SUB-SAHARA AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ADVANCED SCIENCE AND OPTIMIZATION RESEARCH
VOL. 28 NO. 9 JUNE, 2023.
SUB-SAHARA AFRICAN ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS,
Centre for African Development Studies, P. O. Box 10108, U. I. Post Office. Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria.
ASSESSMENT OF DRIED CORN COB AS PARTIAL REPLACEMENT FOR AGGREGATE IN THE PRODUCTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE
GANA A.J., E. O. EWHERIDO
Civil Engineering Department, Collage of Engineering, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State
Concrete is one of the most used building materials around the world. Lightweight concretes which have a lower density that normal weight concrete have also proven to be of constant great value, as it reduces the foundation loading and can be used for buildings which ordinarily will not be constructed due to their heavy weight. However, the constant increase in the cost of concrete materials cannot be ignored. Several researchers have examined the effects of natural waste products as a replacement for concrete materials, for example, the use of fly ash as a replacement for cement. The assessment of dried corn cob as a partial replacement for aggregates in concrete production was assessed. In this project, a control sample was cast to use as a comparison for the various percentage replacement for both fine and coarse aggregates. The percentage replacement for coarse aggregates were 15%,30%,50% and 75%, while the replacement for fine aggregates were 10%, 15%, 30%, 50% and 75%. Three samples of each set were produced making a total of ninety-nine cubes. The compressive strength of each sample was tested after 7, 14 and 28 days respectively. From the compressive strength test, the corn cob ash which was used as partial replacement for fine aggregates was seen to have performed better than the corn cob used for the partial replacement of coarse aggregates. Bulk density and water absorption tests were also carried out on these samples. From the water absorption test, its showed that as there was an increase in the percentage of corn cob replaced, the water absorption rate increased. However, at 30% it was noticed that the water absorption was low at a value of 4.11%, which means that in the case of water absorption, 30% replacement is advised. The constant increase in the water absorption can be due to the porous nature of corncob. For the density test, the values were observed to decrease while the percentage replacement of corncob increased, for both coarse and fine aggregate. Due to the reduction of the bulk density, it can be concluded that when the concrete was replaced with corncob it indeed produced a lightweight concrete.
Keywords: Assessment Dried Corn Cob, Partial, Replacement, Aggregate, Production, Lightweight Concrete
COMPARISON OF SIMPLE REGRESSION MODELS VIA CRITERIA MEASURES
*ESEMOKUMO PEREWAREBO AKPOS; **OPARA JUDE
*Department of Statistics, School of Applied Science, Federal Polytechnic Ekewe, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. **Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education Rivers State P.M.B. 5047, Port Harcourt, Rivers Nigeria
The study is on comparison of simple regression models via criteria measures. The source of data set used for this study was secondary, on weight and pulse rate of 90 patients. The response variable is pulse rate, while the explanatory variable is weight. Ten regression models; Linear, Quadratic, Polynomial, Logarithmic, Hyperbolic, power, Exponential growth, Square root, Sinusoidal and Arctangent were stated and employed for the study. For ease of data analysis, E-views package was implemented. Three model selection criteria measures for comparison known as; Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), Schwarz Information Criterion (SIC) with Hannan-Quinn Information Criterion (HQIC) was employed. The result revealed that the polynomial regression model outperforms the other nine models studied to examine the relationship between weight and pulse rate of patients. Hence; other models that were not employed in this study should be studied by researchers and as well compare results with other goodness of fit measures other than the criteria measures employed in this study.
Keywords: AIC, SIC, HQIC, Simple Linear Regression, Simple Nonlinear Regression, Model Comparison
ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF DENGUE FEVER TRANSMISSION AND CONTROL USING DIFFERENTIAL TRANSFORMATION METHOD (DTM)
ABDULLAHI HASSAN ALIYU1*, ISMAILA MUHAMMAD, MOHAMMED IDRIS HALIDU AND SALISU ALHAJI SHEHU.
Department of Mathematics, Federal Polytechnic, Bida
Differential Transformation Method (DTM) is one of the most efficient method used in solving linear and nonlinear differential equations. The method was first invented by J. K. Zhou in 1986 and has been used effectively to solve many problems involving differential equations. In this paper, DTM was used to obtain the analytical solution of a mathematical model formulated by Aliyu A. H. in 2021, where the values obtained were used to make graphical simulation using Maple 16. The result gave a clear picture for the impact of vaccine in controlling the menace of dengue fever.
Keywords: Differential transformation method, Dengue fever, Analytical solution, Vaccine, Maple 16.
