BERKELEY INT’L JOURNAL OF HEALTH, METABOLISM & NUTRITION STUDIES (BJHMNS)
VOL. 22 NO. 3 – JUNE, 2023
Berkeley Research and Publications International,
Bayero University, Kano, PMB 3011, Kano State, Nigeria.
AN ASSESSMENT OF SEASONAL MALARIA CHEMOPREVENTION (SMC) AMONG CHILDREN OF UNDER 5 YEARS IN SOKOTO METROPOLIS, NIGERIA
MUSLIM ADAMU; ABDULLAHI SABO MUHAMMAD PhD; & YAHAYA SALEH PhD
Faculty of Health Science. Department of Public Health, School of Postgraduate studies, Maryam Abacha American University, Maradi, Niger Republic.
The study was assessment of seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) among children of under 5 years in Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria. Three research questions were used to the study in line the purpose. A descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. Population of the study stands at was 5,451,337 children between 3-59 months eligible for SMC, A total sample size of 1380 respondents were selected using stratified random sampling. Which was drawn from the various LGA’s. a structured questionnaire was used as the instrument for data collection. The instrument was validated by three experts. Percentage, frequency and mean statistics was used to analysed the data. The finding and some recommendations were made, which included: Health facility workers should provide with intensive health education to the caregivers on the positive impact of seasonal malaria chemoprevention. SMC is implemented and provision for strengthening national pharmacovigilance systems should be included in plans for SMC implementation, to monitor ADR and possible cases of gene mutation against any of the drugs (SP, AQ or both) for effective management of resistance and modification of the SMC drug.
Keywords: Assessment, Seasonal, Malaria, Chemoprevention.
UVARIA CHAMAE (P. BEAUV): A PROSPECTIVE SOURCE OF INNOCUOUS ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUG LEADS
ANTHONIA O. IKUBUWAJE1, SUNDAY F. ABIMBADE2 AND OLUREMI I. ADENIRAN1*.
1Department of Chemistry, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria. 2Department of Chemistry, Federal University Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.
Currently available analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs such as NSAIDs are inaccessible and cause undesired and serious adverse effects. Therefore, the search for new analgesic drugs with promising pharmacological action and reduced side effects has become an urgent necessity. The plant Uvaria chamae (P. Beauv.) belongs to the Uvaria genus which is in the Annonaceae family. It is a climbing large shrub or small tree native to the tropical rain forest of West Africa and Central Africa which is known to be highly therapeutic. The methanol leaf extract of the plant was investigated for its phytochemical composition, toxicological and anti-inflammatory properties on animal models. The toxicological activity of the plant extract was carried out on animal models using the Lorke`s method. Acute toxicity was investigated in mice by administering with the following dosage of the methanol extract of Uvaria chamae leaves 10 mgkg−1, 100 mgkg−1 and 1000 mgkg−1 (Phase I) and 1600 mgkg−1, 2900 mgkg−1 and 5000 mgkg−1 of the extract (Phase II). The mice were observed for signs of toxicity within 0 to 24 h and thereafter daily for 14 days. Body and organ weights of rats were also monitored and used as measures of toxicity. Evaluation of toxicity, analgesics and anti-inflammatory activities of the extract were carried out in experimental rats and mice after day 14 of the exposure. Exposed rats showed no signs of toxicity. The median lethal dose of the extract was estimated to be above 5000 mgkg−1. Significant (p < 0.05) weight gain in pooled body weights of rats was observed at the end of the experiment but this was significant (p < 0.05) in Phase I only. There were no significant (p > 0.05) differences in the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the extract in exposed rats and mice. Although the methanol extract of U. Chamae leaves was apparently non-toxic and also discovered to be anti-inflammatory to the exposed rats as demonstrated, there is still a need to identify the bioactive compounds that are responsible for the bioactivities reported in this study.
Keywords: Uvaria Chamae, Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, Drug Lead.
FORMULATION OF SELF-HEALING CAR PAINT USING CHITOSAN
ALFA, A.Y.; & YAKATUN, A.A.
Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria.
Chitosan has a very wide application range in different parts of life such as in biomedical and antimicrobial areas. In recent years the self-healing property of chitosan turns out to be more of a concern. In this study chitosan was used to obtain a self-healing composite material. Car paint was converted to a self-healing coating. Each time we use our cars, we expose their surfaces to risks of damages and scratches creating the need for surface respray over and over again. Typically, this process does not bring permanent solution to scratches on car surfaces since they are often re-sprayed with non-self-healing paint. Thus, this research work is to formulate self-healing car paint. The best formulation for car paint was obtained using the Response surface methodology (RSM). Physio-chemical analysis (density, specific gravity, viscosity and pH) were carried out on the 13-runs of the formulated paint where runs 3, 4, 5 and 10 had the best density values of 0.654g/cm3, 0.736g/cm3, 0.823g/cm3, 0.801g/cm3 respectively as compared to other runs. Runs 1, 3 and 9 viscosity values fall within the range of 100-180 mPa.s (ASTM D1200), (ASTM D7395). The pH values of the 13 runs were in the range of 6.8 to 7.1. The optimum formulation was observed to be run 3 with drying time of 40minutes and this was advanced into self-healing car paint by incorporating various amounts of chitosan. The samples were characterized by Fourier transform Infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, self-healing test was applied as a primary objective of this research. In this respect, four panels coated with chitosan incorporated paint were scratched with a very thin pin, and they were analyzed by SEM periodically at 0 to 90 minutes after exposure to ultra violet light from the sun. From the experimental result, it was observed that chitosan incorporated paints showed self-healing property, however, the 10g incorporated chitosan-paint gave a better healing than that of the 5g and 7.5g chitosan incorporated paints. Hence, self-healing ability in paint formulation can be achieved only when the right proportion of chitosan to paint is used.
Keywords: Car Paint, Chitosan, Self-Healing Property, Formulation, RSM.
CONSTRAINTS TO THE PERFORMANCE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED PRIVATE HOSPITALS AND CLINICS IN KANO METROPOLIS, NORTHERN NIGERIA
ALIYU MUHAMMAD MAIGORO1,4, BALA ADO KOFAR MATA2, USMAN SUNUSI USMAN3,4, IBRAHIM ADAM ABDULLAHI4
1Department of Clinical Services, Federal Medical Centre Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria. 2Department of Business Administration & Entrepreneurship, Bayero University Kano. 3Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State. 4Department of Public Health, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Bauchi State University, Gadau, Nigeria.
Small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) abound in Nigeria. Their increasing number is due to the fact that they require less capital, little labour, low technological knowledge and a little managerial ability to establish. In Nigeria, SMEs especially in the private hospitals and clinic have not performed creditably well, and have not played expected significant role in economic growth. Whilst some hospitals have been able to properly position themselves in the industry, others have continually struggled to survive. The main objective of this study is to examine constraints to the performance of small and medium sized private hospitals and clinics in Kano, Nigeria and proffer possible solutions. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. A semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire was used to elicit information from 20 private hospitals and clinics in Kano metropolis. Descriptive statistics were employed in the analysis of the data; frequencies and percentages were employed as statistical tools to analyse the data collected. Data was analysed using SPSS version 20 at 5% significance level and 95% confidence interval. The results shows that half of the hospitals and clinics (50%) has been in existence for more than ten years and lack of insufficient capital, lack of infrastructural facilities (such as irregular power supply, water and roads), lack of skilled personnel and insecurity challenges were the major constraints to the performance of small and medium sized private hospitals and clinics in Kano state. In conclusion, there is need for Nigerian government to empower the private hospitals and clinics owners through policies that will be favourable for banks and other financial institution to grant loan to them at lower interest rate as well as support in the provision of basic infrastructural facilities such as regular power /water supply and good roads. The keywords are constraints, performance, small and medium sized hospitals, Kano, Nigeria
SEASONAL VARIATION OF SOME POTENTIALLY TOXIC ELEMENTS UPTAKE OF MAIZE CROP GROWN ON WASTE DUMP-SITE SOIL OF WAKALIGA, KAMPALA, UGANDA
1NURA, T.; 1USMAN, S. A.; 1IBRAHIM, A. B.; 1OTACHE, G. S.; 2LAMBAYA, I. D.; 1HADIZA, J. A.; & 1ONOJA A.
