Variety, Understanding, Scholars, Ikhtilaf.
POVERTY AND YOUTHS RESTIVENESS: EXAMINATION OF BOKO-HARAM INSURGENCY IN ADAMAWA STATE NORTHERN SENATORIAL ZONE NIGERIA (2011-2019)
SA’AD YUSUF KAMA, MUHAMMAD AHMAD USMAN, MATHIAS DANJUMA AND GAMBO AHMAD
Department of Public Administration, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State.
Since independence, Nigeria has recorded a series social, political, economic and ethno-religious crisis. Most of these heinous crimes are perpetuated by youthful population in the country. Restiveness orchestrated by youths has been on the increase in almost all communities in Nigeria, most especially in recent past. Since the inception of our nascent democracy, there has been a proliferation of unraveled violence, killing of innocent people; and, most recently, the insurgency in the North East. This Paper titled “Poverty and youths restiveness: Boko-Haram insurgency in Adamawa State Northern Senatorial Zone Nigeria from 2011-2019” The is divided into three section: namely Background of the paper, statement of the problem, scope and limitations of the paper, significance of the paper, objectives of the paper as to acertain the relationship between poverty, youth restiveness and Boko-Haram in north-eastern Nigeria. In Methodology the paper used both primary and secondary sources. Section two dwells on Literature Review and Theoretical Framework utilizing two theories of Social contract by Thomas Hobbes 1651 in Laskar, M.E. (2013) and Deprivation theory by Ted Gurr 1970. While, the last section conclude the paper and the recommendations drawn thereafter that poverty alleviations and youth empowerment can prevent youth restiveness in the region.
Keywords: Poverty, Youth, Restiveness, Examination, Boko-Haram, Insurgency, Democracy.
TAX ENFORCEMENT UNDER THE FEDERAL ILAND REVENUE SERVICES: A LEGAL ASSESSMENT.
*MIRIAM WAZI HAMANI AND **DOROTHYAKPOVYE BAGE-JOHN
*C/O Fresh Minds Chambers, Esan Hall, Paul Gindiri Junction, Tudun Wada Ringd Road. **Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Federal University, Nassarawa State.
This study examined the machineries and mechanisms of tax enforcement under the Federal Inland Revenue Services tax statutes. Analytically, the study inspires clear doubts with respect to the workability and quality of the Federal Inland Revenue Services tax law and other machineries, officers and agents set out for achieving maximum tax compliance in attaining thriving goals in Nigeria. The consideration ranged from the constitutionality of the enforcement mechanism, to its economic advantage and its criticisms. Glaring implications, considering the quantum of effect its operation provides for various ordinary Nigerians. Tax enforcement mechanism is an environment where the quantity of money paid by tax payer is drastically improved in circulation, where taxes are recovered voluntarily without necessarily being pressured by one person or another.This system is largely based on special systems and officials, who are capable of capturing information about tax defaulters, find tax fraud and non-tax compliance about persons, one corporate organizations or the other. The paper focuses on identifying the workability of the various enforcement mechanisms and identifying the challenges facing its implementation and the difficulties in sustaining these methods of tax enforcement. This paper adopted the doctrinal methodology approach and critically found that the process of an assessment of tax enforcement mechanism under the Nigerian tax statutes within the context of socio economic realities, the shift towards necessary compliance, with high level of concerns over security, effective control and management of fines and penalties. With a view of determining the work abilities as intended by the constitution and other Acts, the paper also contained some considered recommendations for reforms aimed at providing more customer tax compliance options to organizations and businesses, reducing the negative challenges associated with high usage of physical force, litigation processes. Such as the Economic Financial Crimes Commission, the Police, the Independent corrupt practices commission and made recommendation such as and a renewed and improved recording and updating of equipments/ man power.
Keywords; Control, Machineries, Tax Enforcement, Non Compiance, Tax Payer.
COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AND LABOUR ISSUES IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN NIGERIA
*JAMILA WAZIRI MOHAMMED **HUSSEINI ADAMU HUSSEINI ***INUWA ABDU IBRAHIM
*Hospitality Management Department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi. **General Studies Department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi. ***Public Administration Department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.
From hospitality management to sociology, you name it, labour relations determine the performance and altimately the success or failure of any organization or sector. The paper examines the critical issues in collective bargaining and labour relations in a tertiary institution as a case study. It utilizes secondary sources of data in a conceptual approach to examine the said concepts. The qualitative methodology means that already existing data from other scholars would be reference for the academic exercise. In conclusion, the paper identified the need for a better understanding of the ideals of collective bargaining towards an improved industrial harmony and progress.
Keywords: Bargaining, Labour Institutions, Issues, Tertiary, Nigeria.
INDIA NIGERIA RELATION IN THE LAST DECADE: REFLECTIONS AND POSSIBILITIES (2004-2014)
MUSTAPHA, AYODELE HARUNA
Lecturer, Department of Social Sciences, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria.