ANALYSIS OF SELECTED BREAD PRODUCTS IN MUBI METROPOLIS FOR SODIUM ION- POTASSIUM ION RATIO AS A POINTER TO POTASSIUM BROMATE PRESENCE IN BREAD SAMPLED
1UZOH, RAYMOND D., AND 2EZEKIEL ONORUOIZA F.
1Department of Materials Science Technology, School of Applied Science, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria. 2Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State.
Bread is a staple food for most households for centuries and it provides the body with essential carbohydrates,vitamins,mineral salts and dietary fiber. Due to greed for excess profit, stiff competition and to reduce cost, some bakeries introduce Potassium bromate ,a banned additive in their bread product against all warnings from National Agency for Food, Drug Administration and Control,NAFDAC. Five selected bread products designated as LC,HM,GL,CH,and MM were analysed for Sodium and Potassium ions using flame photometric analysis. Their concentrations were determined as follows; 0.49,0.40,0.48,0.36 and 0.44mg/100g for Potassium and 0.49,0.52,0.48,0.64 and 0.45mg/100g for Sodium. The Na/K ratio was found to be 1.00 for sample LC,1.30 for GL, 1.00 for CH,1.77 for HM and 1.02 for MM. The results showed that the values of K and Na ions are relatively close contrary to literature and practice since bread is supposed to contain more Sodium than Potassium due to the high quantity of Sodium salts used in bread making. The high Potassium content in the bread products could be a pointer to the presence of potassium bromate, a banned additive in bread .The acceptable ratio for Na/K ion in diets is 0.6 as prescribed by World Health Organisation,WHO. and for the bread samples studied, the ratio is quite high as shown above.
Keywords: Bread, Sodium, Potassium, Baking powder, Food.
INVESTIGATION OF THE CONCENTRATION OF HEAVY METALS IN KALTUNGO UNDERGROUND WATER.
AREMU S.O1, HAQUE M.F2, OLASOJI O.W2, MAINA IBRAHIM2, HASSAN ABUBAKAR1
1Federal polytechnic Bauchi. 2Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi. Bauchi State.
Four heavy metals concentration were investigated in groundwater samples around Kaltungo Local Government Area of Gombe State Northeast Nigeria. The four heavy metals investigated are Iron, Lead, Manganese and Zinc. The ground water samples consist of forty-five well water samples and forty-two bore hole water samples collected at fifteen different locations within Kaltungo Local Government Area. Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS) BUCK 205 was used for the analysis which was carried out at biochemistry department laboratory of Gombe State University. The heavy metals concentration ranges from 0.03 – 0.7mg/L, 0.008- 0.7mg/L, 0.01- 0.9mg/L and 0.00 – 0.02mg/L for Fe, Mn, Zn and Pb respectively. All of the heavy metal is above the recommended limits given by World Health Organization and National Environmental Standards and Regulation Enforcement Agency except for Zinc which is within the stipulate limit.
Keyword: Investigation, Concentration, Heavy metals, Underground, Water
PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS ON CRIMINAL OFFENSES IN SOUTH WEST OF NIGERIA
ODUSINA, MATTHEW TAIWO; OGUNJOBI, EYITAYO OLUWOLE
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Adeseun Ogundoyin Polytechnic, Eruwa, Oyo State, Nigeria
Every nation in the world deals with different problems as a result of the serious threat of crime on a global scale. In the West African region, particularly in Nigeria, there are no exceptions. One of these new problems and difficulties facing the country is the rising crime rate. In this paper, we examine the distribution of criminal offences in South West of Nigeria to explain the correlation between the crimes and to determine the number of principals of principal component (PC’s) in variability of the data sets. Principal Component Analysis was utilized to determine important component present in the data and to determine the crime that accounted for the highest percentage of total crime. From the results of the study, it was revealed that three components explain up to 76.614% of the total variability of the data set which gives evidence that Oyo State have a low criminality record. The larger number of PC obtained could possibly be attributed to the problem of the Nigerian Police Data Collection.
Keywords: Principal Component, Criminal Offences, Correlation, Social Values and South west Nigeria.
PREY PREDATOR MODEL OF SHARK AND EATABLE FISH IN A GIVEN AQUATIC HABITAT
1SAIDU YAKUBU VULEGBO, 2SALISU ALHAJI SHEHU & 3SANTALI SULE, 4MANKO A. ABDULRAHMAN
1,2,4 School of Basic and General studies, Department of Mathematics , Federal Polytechnic Bida 3Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Niger State Polytechnic Zungeru
This paper reviews the dynamics of the coexistence of shark and eatable fish in a given habitat using lotka-voltera model. We obtain the critical point for the linearized system and also establish the corresponding equilibrium solution of a non-zero constant predator prey relationship that can coexist.
