BERKELEY PUBLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMANITIES & SOCIAL SCIENCE (BJHSS) (VOL. 16 NO. 6)
ISSN: 1867-5839 JUNE, 2021
Berkeley Research and Publications International,
Bayero University, Kano, PMB 3011, Kano State, Nigeria.
Nigeria, West-Africa. +234-708-717-3247
THE EFFECTS OF FARMERS/HERDSMEN CRISES ON SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF DECLINING SCHOOL ENROLLMENT IN AGATU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF BENUE STATE, NIGERIA.
OCHUBE AGABA GODWIN; & NDALAZHIFLORENCE
Department of Sociology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State Nigeria
The study examined the effects of farmers/herdsmen crises on school enrolment in Agatu Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. The paper discusses the predisposing factors of farmers/herdsmen crisis, it also described Agatu local government area before the crises and after the carnage and its effects on school enrolment in particular to include: decrease in enrolment, absenteeism, poor turnout of teachers to schools during and after the crises, school infrastructural destruction, prolonged school closure, and set back to the educational advancement of the area. The paper suggested ways of boosting school enrolment which include: restoring peace in the area, provision of security, reviving the nomadic system of education and introducing subjects that helps inculcate the culture of tolerance, integration and interaction among citizens, reconstruction of school buildings destroyed during the carnage and empowering the people of the area for productivity.
Keywords: Farmers/ Herdsmen crises, School Enrolment, Education Management.
RELIGION: A WIDGET OF CULTURE IN AFRICAN SOCIETIES
ABDULLAHI AHMAD MUSA; AND ABDULMALIK ABDULRAHMAN ABDULMALIK
Department of Archaeology and Heritage Studies, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
Culture is a total way of life of every one in a society. Every human in a society is under a certain set of rules, regulations, behaviuor, mindset, and even materials for a way of living. The concept of culture is a debatable discussion among many scholars, but every society and scholars agreed on the existence of culture. Thus, culture is a universal phenomenon found everywhere but in a different format, this culture changes over time and the causes of its changes usually account for the external factors accepted by an individual or group of people under the same culture. This paper seeks to highlight religion as a key factor controlling culture and influencing other parts of culture in a giving society. The paper gives an empirical analysis of various aspects of culture been influenced by religion from different part of Africa, with much attention from Nigeria as a region. The paper concludes with an overview that culture is influenced by many factors, but religion is a principal factor and served as the widget of culture in African societies.
Keywords: Culture, Religion, African Societies, Widget, and Influence.
CAMPUS RADIO PROGRAMME AS PANACEA FOR ENHANCING FAMILY TOGETHERNESS: A STUDY OF IDILE-ALAYO FAMILY RADIO PROGRAMME ON HOPE89.1FM
DR OLUSOLA OMOLAYO JEGEDE; DR. CHINWE COMFORT CHINANU-AKPUH; DR. CHARLES M. EKEH; & MRS. HANNAH D. UKANGWA
Department of Mass Communication, Babcock University, Nigeria
Family is a very vital component of the society, especially as all leaders at different levels are produced by one family or the other. Therefore, the roles of family in the face of national development remain vital and should be effectively communicated to the citizens. Doing so would encourage togetherness and promote healthy family ties. Based on this, there is a need for increase and improvement on knowledge about family and societal well-being particularly at the grassroots level, irrespective of the prevalent societal high educational and religious standards. This calls for advocacy campaign from NGOs, churches, government and the media among which radio forms an integral part. This study therefore investigates the impact of campus radio programmme as panacea for enhancing family togetherness and well-being, using Idile-Alayo – a family togetherness programme aired on Hope89.1FM as case study, with the objectives of investigating the extent to which the programme has helped in fostering unity within audience families and ascertaining the level to which the radio programme has proffered solution to family challenges among its audience. Social learning theory and family systems theory formed the theoretical foundation. Qualitative research design was adopted with the use of Focus Group Discussion (FGD). Sample size of 10 respondents based on listenership and participation was selected using purposive sampling technique. Findings revealed that the Idile-Alayo has strong positive impact on the family togetherness and well-being of listeners. It was recommended that Hope89.1FM improves and encourages more families to participate, either as guests or callers on the programme.
Key Concepts: Communication, Family, Radio, Idile-Alayo, Togetherness, Well-being, Campus Radio
A GAME-THEORETIC ANALYSIS OF THE STRATEGIES OF THE NIGERIAN GOVERNMENT AND NIGER DELTA AVENGERS: DOES NEGOTIATION PRESENTS A BETTER ALTERNATIVE FOR COUNTERING INSURGENCY?
