SUB-SAHARA AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ADVANCED SCIENCE AND OPTIMIZATION RESEARCH (SJASOR)
VOL. 27 (9) MARCH, 2023 ISSN: 2418-9325
Sub-Sahara African Academic Research Publications,
Centre for African Development Studies, University of Ibadan,
P. O. Box 10108, U. I. Post Office. Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria, West-Africa.
MOBILE RADIO PROPAGATION: A REVIEW
AFEARE, MARK OISAKHODION; ABRAHAM, USMAN USMAN; AND SULEIMAN, ZUBAIR1
Telecommunication Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria
Path loss represents the reduction in signal strength of the transmitted signal caused by large scale fading along the communication path. Having accurate path loss models becomes essential during the deployment of wireless systems. Many different propagation models are available for different types of terrain, and their performances are location dependent and site specific. However, in order to obtain a dependable path loss model for a given area, a general model needs to be tuned. The tuned model can then be used by engineers to determine the correct values of parameters such as base station (BS) location, transmitter and receiver antenna height, down tilt angle, transmitted power, and frequency. The four major path loss propagation models, empirical, physical/analytical semi-empirical and deterministic have enjoyed much attention from researchers because of their ease of use, simplicity and less computational efforts. However it failed to take into consideration the physical composition of the target environment thus making them venerable to high prediction error when applied to a similar environment different from which it was designed. The difficulties experienced by the researchers determining the detailed information about the propagation environment prompted the heuristic model. Heuristic models involve nature-inspired computational intelligence in determining path loss also known as computational intelligence (CI). However the need to develop an improved dependable path loss for a given area has been very challenging by most researchers. This paper reviews both the traditional models and the computational intelligence and incidentally opens new research issues and future research directions.
Keywords: Path loss, traditional models heuristic, computational intelligence.
CRITICAL REVIEW ON THE EMERGING THREATS, PROSPECTS AND SOLUTIONS TO CYBER SECURITY
AMANNAH, CONSTANCE IZUCHUKWU; AND OFUALAGBA, MAMUYOVWI HELEN
Department of Computer Science, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Cyber security is concerned with preventing illegal usage, invasions, sabotage, and natural catastrophes from affecting information, hardware, and software on the Internet. The aim of the study was to review the emerging threats and prospects in cyber security. The objectives of the study were to; identify the emerging threats in the cyber landscape, identify the prospects in cyber security and recommend measures to mitigate the cases of cybercrime. The method used in the study is the exploratory review. The study exposed seven emerging threats; inn cyber security; Third-Party Exposure, Configuration Mistakes, spyware, ransomware extortion plots, social engineering schemes, phishing scams, and malware attacks. The study also identified six emerging prospects for cyber security; global response to cyber threats, national security implications, corporate cyber security strategies, strategic assessments, operational assessments and tactical assessments. The emerging solution to cyberspace determined in the study were; Multifactor Authentication (MFA), Security Service (SS), Firewall System, Regulatory Requirements, Cloud Computing, and End-user education. The study recommends Firewall and Cloud computing as effective solution measures to emerging threats to Cyber security
Keywords: Critical Review, Emerging, Threats, Prospects, Solutions, Cyber Security
ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATION LEVELS OF SOGIDI LAKE WATER SUITABILITY FOR DRINKING
AYANKOSO, A. S.1 & OLADEJO, O.P2
1Department of Chemistry, Emmanuel Alayande University of Education, Oyo. 2Department of Physics, Emmanuel Alayande University of Education, Oyo
Sogidi Lake in Awe, Afijio Local Government of Oyo State is considered sacrilegious for the mystery of its healing power and mythical fishes that inhabit the water. People from home and abroad drink the raw water without any form of pretreatment believing the water is safe for drinking. This study attempted to assess the suitability of the water for drinking by a way of providing an empirical and scientific base. Heavy metal concentrations were determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and physicochemical parameters were determined using standard methods. The result obtained from the analysis showed the order of concentration of the heavy metals detected in the water samples analyzed to be in the sequence of Zn > Ni > Cr > Pb > Cd > Ag > Hg and physicochemical parameters COD > BOD > Sulphate > TS > TSS > Chlorine > TDS > DO. It was observed that, the mean value of heavy metals in the water samples analyzed showed abnormal higher concentration than recommended values for drinking water except, Lead (Pb). Physicochemical parameters Sulphate, Chloride, TDS, and DO had concentrations within the acceptable limit set by World Health Organisation (W.H.O. 2011).