Keywords: Model, Coexistence, predator prey, Habitat, Lotka-voltera
A REVIEW OF THE PHENOMENA OF PLASMA IN PHYSICS
HAUWA KALE; ; ; &
Mech. Eng. Dept., College of Agric.Science and Tech.Damaturu Yobe State. 1Forestry Dept.College of Agric.Science and Tech.Damaturu Yobe state〗2SLT Dept, College of Agric. Science and Tech.Damaturu Yobe state. 3Physics Department, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Uli, Anambra State, Nigeria
Plasma is one of four fundamental states of matter, characterized by the presence of a significant portion of charged particles in the combination of ions or electrons it is essentially very hot, made up of ionized gas. It is the most constituents of the Sun and the Universe. The Plasma is very hot (millions of Kelvin) that it cannot be contained physically, Instead magnetic confinement is frequently used. Because so much of the universe is made of plasma, its behavior and properties are of intense interest to scientists in many disciplines. There are so many applications of Plasmas. It is used for making computer chips, rocket propulsion, cleaning the environment, destroying biological hazards, healing wounds and other exciting applications. The most important application of Plasma is in Fusion Test Reactor (FTR). Scientists have developed modern Plasma theory to achieve the demand of Fusion energy for humankind.
Keywords: Matter. State. Plasma. Ionization.
DOMESTICATING CARBON CAPTURE FOR EFFECTIVE ENERGY TRANSITION
ENGR. ABUBAKAR ALIYU ALIYU
National Metallurgical Development Center, (NMDC), Zaria Road, Jos. (Federal Ministry of Mines and Steel Development).
Carbon capture has emerged as an important solution to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions while ensuring continued use of fossil fuels in the transition to a low-carbon economy. However, the technology is not yet widely adopted due to high costs and technical challenges. In order to make carbon capture more effective, it is important to focus on domesticating the technology. This involves developing and implementing carbon capture projects domestically, rather than relying on overseas projects. Domesticating carbon capture will create local jobs and expertise, reduce the cost of the technology, and increase public acceptance. It will also enable countries to meet their emissions reduction targets and contribute to global efforts to limit climate change. In this article, the sequence and stages to domesticate Carbon Capture for effective energy transition is highlighted. Governments should provide policy support and incentives to encourage the deployment of carbon capture technology, while industry should continue to innovate and collaborate to drive down costs and improve efficiency. By domesticating carbon capture, we can accelerate the transition to a low-carbon economy and ensure a sustainable future for generations to come.
Keywords: Domesticating, Carbon, Effective, Energy, Transition.
STABILITY MONITORING OF THE AREA AROUND SUNSHINE QUARRY SITE IN IGABI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
SHU’AIBU BALA1, HARUNA AHMADU2
1Department of Surveying and Geo-Informatics School of Environmental Studies Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic Zaria, Nigeria. 2Department of Urban and Regional Planning, School of Environmental Studies Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic Zaria, Nigeria
The communities located in Farakwai where the Sunshine Quarry is sited have over the years experienced the effects of blasting emanating from the quarry site. This has adversely affected building structures. This research studied the stability of Sunshine Quarry site and environs in order to determine the effects of the quarry activities to the community. Data from twenty three (23) network points for the period of three months were acquired using the Leica GNSS receiver instrument. The stability of the observed points were estimated using two different techniques: the geodetic and the geotechnical means. The GNSS data were processed using the Leica processing software, and the time series data were generated from both data sources. The outliers from the data were removed. The data were analyzed for displacement using coordinate change method and statistical techniques for all the epochs, where the velocity of the network points were determined. Some effects such as strain and crack expansion were also studied. The results of the research revealed velocity of 1.0mm/epoch, strain of 0.002μstrain/epoch in the network points. The velocity and the strain were found to be higher in the epochs after blasting (epoch six and ten. A remarkable displacement was also found in the network points that were very close to the quarry site with a distance of 40m away. The displacement vector of the moved points showed higher values of 18mm, 20mm at (P1), 25mm, 22mm at (P2), 28mm, 32mm at (P3), 20mm, 23mm at (P4) and 23mm, 22mm at (P14) in the East and North components respectively. Considering the number of unstable points in the network, the quarry is said to exhibit apparent deformation, with 79% stability. The leading stress of the quarry was found to be more toward ‘Tudun Kaya’ settlement, because of its closeness to the quarry than the remaining settlements which experienced lesser shocks. The major deformation in the settlements, specifically ‘Farakwai’ town, ‘Tudun Kaya’ and Zagina were cosmetic and minor in terms of structural damage. Therefore, the research predicted the stability of the Sunshine quarry after five years to be 48mm which implies a critical value after seven years. Thus, the predicted results showed that ‘Tudun Kaya’ would be susceptible and vulnerable to deformation or structural collapse after ten years. Deformation monitoring in the study area should adopt or employ other techniques like the Seismic method. This will help to understand how the different methods agree or otherwise, and also, to easily identify the suitable method to go by.