*JAMILU ILIYASU; AND **AISHA IBRAHIM SULAIMAN
*Department of Economics, ABU Business School, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. **Department of Economics, School of Secondary Arts and Social Science Education, Federal College of Education, Zaria
This Study analyses the strategies of the federal government of Nigeria and Niger Delta militants in light of 2016 attacks using Game Theoretic Models. This is to ascertain what combination of strategies (if any) could ensure a win-win situation, as the players play their best moves (best response strategies). The study found that the best move (combination of strategies with win-win result) is for the players to cooperate with each other leading to a total payoff of 740 million barrels annually. Further, the results showed that non-cooperation between the players is costly (loss of at least 220 million barrels in revenue annually, equivalent to $10.0695 billion. This we interpret as detrimental to the growth and political development of the country. Therefore, this paper concludes that co-operation between the federal government of Nigeria and Niger Delta militants is the social optimum outcome and any other combination of strategies is not. Thus, this study recommends that both the federal government of Nigeria and Niger Delta militants must reconcile their differences, accept compromises and come into terms with each other, as the findings of the study shows that even though both players have conflicting interests but a mutually beneficial outcome is attainable.
Keywords: Nagotiation, Analysis, Strategies, Avengers, Nigeria.
FREEDOM OF INFORMATION AND HUMAN RIGHT PROTECTION: AN EXPLORATION OF NIGERIA SPECIMEN
APELOKO OLUBUNMI DAVID,
Department of Public Administration, Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria.
The prominence of the right to information by the generality of the people and the quest to institute a polity where the protection of Fundamental Human Rights (FHR) can be attained are two inseparable affairs. In this regard, many countries have endeavoured to adopt a national law under the nomenclature of Freedom of Information law (FOI law) through which institutions and individuals can secure information to protect their rights from different angles. This pursuit does not exclude African countries many of which have systematically adopted the law at different times. The study orchestrated the possible interplay among freedom of information law (FOI), access to information and the pursuit to engender human right protection while pursuing court case vis-à-vis the need to ensure the development of democratic governance in Nigeria. Thus, the quest automatically created certain fundamental questions viz: what is right to information? Is it really a right and how have governments of the selected countries sought to protect this right? What are the impacts or likely impacts of free access to information on the citizens’ quest to pursue legal cases? These are some of the questions that this study addressed, providing an explanation of the law and practice regarding freedom of information, and an analysis of what is working and why. This study utilised secondary information from FOI brochures, constitutions, relevant public Acts, journals, theses, court proceedings, conference proceedings, official gazette to mention but a few. The outcome of this research provided robust information on the profile of access (or not) to information and how it has facilitated Nigerian citizens to protect human right. That is, FoI Act provides the opportunity to guarantee citizens’ fundamental human right when effective information and reorientation is created for public officials and adequate awareness were put in place to sensitize the general about their rights to know. Some challenges against FoI include culture of secrecy among and public officials, lack of adequate knowledge and awareness of the Act among public officials and the general public, poor record keeping in the MDAs, and low level of literacy in the use of digital technology for record keeping.
Key Words: Human Right, Governance, Freedom, Information, Protection
INFLUENCE OF OPINION LEADERS ON VOTING DECISIONS OF URBAN AND RURAL ELECTORATES IN THE 2019 GUBERNATORIAL ELECTION IN SOUTH-WEST, NIGERIA.
DR OJOMO, OLUSEGUN AND AMOS, KOLAWOLE,
Department of Mass Communication, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State.
The successful conduct of elections in a democratic society depends largely on the flow of information about the candidates as it will determine the voting decisions of electorates. Opinion leaders are key sources of such information. Past studies revealed that opinion leaders are influential at swaying voting decisions of the electorate. The type of strategies used to influence voting decisions and the extent of their influence on voting decisions of electorate have however not been established by existing studies. Significant efforts have also not been made by existing studies to compare the influence of opinion leaders on the voting decisions of urban and rural electorates. The study adopted survey research design. The population of the study comprised all 11,897,401 registered voters in the three sampled states in South-west, Nigeria. A sample size of 1,067 was obtained. The multistage sampling technique was used for the study. The result showed that the extent to which opinion leadership influenced voting decisions was low for both urban (=3.33) and rural (x=3.31) The study also discovered that appeal to ethnic and religious sentiments was a strategy that opinion leaders used highly in the urban areas (x=3.53), while it used to a low extent in the rural areas (x=3.35). The study concluded that the extent of influence of opinion leaders was not as significant as generally perceived to be among urban and rural electorates. The study recommended that opinion leaders should evolve better strategies in order to significantly influence the voting decisions of urban and rural electorates.