Keywords: Sogidi Lake, Mythical fishes, heavy metal, physicochemical parameters
DENSIFICATION OF BIOMASS BY BRIQUETTING: A REVIEW
ELINGE COSMOS MOKI; BIRNIN YAURI; ABUBAKAR UMAR; AND PAUL SALAWU
Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Nigeria
Great stress on energy demands has been imposed due to continuously increasing population. Focusing all attention to alternate sources of energy. In this context, briquetting presents efficient utilization of biomass as a source of energy and fuel. The process of briquetting is based on the densification of loose biomass available as agricultural residues, municipal as well as paper waste etc. This leads to increased calorific value by the elimination of volatile matter and gives a solid fuel which is easy to transport and store and helps to curb environmental pollution also. This review has reported various technologies being used to make briquettes like screw extrusion, hydraulic press. piston presses etc. To popularize this technology, new machines and new challahs designs. optimization of different parameters like compression temperature, pressure, feedstock availability etc. has been discussed. Awareness can be imparted among people for maximum utilization of biomass briquettes to save fuel for future and for sustainable energy production.
Keywords: Temperature, Densification, Biomass, Briquetting, Review
BIOCHEMICAL AND OXIDATIVE STRESS RESPONSES IN CLARIAS GARIEPINUS EXPOSED TO SUBLETHAL CONCENTRATIONS OF BENZO [A] PYRENE
U.O., OSUAGWU; C. O., UJOWUNDU; L. A., NWAOGU; & R. N. NWAOGUIKPE
Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria.
The effect of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on selected plasma biochemical parameters of the tropical African catfish C. gariepinus was investigated. Apparently healthy juvenile fish (n = 90; mass = 19.7 ± 1.8 g) were exposed to sublethal concentrations of BaP over a period of 35 days after which haematological and plasma biochemical analysis were carried out on whole blood and plasma respectively. While there were significant declines in red blood cell count (RBC), haemoglobin, haematocrit and platelet count, significant elevations were observed in mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and white blood cell (WBC) count. Significant increases were also observed in the activities of the liver enzymes, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). There were significant increases in the activities of the oxidative stress enzymes, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione s-transferase (GST). Findings from this study reveal that benzo[a]pyrene causes changes in haematological and plasma biochemical profiles in exposed aquatic organisms.
Keywords: benzo[a]pyrene, haematological, biochemical, plasma, aquatic, pollution, catfish
DETECTION OF MULTIDRUG RESISTANT KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE FROM CLINICAL SPECIMEN COLLECTED FROM GENERAL HOSPITAL, MINNA METROPOLIS, NIGER STATE, NIGERIA
AHMED, ZAINAB OYIZA; NASIRU, U. ADABARA; & ENEJIYON, SHERIFAT OZAVIZE
School of Life sciences, Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger state, Nigeria.
Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the prominent causes of hospital-acquired and community acquired infections worldwide K. pneumoniae is a common causative agent of various infections and are of great concern due the development of resistance against commonly prescribed antibiotics. This study was carried out to understand the prevalence, identify resistant genes and pattern of spread of multi drug resistant K. pneumoniae isolated from clinical specimens from general hospital, Minna. Standard microbial culturing, gram staining, biochemical and molecular testing were used in this study. The samples were inoculated on MacConkey agar and Eosine Methylene blue agar (EMB). Eighty-eight (88) stools samples, seventy-five urine samples (75) and thirty-seven (37) sputum samples to give a total of two hundred samples were each collected from General hospital Minna, K. pneumoniae had a prevalence of 30.0%. The Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method was used for the antibiotic susceptibility test, and the results interpreted according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines, 2017. Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates showed a high resistance to Cephlexin 31(73.8%), ceftriaxone 29(69.0%) and Nalidixic acid 25(59.5%). K. pneumoniae was most susceptible to Trimetoprim-sulfametoxazole and Streptomycin 39 (92.9%), Ciprofloxacin and Gentamicin 38(90.5%). K. pneumoniae showed intermediate resistance to Amoxicillin clavulanic acid 15(35.7%), Colistin 11(26.2%) and Erythromycin 8 (19.0%). 3 multidrug resistant K. pneumoniae isolates were tested for resistant genes; mcr-1, blaTEM blaSHV, FosA, qnrA and qnrB, all 3 (U1, U2, ST6) isolates were positive for mcr-1 which is associated with colistin resistance, U1 and ST6 were positive for blaTEM, U2 was positive for the presence of blaSHV, FosA and qnrB genes, all isolates were negative for qnrA. The study confirmed there’s a high prevalence MDR K. pneumoniae in Minna, Nigeria. Routine surveillance and more research into the pattern of spread and resistant genes is recommended.
Keywords: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Antibiotic susceptibility, Antimicrobial resistance, Multi drug resistant, Minna
DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPUTERIZED HOSPITAL LABORATORY OPERATIONS’ SUPPORT SYSTEM
ADEGBIJI ABIODUN TIMOTHY, DR. BADRU RAYMOND A AND DR. WAHEED AZEEZ AJANI
Lead City University, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
Manual hospital laboratory operation system is characterized with lack of prompt retrieval of Information which result in time wastage, loss of information, misplacement and misallocation of results. To proffer solution to the aforementioned problems, the research study developed a computerized hospital laboratory operation support application which is aimed at using information technology to solve the problems associated with manual method of Hospital Laboratory Information System. The system is a web based model built on laravel 7.29 and a WAMP (Windows, Apache, MySQL, PHP) server. A total of 4 laboratories were visited (2 government owned and 2 private laboratories) to collect various types of tests being carried out in the laboratories through ethical approval using the conventional and the developed systems. During the implementation of the developed system at Oyo state hospital management laboratory in Oyo and Ibadan, the system was installed unto the hospital laboratories’ database and subsequently utilized for registration of patients data and processed data. The result obtained showed that 65% of the respondents who were tested with the developed system used between 30-45 minutes and 48% used between 46- 60minutes while 88% that used the manual system used between 2-8hours before the result was ready. The adoption of this research will greatly allow prompt release of test results retrieval of Information, reduce patient test time wastage, give accurate laboratory test result, reduce loss of vital information, reduce misplacement of test results and reduce misallocation of test results to the barest minimum, if not totally eradicated.
Keywords: Computerized, information technology, Hospital, Laboratory, Laravel
SPATIAL VARIABILITY IN THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME SOILS IN MUTUM BIYU, GASSOL LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF TARABA STATE, NIGERIA
*1JUGULDE, D. A., 2MUSA, H. AND 3SALEM, A.
1Deparment of Crop Production, Federal Polytechnic Bali, Taraba State. 1Deparment of Soil Science, Modibbo Adama University, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria. 2Department of Soil Science, Federal University of Kashere, Gombe State, Nigeria
An assessment was conducted on the spatial variability in the physico-chemical properties in soils of Mutum Biyu, Gassol Local Government Area of Taraba State. Four soil profile pits were randomly sunk within the study area, following standard procedure. Soil samples were then collected from identified genetic horizon in each of the dug soil profile, carefully stored, processed and analyzed in the laboratory using standard procedures. The results revealed that soils of the study area were found to be deep to very deep in depth, while surface and subsurface soils were predominantly dark red and dusky red in colour. Soil texture was predominantly found to be loamy sand, while mean bulk density and total porosity values ranges from 1.53 to 1.58 g/cm3 and 35.25 to 37.5%, respectively. The soil pH was moderately acidic in nature (pH range 6.40 to 6.43) across the pedon. The organic carbon, total nitrogen and available phosphorus were generally low. Similarly the exchangeable bases were generally rated low with the exception of magnesium which was observed to be medium in content (0.97 to 1.13cmol/kg). Soil variability was observed to be low to moderate for most soil properties across depths. This is an indication that soil depth rarely influenced the content and distribution of both physical and chemical properties in the study area. In order to improve upon the fertility statue of soils of the study area, it is therefore recommended that, the incorporation of crop residue, addition of organic manures and provision of adequate drainage will improve the physical and chemical properties of the soils, which will in turn enhance sustainable crop production.