1Department of Chemistry, School of Secondary Education (Science) Federal Collage of Education (T) Bichi, Kano State, Nigeria. 2Department of Sciences Education, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna State
The aim of this study was to identify some selected Potentially Toxic Elements (PTE) in soils and maize crops grown on Wakaliga dumpsite and compare them with the standard set limits by national and international agencies such as the World Health Organization and (WHO). Samples were collected for two seasons, the dry (DS) season, May-July 2021, and the wet season (WS), September-November 2021. Samples collected were digested using HCL HNO3 and hydrogen peroxide, then analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Results of the analysis of the soil and crop samples indicated that some of the investigated elements were found in concentration levels within the permissible limits while others were above the permissible set limits. The findings indicated the presence of potentially toxic elements; Zinc had a maximum level of 3.127±0.021 mg/kg and 1.060±0.036 mg/kg dry weight in dry-season and wet-seasons picked maize soils respectively, while the lowest concentrations of copper 0.0617±0.0021 to 0.074 mg/kg dry weight were found in wet-season picked maize-crop. Copper was found to exist below the permissible limits for all the picked soils as well as maize crops. Concentration of lead in maize was found to be within the permissible limit of 2.0 mg/kg dry weight while in other maize crops lead concentration was found to be below the permissible limits. Negligible amounts of cadmium were found in all the samples collected. Toxic elements in the soil samples were found to be below the permissible levels in arable soils as indicated by the WHO (1993). Besides, zinc concentrations were found to be higher in both crop and soil samples of the dry seasons followed by lead, copper and cadmium in this sequences Zn>Pb>Cu>Cd. This could be attributed to the availability of many discarded martials containing these elements in the environment as well as atmospheric deposit in case of lead exhausted by the moving vehicles within the city.
KEYWARDS: Dumpsite, W.H.O Toxic Elements, Wakaliga, Hydrogen Peroxide.
INCIDENCE AND DETERMINANTS OF HIGH CHOLESTEROL IN PATIENTS ATTENDING GENERAL HOSPITAL MINNA, NIGER STATE
1OKEKE, K. S.; 1ABDULLAHI, A. A.; 1ALHASASAN. A. A.; AND 2OLEKA, U. E.
1Department of Biological Sciences, the Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger State, Nigeria. 2Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, the Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger State, Nigeria.
High cholesterol is known risk factors for cardiovascular disease and affects a high proportion of the population. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence and determinant of high cholesterol among patients attending General hospital Minna. Ninety eight questionnaire was used to collect data from respondents using systematic followed by simple random sample techniques method, anthropometric measurement was determined using tape and weighing scale, the blood pressure was done using sphygmomanometer, the total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein were determined using enzymatic method with an automated biochemistry analyzer. Results obtained show majority were within the age bracket of 40-49, those married were 71.4%. The Body Mass Index of the participant revealed 8.2% were obese, 32.7% were overweight and 6.1% were under weight, the wait circumference of the respondent was higher among 80cm -99cm with 41.8%. In this study 5.1% of the respondents have hypertensive Crisis, while 56.1% of the respondent were hypertensive. This study demonstrated a high prevalence of lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol of 59.2% and high prevalence of lower triglyceride of 57.1%. There is need for advocacy of danger of high cholesterol diet intake by nutritionist in various hospitals in Nigeria.
Keyword: cholesterol, body mass index, cardiovascular disease and triglyceride
NOVEL PLANT- MEDIATED NANOPARTICLES AGAINST ORAL CAVITY DISEASES: SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION
ADUBI, A. O.; TALIAT, F. A.; AND AREMU, A. O.