Keywords: Opinion leadership influence, Opinion leadership strategies, voting decisions, Urban and rural electorates.
UNDERSTANDING MOTIVATION: AN EFFECTIVE TOOL FOR PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
DR ANTHONY EMHENYA IYOHA
Edo State University, Uzairue, Edo State, Nigertia
The study is aimed at examining the effect of motivation as a tool for increasing employee efficiency. Motivation to work is a very important topic in management because it has direct implication for the consequences of performance and satisfaction in an organization.. The paper concluded that the policies of an organization such as job promotion, upgrading and advancement, job security and recognition go a long way to boost the morale of workers. If workers needs are satisfied, it might lead to an increase in productivity. However, every manager regardless of the size of the organization can incorporate motivation into the work environment to stimulate and influence employee. Administrators may lack knowledge in implementing successful motivational programme that increase production and create a positive work environment. Also there exist a positive relationship between employee motivation and organizational effectiveness. The more the employees are motivated to task accomplishment, higher will the organization performance and success be. The study focuses on the workers satisfaction with his job; and satisfaction with his organizational policy . Organizations should design their rules, policies and organizational structures that give space to the employee to work well and appreciate them on their tasks fulfillment and achievement.
BINOMIAL LOGISTIC REGRESSION MODEL ON RISK FACTORS INFLUENCING DRUG ABUSE AMONG YOUTHS IN NUMAN METROPOLIS, ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA.
LIMAN, SALE LIMAN
Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola.
Drug abuse is the indiscriminate use of drugs without a doctor’s prescription. Drugs commonly abuse is cigarettes, sleeping tablets, pain relief tablets, cough syrup, household detergents, narcotics and psychotropic substances. Youths Involvement in drug abuse starts with experimentation or curiosity, occasional use, regular use and dependency addiction. Reasons advance for drug abuse are peer group influence, psychological or physiological factors, environmental factors, unemployment, unmet expectations and media advertisement. The aim of this study is to determine Risk Factors Influencing Drug Abuse Among Youths particularly in Numan Metropolis, Adamawa State, Nigeria using Binomial logistic regression model. The findings of the research indicated that factors that are significantly important and moved youths in Numan Metropolis based on the data collected from the four wards using stratified and deliberate sampling and using seventy six respondents are; teenager’s curiosity, peer group pressure, early alcohol use, drug availability and unemployment. The model indicates that there is 2.2, 1.4, 1.7, 2.0 and 1.8 times likelihood of involvement in drug abuse with a unit increase in teenager’s curiosity, peer group pressure, early alcohol use, drug availability and unemployment respectively among youths. The result obtained can be used in tackling drug use within the Metropolis by NDLEA, security agencies and parents and it supported many findings of other researchers on drug use/abuse and it is recommended to involve other factors for further research on the topic.
Keywords: Drug, drug abuse, prevalence, Binomial Logistic Regression
OLD CHANTS, NEW VOICES: AN ECO-FEMINIST READING OF E.E. SULE’S WHAT THE SEA TOLD ME
Communication Education/General Studies, School of Science and Technology Education, Federal University of Technology, Minna
In What the Sea Told Me, E. E. Sule, like other poets from Nigeria who have made the decision to interrogate critical issues from an eco-perspective, combines personal agitations with public matters as he decries the historical abuse of Africa’s natural resources and the deleterious effects on the people. The bond between the poet and nature enables the expression of a radical resistance against the socio-political injustices suffered by Africans and to call for an end to the exploitative degradation of the environment that is detrimental to the interests of masses. In the poems that make up the collection, the sea occupies a central position; it is both a backdrop for the poet’s musings and explorations of the themes of inspiration, seduction, exploitation, and resistance, as well as a character that is invested with “feminine” qualities. However, the way gender is employed in the poems depicts a patriarchal sensibility that prejudices the revolutionary message that Sule strives to impart. In the following analysis of selected poems, ecofeminist criticism is adopted in order to probe the relationship between the poet and nature and to examine the view of women that emerges out of the representational strategies that are adopted.