Keywords: Spatial, Variability, Exchangeable bases, Organic matter, Soil pH
BENEFICIATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF AKPET 1 BARITE FOR POTENTIAL USE IN DRILLING OPERATIONS
NLEKWUWA, UCHENNA PHILIPS; & DIM PAUL
Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria.
Successful drilling relies on the properties of the drilling fluid used to drill the wells. Barite serves as a weighting agent in the production of drilling fluid. Over the years, Nigeria’s oil and gas industry has relied largely on imported barite for drilling operations, while the country has vast reserves of barite. There is a need to evaluate the properties of locally sourced barites for their suitability for drilling fluid production. Total reliance on foreign-produced barites has been the trend because of the oil firms in the nation establishing that the locally made barites are of low quality in chemical and physical properties and the quality is below American Petroleum Institute and Nigeria’s Department of Petroleum Resources barite quality standard. Therefore, this study evaluates the best physical and chemical processes to prepare locally made barites using Akpet 1 barite ore as a case study. The characterization and XRD results of the on-site barite reads 62.101% BaSO4, 15.423% of SiO2, 2.201% of Fe2O3, 5.213% of Al2O3 and other soluble salts, which after a series of beneficiation processes produced barite of 91.212% BaSO4, 1.011% SiO2, 0.414% Fe2O3, 0.751% of Al2O3. In addition, the specific gravity is 4.39, while the Mohr’s hardness scale after beneficiation is 3.25 and the pH value is 6.8. These results and the percentage increase of BaSO4 on Akpet 1 barite demonstrate that locally-made barites can be prepared to meet the international standard for drilling oil mud formulation. The number of impurities was reduced sufficiently low, and the specific gravity of the samples improved to meet the needs of any drilling operation and compare favourably with industrially accepted barite
Keywords: Akpet 1 barite ore, Beneficiation, Characterization, Leeching, Specific gravity, weighting, Drilling Fluid.
ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF CHANGING INITIAL CONDITION OF BIOCHEMICAL-OXYGEN DEMAND(IC=2.3) AND DISSOLVED-OXYGEN(IC=4.0) IN THEIR INTERACTIONS ON DODO RIVER
1I.E. NWAFOR; 2R.E. AKPODEE;
2Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University. 1Institutes of Geoscience and Environmental Management, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University.
This challenging problem was tackled computationally using MATLAB ODE45 Runge-Kutta numerical scheme for a time interval of 0(5)360 in days. due to a slight change in the initial condition of DO(IC = 4.0) and BOD (IC = 2.3) portrays a threat to the aquatic environment as the grey areas indicate a depletion in the coordinates of the DO down the trend, based on the monotonic decrease in the relative abundance of the DO coordinate with a critical DOmc = 2.3685 against the actual DOc = 2.6357 at the 21st day and recovery at DOm = 2.4083 against actual recovery DO = 2.6677 on the 26th day of our experimental time before the control. In the same scenario, due to the slight modification of the initial condition, we observed a slight gain in the coordinate of the BOD with BOD0(IC = 2.3) on the base day and depleted to BODm = 1.2795 against the actual BOD = 1.5171 on the Sixth (6th) day. The BODm coordinates due to the modification, decreases drastically from BODm = 1.2795 on the sixth (6th) day to a converging (saturating) value of BODm=0 on the 361st day of our experimental time. The full results and discussion is presented in this work.