Oyo State College of Education, Lanlate, Oyo State, Nigeria, School of Science, Department of Biology.
Oral diseases are dominant in both rural and urban centres, children, youth and among the aged in Nigeria, and range between 39% – 57%. The use of existing or orthodox antibiotic agents to treat oral diseases are not without a number of challenges, varying from potential for long –term adverse effect through biotic resistance, lack of antidote for the drug, balance between cost and effectiveness, among others. The application of nanotechnology in medicine has led to the beginning of multidrug resistance to various conventional antibiotics, and the increased financial burden due to medical-care expenses has been gaining a renewed interest among researchers to develop new and effective antimicrobial agents. Metal nanoparticles synthesized using different plant extracts to prevent activities of oral infection were developed. The use of silver nanoparticles has been well thought of for a range of biomedical applications, including, within the dental field, an antibacterial factor in dental gum composites. The specific use of nanomaterials with antimicrobial properties and/or as a drug carrier system has been considered as a new line of defence against various pathogens and the application of MNPs in medicine and technology is the hope for future in oral infection diseases.
Keywords: Nanoparticles, Oral infection, sliver-nanoparticles, plant – mediated, nanotechnology
AN INVESTIGATION OF THE LACTIC ACID BACTERIA PRESENT IN READY-TO-EAT FUFU
OBI, CHISOM P. AND NDULUE GINIKA P.
Department of Science Laboratory and Technology (Microbiology option), Federal polytechnic, Oko.Anambra State. Nigeria.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are bacteria that produce lactic acid as their main byproduct of fermentation. Other LAB strains may be isolated from a number of sources, but traditional fermentation has been practiced for thousands of years and fermented foods, notably cassava, have been consumed all over the world. Investigation and isolation of Lactic acid bacteria associated with the ready-to-eat cassava (fufu) sold at the renowned oko market in Anambra State is the aim of this study. In this study, lactic acid bacteria were isolated using one-tenth serial dilution from ten (10) ready-to-eat fufu samples and then grown anaerobically on De Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe (MRS) agar for 48 hours. Investigations using biochemical and other common microbiological techniques were carried out. Four lactic acid bacteria isolates were collected; they included Lactobacillus sp, Streptococcus sp, Enterococcus sp, and Leuconostoc sp. They were also Gram positive, catalase negative, non-spore-producing rods and cocci. Fermented ready-to-eat fufu was a great source of lactic acid bacteria for a long-term healthy lifestyle because of its probiotic ability to support digestion, gut health maintenance, and economic development.
Keywords: Lactic acid bacteria, ready to eat fufu, probiotics, oko market
BIOMEDICINE AFRICAN HEALERS AND THE PANDEMICS
UTSUA, T. PETER PhD; ISHAYA OYIWOSEI OWUSAKYO PhD; DANASEBE SHAGARI
Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, Nasarawa State University Keffi Nigeria
This paper seeks to address the prospects of biomedicine among African traditional healers in the midst of prevailing challenges of the pandemics. In the recent past, the world has experience several pandemics of different kinds of diseases that have ravaged humanity (Small Pox, Influenza, HIV, MERDS, ZIKA Virus, COVID-19 with its variants etc). Those pandemics and many other local content diseases have helped to reawaken the urgent need for not just developing but also promoting the heritage of African traditional medicine and healing techniques in orderto enhance good and available health care delivery for African people.It has become very clear that dependence solely on Orthodox medical services as solutions to our medical challenges is no longer tenable due to the recent border closures at the height of COVID-19 pandemic including the detects of costs and procedures concerning administration of the drugs and vaccines. African people may have largely been used as guinea pigs to find solutions during many of these pandemics in history. This has raised concerns and increasing interest in herbal medicines not only because of cost of orthodox medicine, but also because herbal medicine has proven to work competitively effective to provide appreciable breakthrough in many novel disease conditions when western scientific medicine failed to provide effective solution to the problems. The researcher adopts the expository and analytic methods of research, the expository method is used to uncover and expose the finding from data collected during observation and interviews, while the analytic method is used to assess those data that were collected during observation and interviews. The paper examines the essential contributions of African traditional healers in attempts to provide medical solutions to the various diseases and the stigmatization attached to indigenous medicines used in the treatment of some common diseases such as; cough, fever, headache, poison from bites, skin diseases and other infections, perhaps, because of the method of preparation used by the traditional healers. The paper recommends the need for Africans to use their traditional medical talents and apply new medicinal trials for diseases like COVID -19. It supports the need to redecorate and sustain the instrumentality of improving the techniques of African traditional healing heritage. It recommends the strength and importance of corroboration between experts in the orthodox medical techniques and traditional medical techniques with the view of equipping the African population with the mechanisms against the present and future global challenges.