Keywords: Nature, Ecopoetry, Ecocriticism, Ecofeminism, Patriarchy
EXPEDIENCY OF PRESS AND JUDICIAL AUTONOMY IN THE INSTITUTIONALISATION OF DEMOCRACY: AMERICA’S LESSONS FOR NIGERIA
ADELEKE, GABRIEL OSUOLALE
Department of Political Science, School of Secondary Education (Arts and Social Sciences Programmes), Oyo Sate College of Education, Lanlate, Oyo State
Democracy is associated with various dimensions of rights, equality and accountability of the government to the citizens, but there emerge in the polities political leaders who are hypocritical about the rules of democratic game. This circumstance is worsened by apathetic attitude of most of the citizens to political issues, making the joint roles of press freedom and judicial independence expedient for institutionalising democracy in the society. This study focused on the joint influence of press freedom and judicial independence on the institutionalisation of democracy in the polity. This study employed descriptive survey design and self-developed questionnaire was administered on 150 samples randomly selected online. An interview guide of 9 items relating to the influence of press freedom and judicial independence on institutionalisation of democracy was developed with four-Likert Scale and the data collected were analysed using frequent counts, percentages and mean statistical tools. A mean value of 1.50 was set as criterion mean, thus, any mean less than 1.50 was taken as insignificant and any mean above 1.50 was taken as significant. It is found that press freedom and judicial independence jointly influence the institutionalisation of democracy in the polity, and that the institutions of free press and independent judiciary played significant roles in America’s democracy as the view that free press and independent judiciary would help institutionalise democracy in Nigeria was held high. For democracy to therefore be institutionalised in Nigeria, it is recommended that Nigerian press men must avoid parochialism and egoism in their activities, and that Nigerian judges must avoid technicalities and observe rule of precedence in their judgements.
Keywords: America, Democratic Institutionalisation, Expediency, Press and Judicial Autonomy, Nigeria
SIX LINGUISTIC ELEMENTS USE IN ACADEMIC WRITING IN NIGERIAN SCHOLASTIC INSTITUTIONS: ISSUES AND PROSPECTS
Department of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Bali, Taraba State
In most tertiary institutions in Nigeria today, academic staff are assigned to publish a scholastic article to accomplish their promotions ranging from Graduate Assistant (GA) to the rank of a Professor. Thus, Lecturers must have a good understanding and adequate knowledge of English language competency and accuracy for effective publications such as books, research articles, and academic journals. They must learn that writing for publication is a different skill than writing a good course paper or English for General Purposes (EGP). Therefore, academic journals are regarded as “chat room‟ in this paper and so it is a place to explore a lot of ideas, opinions, and knowledge in academic words in which this becomes a reason for the educational tertiary institutions to find that academic journal began its important role in the eighteenth century according to some literature review. In addition to that, some researchers, for instance, Casanave & Vandrick claim that academic publications are becoming important for those in language education and many more in the context of every academic institution. Articles and other publications improve the quality of education produce by our institutions. So to write a research article is to prosper and add value, security to an academic position. They might not have been experiencing in writing and publishing their research articles due to a lack of English writing skills to make the proper outcome in well-established journals. Therefore, this paper intends to highlight some selected specific language elements which include tense, hedging, nominalization, impersonalisation, coordinators and connectors as a result of their significances in academic writing. In the end, it is hoped that researchers, practitioners, students, curriculum developers, and all interested individuals or organizations could benefit from the outcome. Therefore, this study intends to serve as a panacea to the language challenges of academic writing at the scholastic institutions in Nigeria.
Keywords: EAP, Tense, Hedging, Nominalisation, Impersonalisation, Coordinators and Connectors
RISK PERCEPTION BY JOURNALISTS AND COVERAGE OF ENDSARS PROTESTS IN NIGERIA
JOHN BAMIDELE IGE PhD; & TOPE IGE
Department of Mass Communication, Federal Polytechnic Offa, Offa, Nigeria.
Mass protests predate independence in Nigeria. There were women riots in Eastern Nigeria between 1925-1930 and Abeokuta about 1948-1949. In her more recent history, Nigeria experienced the “Alli Must Go” protests in 1978 and the June 12 protest and riots in 1993. None of these protests attracted media attention, foreign and local, and impacted media establishments and practitioners in Nigeria like #EndSars protests of the latter part of the year 2020. Media houses were vandalized and burnt and practitioners assaulted. The social movement dubbed EndSars has widened its demand beyond disbandment of the Special Anti-Robbery Squad unit of the Nigeria Police to include demand for good and accountable governance in Nigeria. The implication is that it has evolved into a movement with perpetual causes and call for protests, with the possibility of risks and violence on media houses and practitioners. This scenario leads to the question of how journalists perceive risks associated with coverage of EndSars protests. The research method adopted was survey. Structured questionnaires were administered on 210 media practitioners. Our analysis of data collected showed that majority of the respondents 75% view coverage of EndSars protests as very risky. Inspite of this, most journalists, 86% are highly inclined to cover the protests. Our conclusion is that inspite of perceiving coverage of the EndSars protests as highly risky, majority of the journalists are prepared to perceive it as inevitable hazards of the job. Given this scenario, this paper recommends adequate insurance cover for journalists covering the protests. It also recommends that media practitioners should ensure balance, eschew bias, verify facts and give voice to the victims in their reportage.