Keywords: Biochemical-Oxygen Demand, Dissolved Oxygen, Numerical Simulation, Biological Extinction, Model Parameters.
USING DEMOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES TO DETECT ERRORS IN AGE BASED DATA
Maths and Statistics Department, Federal Polytechnic, Nekede, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.
Demographic data are usually classified by age and sex, as they both are very important variables. National plans for the provision of such need as housing, food, education, health, e.t.c depend on the relevant socio – demographic statistics classified by age and sex. The importance of accurate age-sex data in demographic analysis cannot be over emphasized as there are errors associated with age and sex. As age data tend to be more inaccurate than sex data, there is need for investigation and evaluation of the quality of the data collected on age. This paper is purposely prepared to evaluate the accuracy of age reporting using the demographic and health survey 2018 for Nigeria using demographic techniques. The Whipples’ and Meyer’s indices as well as the United Nations Age-Sex accuracy index were determined. The result of the work has shown very accurate age data reporting for all except male at age ending with “0” in Nigeria. For the Myer’s index, the most preferred final digits are ‘5’ and ‘0’, while the most avoided final digit by both sexes is ‘1’. Furthermore, the calculated age-sex accuracy index is 35.48 that qualified the age data usable with adjustment according to the United Nations scaling.
Keywords: Digit preference, Whipple’s index, Myer’s index, Age, UN age-sex accuracy Index
LEVEL OF AVAILABILITY, ADEQUACY AND UTILIZATION OF CHEMISTRY LABORATORY EQUIPMENT
IDRIS NAFISAT OYIZA
Department of Chemistry Kogi State College of Education (Technical), Kabba
This study investigated the level of availability, Adequacy, and Utilization of Chemistry Laboratory Equipment Checklist in School in Yola-North of Adamawa State. The Study adopted the survey Research Design. A sample of 20 chemistry teachers and 140 chemistry students were used for the study. Three research questions guided the study. The instrument used was Chemistry Laboratory Equipment Checklist (CLEC). Three experienced lecturers validated the instruments after which the instrument was pilot-tested using chemistry teachers and student who were not part of the sample of the study. The liability coefficient of the instrument yielded 0.84 using Cronbach alpha method. The data collected where analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The major findings of the study were: that Chemistry Laboratory equipment were not available in most of the senior secondary schools as indicated by the respondents in Yola-North, Adamawa State: Chemistry laboratory equipment were not adequate in Yola-North senior secondary schools Chemistry laboratory equipment were not utilized in senior secondary schools of Yola-North. Recommendations were made to the Government to make Chemistry equipment available, Adequate in secondary schools for teachers and students. Recommendations were also made to the teachers in utilizing the chemistry laboratory equipment.
Keywords: Availability, Adequacy, Utilization, Chemistry Laboratory, Equipment
A REVIEW ON OP-AMP BASED FUNCTION GENERATOR: DESIGN AND SIMULATION
JIBRIN ABUBAKAR1, MOHAMMED ADAMU SULE2, BUBAKARI JODA3, ABBAS ADAMU4, DABO Y. DABS5
1,3Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering Tech., Federal Polytechnic Kaltungo, Gombe State, Nigeria. 2Department of Computer Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Kaltungo, Gombe State, Nigeria. 4Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering Tech. Federal Polytechnic N’yak Shendam, Nigeria. 5Department of Electrical Engineering Tech. ATAP Bauchi, Nigeria
In this research, different types of waveform such as sinusoidal, triangular and rectangular waves, with few electronic component and a wide frequency range was designed and generated. Operational amplifiers can be employed to perform such tasks through astable multivibrators as square wave generator. PROTO and MULTISM were used in simulating the circuits. The square wave can be integrated to form triangular wave and sine waves respectively. However, the operational amplifier operates under certain conditions. In this paper, the integration method is employed. It involves the generation of square wave which is then integrated to give triangular wave, as the square ramp integrate to triangular mathematical functions, the triangular wave is then integrated to give sinusoidal wave. Voltage comparator was used between the inverting and non-inverting inputs of the op-amp. A capacitor was placed at the inverting input of the op-amp. All the three waveform were generated using the overall circuit.