India established a diplomatic mission in Nigeria in 1958, even before Nigeria became independent in 1960. The follow-up diplomatic and commercial visitations between officials of both countries cemented their cooperative bond regarding political, economic, socio-cultural science and technology, energy, defence and educational issues as attachments. This paper explores and examines the diplomatic relations between India and Nigeria during the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) Government’s (rule) from 2004 to 2014. The relations have been robust and productive to the level that it has extended to other areas of importance. In 2007, the Prime Minister of India-Dr. Manmohan Singh visited Nigeria and signed memoranda of understanding (MOU) on Defence cooperation, the Nigeria-India Joint Commission (NIJC) was reactivated and the Abuja Declaration on strategic partnership was signed. Equally, a forum was formed between the two nations called Asia-African strategic partnership (AASP) to explore mutually beneficial areas of co-operation that are pragmatic, structured and sustainable. The two nations are regional powers and share similar world views with respect to global security challenges. They both support the idea of reform of global governance institutions such as United Nations Security Council (UNSC) and World Trade Organisation (WTO). They have several factors in common such as large populations, democratic political system, diverse societies, different spoken languages and both wish to be permanent members of United Nations Security Councils. They equally share common challenges such as terrorism, insurgency and strive for inclusive socio-economic development. The paper investigates the initiatives taken by the UPA Government of India to strengthen Indian-Nigerian relations with a view to promote common interests and achieve shared prosperity. The paper adopts historical approach as its theoretical framework to midwife the study.
Keywords: India, Nigeria, India-Nigeria relations, India’s foreign policy, UPA Government, Diplomacy.
POLITICAL VIOLENCE IN NIGERIA: A THREAT TO NATIONAL SECURITY
Department of Political Science, College of Education, Oju
Since the return of democracy in 1999, Nigeria has witnessed increasing wave of political violence. The last two general elections in 2011 and 2015 have witnessed an unprecedented orgy of violence perpetrated by the members of the various political parties. The 2019 general elections are around the corner and serious concerns have been expressed by well-meaning Nigerians on the level of political violence across the country. This paper therefore, recognizes political violence as a threat to national security. The paper has examined the effects of political violence to national security and peaceful coexistence among the various socio-cultural groups in Nigeria. The paper employs the content analysis as its main methodology; the paper observes that political violence violates fundamental bases of democratic rule and weakens both internal and external sovereignty of a nation state. The paper concludes by recommending among other things effective policing and the entrenchment of true democratic ideals as some of the feasible measures to curtail the increasing wave of political violence across the country.
Keywords: Violence, youth, politics, political violence and national security.
REARTICULATING CORRUPTION: AN ASSESSMENT OF SELECTED NEWSPAPERS’ NARRATIVES ON ATIKU ABUBAKAR’S STRATEGIC FOREIGN TRIPS
*ONIFADE, OLUWAFEMI SUNDAY AND **ABATI, MOBOLAJI OLUWASEUN
*Department of Mass Communication Federal Polytechnic Bauchi; **Department of Mass Communication, Federal Polytechnic Ilaro
This study examines the perennial association of Nigeria’s former vice president, Atiku Abubakar to corruption in the Nigerian public sphere. The study traces his political career from his retirement from the Nigerian Customs to his last outing as the presidential candidate of the People’s Democratic Party in the 2019 presidential election. Using the framework of the Agenda Setting theory, the study examines the role of the media in the public perception of Atiku Abubakar vis-à-vis his corruption perception index. Due to the acclaimed relationship between media and politics, the study takes a closer look at the underlining political motives that drive the agenda and coloration of reports on the relationship between Atiku Abubakar and corruption in the Nigerian media space. The method used for this close examination is Critical Discourse Analysis. Two newspapers were purposively selected and one report was purposively selected from each newspaper for the analysis. Findings from the study show that both newspapers served as unofficial channels for the promotion of the interests of their principals and the denigration of their principals’ opponents. Both of them reduced governance to the ability or inability of an individual to visit a foreign country.
Keywords: Corruption, Nigerian Newspapers, Agenda Setting, Power Relations, Atiku Abubakar.
CHALLENGES IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ENGLISH AS SECOND LANGUAGE IN THE 21ST CENTURY: DIMENSION IN ERROR AND CONTRASTIVE ANALYSES.
CHRIS J D MICHAEL
Department Of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic Bali.
In spite of the explosive growth in the global use of English, researchers in the field have failed to establish a synergistic channel that can propel its teaching cum learning forward well into the 21 st century. The use of English in Nigeria cut across all fronts. It is in fact the pivot of the educational field given that the means of interaction (instruction and communication) in this field is English. Language teaching and learning is faced with myriads of challenges. This paper is of the view that though the challenges in the teaching of English as a second language are multifaceted; the teacher is faced with challenges arising from the actual teaching process. It is suggested that effective teaching strategies cum methods which encompasses modern approaches to learning, error and contrastive analysis be employed to help remedy weaknesses in the learning process.