Keywords: Protests, EndSARS.
NIGERIAN MEDIA AND THE ERADICATION OF ETHNO-RELIGIOUS CRISES: LESSONS FROM RWANDA
*ONIFADE, OLUWAFEMI SUNDAY; & **NNELI, SONIA NWABUGO
*Department of Mass Communication, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi; **Sunshine International School Bauchi.
This paper examines peace at a macro level in two Sub-Saharan Africa countries; Nigeria and Rwanda. It explores the relationship between the political system and the media system relative peace experienced in Nigeria and Rwanda. Based on the tenets of libertarian and development media theories, this paper explores the historical and social peculiarities that shape the prevailing political and media paradigms in both countries. Based on a comparative analysis of secondary data on each country, the paper suggests that the Rwandan political and media model offers greater political stability, social cohesion, peace and development than the Nigerian political and media paradigms. It therefore recommends for a collaboration between Nigerian media and government for the eradication of ethno-religious tension because it peaceful co-existence among the constituent groups could be a platform for national development.
Keywords: Development Communication, Peace, Nigeria, Rwanda, Political Communication
SATIRICAL DRAMA AS REMEDY FOR NATIONAL MALADIES: A CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF HEART OF STONE BY AHMED YERIMA AND THE INFIDEL AND THE BLOOD SUCKERS BY BODE OJONIYI
ADELOWO ABIMBOLA DAPO,
School of Languages, Department of English, Oyo State College of Education, Lanlate.
The attempt in this endeavour is to carry out a survey and harvest satirical elements in Bode Ojoniyi’s The Infidel and the Blood Suckers and Ahmed Yerima’s Heart of Stone and to critically examine how these two theatre experts and University dons engage these literary device to interrogate corruption, deceit, and fake religiosity in the world they live. It is revealed maximally that the duo/writers are not comfortable with the spate of alienation of innocent citizens, religious wars, shedding of innocent blood, loss of purity, depravity and the general corruption of the leaders. Having examined and identified the menace of corruption, deceit, fake religiosity, bloodshed, which these writers intend to checkmate through the instrumentality of satire, the paper therefore concluded with recommendations on the urgent need to sensitize, and conscentize the religious leaders, the various religious faithful’s and the government on the need to pursue peace and sense of brotherliness in the society.
Keywords: Drama, Remedy, National Maladies, Critical, Appraisal.
THE PLACE OF GRAPHICS AND THE ROLE IN THE SOCIETY
MAMMAN OBADIAH JATAU
Department of Fine and Applied Art, School of Vocational and Technical Education, Federal College of Education Pankshim, Plateau State
The graphic design plays an important role in today’s modern competitive global environment. The graphics designing has become an integral part of any business and occasion. For a customized website capable of providing all your need, the graphics arrangement on the website should be appropriate as well as look attractive and adorable. The graphic designing is important in almost every field that includes- marketing, magazine layout etc. A good graphic design should effectively communicate the message of the sender to the target audience using tools of visual communication.
Keywords: Graphic, Design, Communication Audience.
LIBRARY INFORMATION SERVICES AS A PROMOTER OF HUMAN RIGHTS THROUGH SOCIAL JUSTICE TO ACHIEVE NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
AUWAL MAGAJI ABUBAKAR; TIJJANI ABDUL; & MRS.DEBORAH SAIRAH GADO
Department of Library and Information Science, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna.
The main purpose of this paper was to highlight the role of libraries in overcoming specific aspects of contemporary social exclusion by providing information equally to all to promote national development in Nigeria since access to information is a human right. The paper used simple literature review as a methodology by reviewing related literature on the role of public libraries in promoting social justice and human rights for national development in Nigeria. The relationship between human rights and social justice with National development was also discussed. Suggestions were proffered on ways libraries can contribute to the achievement of National Development through social justice and human rights. The paper provided some recommendations based on the literature reviewed.