Keywords: Stability, Monitoring, Displacement, Velocity.
EFFECTS OF JIGSAW II AND MASTERY LEARNING STRATEGIES ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT AND RETENTION IN GENETICS IN FCT, ABUJA, NIGERIA
OMENE, RACHAEL AND SAMUEL, IWANGER RUTH
Department of Science, Technology and Mathematics Education, Faculty of Education, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria.
This study investigated the effects of Jigsaw II learning and Mastery learning strategy on students’ achievement and retention in Genetics in FCT, Auja, Nigeria. Quasi-experimental design of the non-randomized control group, pretest-posttest-post-posttest was employed for this study. Eight research questions guided the study and eight hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The population of this study comprises of 2,879 SS III Science students from 77 senior secondary schools in FCT, Abuja for 2021/2022 academic session. Multistage sampling procedure was employed to draw 175 students as sample for this study. Genetics Achievement Test (GAT) was used as instrument for data collection. The data collected from the pilot testing of the instrument was used to calculate the instruments’ reliability coefficient using Kuder – Richardson (K – R21) and the reliability coefficient obtained for Genetics Achievement Test (GAT) scores was r = 0.81. The research questions were answered using mean and standard deviations while the null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The findings of this study revealed that; a significant difference was found to exist in the mean achievement scores of students taught genetics using Jigsaw II learning and Mastery learning strategies and their counterparts taught using the conventional method (F(2,161) = 8.024; p = 0.000 < α 0.05); no significant difference was found to exist in the mean retention scores of students taught genetics using Jigsaw II and Mastery Learning Strategies and Conventional method (F(2,161) = 25.465; p = 0.000 < α = 0.05). Based on the findings from this study, it was recommended that; Biology teachers should be encouraged to use Jigsaw II cooperative and Mastery Learning strategies in the teaching of Genetics and Seminars and workshops should be organized by government in Biology to train teachers on the use of Jigsaw II cooperative and Mastery Learning strategies to help enhance the achievement of students in Genetics and they are gender friendly.
Keywords: Achievement, Genetics, Jigsaw II Learning Strategy, Mastery Learning Strategy, Retention
PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND SENSORY QUALITIES OF FERMENTED PAWPAW AND PINEAPPLE JUICES
OLATERU COMFORT TOSIN AND POPOOLA BUKOLA MARGARET
The Polytechnic Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria, Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria
Pawpaw (Carica papaya) and Pineapple (Ananas comosus) are exotic fruits that grow in tropical climate. Their sweet taste, vibrant colour, and the wide varieties of health benefit they provide make them popular fruits. These fruits have various possible health benefits on consumption such as reduced risk of heart diseases, diabetics, cancer, aiding indigestion etc. This study aimed at determining the effect of three (3) Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) as starter cultures on the microbial and physicochemical properties of fermented pawpaw and pineapple juices. The fruit juices were fermented with Lactococcus lactis (MZ220604.1) Lactobacillus fermentum (MZ220606.1) and Lactobacillus plantarum (MG850855). The effects of the LAB isolates on the microbial properties, physicochemical properties and sensory attributes of the fermented juices were assayed using conventional methods. Pawpaw juice fermented with (MZ220606.1) and pineapple juice fermented with MG850855 had the least coliform counts (1.50.70 CFU/ml) after 28 days, the highest antioxidant activities 51.85330.11547 and 57.4433 ± 1.87894 were recorded in pawpaw and pineapple juices (respectively) fermented with Lactobacillus fermentum after 24 hours. The sensory evaluation of fermented pineapple juice with (MZ220606.1) also had the highest score in all the attributes including overall acceptability (8.00b ± 0.853) and it is of significant difference with pawpaw juice fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum which had the least overall acceptability score of (5.25a ± 1.138). Hence, fresh fruit juices could be fermented with strains of LAB that has pronounced biopreservatives and probiotic properties like Lactobacillus fermentum amongst others in replacement of chemical preservatives.
Keywords: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactococcus lactis, fermented, pawpaw juice, microbial properties.