Keywords-Challenges, Teaching, Learning, Second Language, Century, Dimension, Error, Contrastive Analysis.
CHRISTIAN APPROACH TO CHILD DISCIPLINE. ITS’ VALUE TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF MORAL BEHAVIOUR IN OUR SOCIETY
*WADAM Z.S1, **ZAKKAT2 ***SALOME I3ZAKKA G. W4
*Department of Christian Religious Studies, School of Arts and Social Sciences, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State **Department of Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria ***Department of English and Literary Studies, Bauchi State University, Gadau.
The paper is primarily concerned with the value of Christian approach to child discipline in the society. The study examines nature of child discipline, practical ways of child discipline and considerable areas of child discipline as well as admonish parents to promote mutual understanding and peaceful co-existence amongst children and every individual in the society. Discipline in the Nigerian society has reduced to a minimum level, therefore, parents has vital role to play, not to allow it in the hands of teachers and Sunday school coordinators. Subsequently by virtues of these values, the study recommends parents to discipline their children in their early age so that they will develop morally.
Keywords: Christian approach, child discipline, value, moral behaviour, society, Nigeria.
THE INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT ON LEARNING AMONG STUDENTS OF BENUE STATE UNIVERSITY, MAKURDI BENUE STATE NIGERIA
*NASIRU NUHU GARKUWA1 **DANIEL BENJAMIN SAANYOL2 AND ***IULUN AONDONGU3
*Department of Psychology, School of Education, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State. **Department of Community Health, Ihsan College of Health Science and Technology, Azare, Bauchi State. ***Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi.
The purpose of this study was to find out the influence of school environment on learning among students of Benue State University, Makurdi. 250 participants were selected but only 244 respondents returned their questionnaire. A descriptive survey method was used and two hypotheses were tested using simple regression coefficient for the first hypothesis and independent t-test for the second hypothesis. The result showed that school environment has no significant influence on students’ learning. Although statistics has not proven a significant influence of school environment on learning, however, some scholars have substantive works with significant influence the school environment has on learning. Day (Off-campus) students did differ significantly from their boarding (on-campus) counterparts on learning. Finally, the study recommended that provision of facilities like modern laboratories, functional libraries, and comfortable classrooms are for better learning. In addition to effective maintenance or renovation of old buildings, chairs, desks, recreational equipment, among others, should be part and parcel of the schools system. The Benue state government and largely state governments in Nigeria should pay more attention to education by providing the necessary funds to state own universities to not only provide necessary learning facilities but maintain existing structures.
Key words: School Environment, Learning, Boarding (on-campus), Day (off-campus)
TERRORISM IN NIGERIA: A CASE OF BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY
*ASHIGAR A. K. SATOMI & **DANJUMA ABUBAKAR UMAR,
*Department of Languages and Liberal Studies, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri. **Department of Industrial and Labour relations, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri.
This paper explores the current problems posed by Boko Haram terror group in Nigeria and the confusion regarding the exact causes of the violence. Many theories have been advanced to explain the socio-economic issues revolving around the problems, all of which are treated in it. The paper also posits that as a result of the geographic proximity of Nigeria to Cameroon, Chad and Niger, the linkage of people from the four countries and the porosity of Nigeria’s borders in the North-East geopolitical zones, Boko Haram has developed into a system of conflict. Therefore, it cannot be annihilated without a synergy.
Keywords: Terrorism, Terror Group, Insurgency, Extremist group, Terrorist and Boko Haram
THE JIHADI EXTERNAL INFLUENCE IN NIGERIAN PRE-COLONIAL CONFLUENCE AREA, 1809-1900
MAIYAKI M. MEJIDA
Department Of History, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria.
Events with far-reaching consequences made the nineteenth century history of Nigeria quite intriguing. There were struggles for political control or commercial supremacy; Islamic and Christian Missionary movements were common. Some of these events destabilised the erstwhile pre-nineteenth century societies while others effected gradual changes in the people’s patterns of life. This study examined one of the events, the jihad, which greatly affected the socio-political history of not only the confluence area but the entire Northern Nigeria. Specific attention was given to the socio-political changes and challenges created by the two Nasarawa and Keffi sub-emirates of Zaria. This study has found out that by 1812 the hegemony of the non-Muslim polities had been overthrown and replaced by Fulani authority. New administrative reforms were introduced in line with the new political dispensation. By this, the Hausa and Fulani state builders swung the pendulum of relationship and planted the seed of ethnic contestation.
KEY WORDS: Jihadi, Nasarawa, Keffi, Confluence Area, External Infuence