Keywords: Library Services, Information, National Development, Social Justice, Human Rights.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE CONCEPT OF DERIVATION PRINCIPLE IN SECTION 162 (2) OF THE CONSTITUTION OF THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA 1999 AS AMENDED
YUSHEU MOHAMMED YAKUBU
An-Nur Chambers, Ahmadu Bello Way Bauchi, Bauchi State, No. 1, 2 & 3 Abba K. Zadawa Complex
This thesis dwelt on the analyses of the concept of derivation principle under section 162(2) of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 as amended the principle is geared towards providing a recompense to the producers of any natural resources for the expropriation and sequestration of their rights to control and manage same by the Nigerian State. it equally intended to bring out the laws governing ownership of Natural resources in Nigeria, effects of the laws on the Nigerians, and the concept of Resource Control. The thesis also looked at the relevant legislation and the judicial interpretation that affect the control of natural resources and offering suggestions for redress. The method adopted in this thesis is mainly doctrinal. The primary sources are mainly the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, The Revenue Mobilisation Allocation and Fiscal Commission Act, Petroleum Act, Case Laws, books, journals Conference Materials as well internet Materials.
THE EFFECTS OF REHABILITATION IN NIGERIA PRISONS (A CASE STUDY OF ADAMAWA PRISONS
MRS AFORKA LILIAN EMEKA
Department of Social Sciences, School of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic Oko.
The objectives of the study are as follows: To ascertain the extent to which prison congestion in Nigeria poses a serious constraints on prison administration, to find out the extent funding has affected on the administration of Nigeria prison and to verify the extent to which lack of rehabilitation and correctional equipment in Nigeria Prisons constitutes a constraint to rehabilitation of inmates. The researcher adopted a survey design. The data used were mainly from primary sources which supported secondary sources. Data generated were analyzed using tools like simple tables, and percentage. The findings showed that inadequate funding of prisons by federal government of Nigeria constitutes an impediment to effective administration of Nigeria Prisons, lack of correlation facilities for the rehabilitation of offenders in Nigeria prisons is positively related to the increase of recidivism among prison inmates, the Nigeria extant laws on prisons have impacted negatively on the administration of her Prisons. The study recom-mended among other things that federal government should increase the funding of Nigeria Prison, and the need for government to amend the extant laws on prison to emphasize punishment and grant the rehabilitation of both Awaiting Trial Men (ATM) and the convicted.
Keywords: Prison administration in Nigeria; Prison congestion in Nigeria; Prison law in Nigeria; Cost of imprisonment; Deference imprisonment
STUDY OF SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC COMPONENTS OF ISOLATING LANGUAGES
ALHAJI MODU TIJJANI1; & LIMAN AMSAMI ALKALI2
1Department of Remedial and General Studies, Mohammed Goni College of Legal and Islamic Studies, P. M. B. 1526, Maiduguri, Borno State. 2Department of General Studies, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture Maiduguri Borno State.
This paper examines the syntactic and semantic components of isolating languages, trying to identify how sentences are formed and how meanings of words are derived. The work is a content based research. The study reveals that isolating languages have complex tonal system in separating sense. The languages frequently used serial verb construction and it has fixed word order. The study further reveals that there are no suffixes in isolating languages; rather, meanings are only modified by insertion of additional words.
Keywords: dialect, protolanguage, morphemes, inflection and derivation.
CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND EARNINGS MANAGEMENT: A SURVEY OF LITERATURE FROM THE NIGERIAN EXPERIENCE
GODIYA JESSE WAFINZIDA, MONICA SHADRACH & ABUBAKAR MAHMUD BELLO
Department Of Accountancy, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State.
The paper entitled Corporate Governance and Earnings Management: A Survey of Literature from the Nigerian Experience is aimed at reviewing literature on corporate governance and earnings management focusing the findings obtainable in Nigeria. This paper reviews corporate governance systems, internal and external corporate governance, earnings management, relationships among them and conclude based on the review. From the review it is found out that board composition is positively and significantly associated with earnings management in some firms while some firms are found to have negative and significant relationship with earnings management and that board dominated by outside directors brings a greater breadth of experience to firms and are in a better position to monitor and control managers. Audit committee whose members possess certain level of financial competencies would reduce the likelihood of earnings management. Also, independence of the audit committee is an important factors to be considered for effective reduction of earnings management in Nigeria. It was further establish that meetings more up to four times in a year will result in more effective monitoring. The presence of women in the board in Nigeria will not constrain earnings manipulation.
Keywords: Corporate Governance; Earnings Management; Literature Review