Keywords: Bio-Medicine, Ethics, Healing Heritage, Pandemics
A REVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF EXTRUSION COOKING ON THE QUALITY OF EXTRUDED FOOD PRODUCTS
BULUS DANIEL SADIQ (PHD) & TANKO O. ODENI
Dept. of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic Kaura Namoda. P. M. B1012 Kaura Namoda Zamfara State.
The effect of extrusion cooking on the quality of extruded food was studied. Extrusion cooking is a process of cooking by forcing it (food material) to pass through a die. This is a high temperature short time (HTST) process. The major components of the extruder are the pre-conditioning bin, feeding system, the screw, barrel sleeves, and the cutting machine. The two types of extruders majorly used in food processing are; the single screw extruder and the twin-screw extruder. During extrusion, the composition of a raw material can be altered through leakage of oil and evaporation of volatile compounds at the die. Amylose and amylopectin are partially hydrolyzed to maltodextrins due to high temperature and shear. Proteins undergo denaturation and antinutritional factors are deactivated. Under extrusion temperatures, Lipids act as lubricants because they reduce the friction between particles in the mix and between the screws; fibres are affected because of the redistribution of insoluble fibres to soluble fibres. Increase temperatures from 140-1800C result in proportional decrease in disulphide linkages. Temperatures lower than 90oC hinder expansion and layer formation. Most vegetative organisms yeast and moulds are destroyed under extrusion condition. Products obtain with high temperature and short extrusion normally present a porous open structure referred to as” crunchy” texture. Also, to obtain a nutritionally balanced extruded product, careful control of process parameters is essential.
Keywords: Extrusion; Cooking; Extruder; Screw; Die; Quality
COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF THE LEVELS OF SOME PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF THE LEAVES OF TWO MEDICINAL PLANTS, SENNA OCCIDENTALIS AND SENNA OBTUSIFOLIA
1YARGAMJI, G.I., 2HAMIDU, S. AND 3KAMALADDEEN, A.
1 & 3Department of Chemistry, Isa Kaita College of Education Dutsin-ma, Katsina State, Nigeria. 2Department of Biology, Federal College of Education, Katsina, Katsina State, Nigeria.
Levels of some phytochemical constituents of ethanolic extracts of the leaves senna occidentalis and senna obtusifolia were determined qualitatively using standard experimental procedures. Results obtained revealed that in senna occidentalis extract, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and steroids were present at high levels; anthraquinones and alkaloids were present at medium or moderate levels while the level of carbohydrate was low. In senna obtusifolia however, tannins, steroids and alkaloids showed high levels, flavonoids had medium level while the levels of anthraquinones and carbohydrates were low and saponins were completely absent in the extract. It was concluded that the presence of these phytochemicals in these plants could be the reason for their diverse applications in traditional medicine and therefore, exhaustive research was recommended to determine all the phytochemicals in them, isolate them and elucidate their structures to give room for targeting them in drug discovery and drug synthesis.
Keywords: Phytochemical, senna occidentalis, senna obtusifolia, leaves, ethanolic extracts, ethno medicine, plant