Keywords: Op-amp, Multivibrator, sinusoidal waveform, integrator, feedback
CHEMICALS ANALYSIS OF ANANAS COMOSUS LEAVES
1ADEBAYO, O.R., 1ADEGOKE, B.M., 1AFOLABI, F., 1RAIMI, M.M.,1SHITTU, S.A. AND 1OYETADE, O.A., 2SALAM, A.M., AND 1FALADE, A.R.
1Department of Applied Sciences, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree. 2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree.
The Ananas comosus are fruits with medicinal properties, commonly grown in South America. The study was undertaken to estimate its mineral contents (mg/g) potassium (14.15), magnesium (12.00), sodium (11.40), calcium (8.50), manganese (0.14), copper (0.23), iron (0.43), zinc (1.32) , bioactive compositions phenol (11.3%), saponins (5.63%), flavonoids (6. 68%), tannins (0.45mg/g), alkaloids (5.19mg/g) and glycosides (3.35mg/kg), antioxidant properties (mg/g) such as vitamin B1 (2.39), vitamin B2 (0.40)) and vitamins C (1.79) and the nutritional values ( %) carbohydrate (52.53), crude fats (15.68), moisture content (14.48), protein content (7.58), crude fibre (6.75), ash content (2.99) . The presence of bioactive compounds coupled with some micro and macro minerals elements in the fruit leaves, if consumed in sufficient amount, will contribute to nutritional requirements for good health in man. The plant leaves may also serve as source of pharmaceutical formulation and food supplements.
Keywords: Ananas comosus, bioactive compositions, antioxidant properties
POTENTIAL OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY APPLICATION IN NIGERIA
MOHAMMED T. N.; SANI M.; MAFE A.S; & OLANIYI K.O.
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Offa.
Geothermal energy is the heat that is stored inside the earth, which when transferred to the surface can be used by humans. Uses for geothermal energy range from its direct use with no transformation, to the generation of electricity using geothermal power plants. This article overview the potential of geothermal energy application in Nigeria with a view to harnessing it for future application and usage. Geothermal energy is generally regarded as environmentally friendly, sustainable and reliable. This makes geothermal energy a no-brainer in some places, but heavy upfront costs stops us from realizing the full potential. The level of influence geothermal power will have on the energy system in the future will be dependent on technological advancements, energy prices and politics (subsidies).
Keywords: Geothermal, Electricity, power, Energy, Heat.
ASSESSMENT OF THE LEVEL OF CONCENTRATION OF SOME SELECTED NUTRITIONAL ELEMENTS IN THE FRESH, DRIED AND CANNED BEANS SAMPLED FROM A POPULAR MARKET IN SAKI WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF OYO STATE
IMRAN, MUSAH OLALEKAN; LAWAL, ISMAIL AJEROGBA; YEKEEN, UTHMANADEOLA; AND GIWA, AFEEZ AJIBOLA
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki, Oyo State, Nigeria.
The present study evaluated the mean concentrations of minerals in three beans forms (Fresh green beans, Dry beans and canned beans). An analytical methodology was optimized, which involved several steps from sample preparation and instrumental analysis – spectrometer. The present study provides information about the total concentration of trace metals (Na, Mg, Mn, Fe, Ca, K and Zn in those beans samples. The elements that presented a greater mean concentration from all beans involved were K (1.89mg/l in canned beans sample) and Mg (0.7mg/l in canned bean).The canned beans sample showed a higher concentration of K and Mg. In fact, the canned bean was the only sample that contains the entire mineral element investigated. However, among all of the trace metals under studied, Iron (Fe) and Zinc (Zn) is present in all of the beans samples. Manganese (Mn), Magnesium (Mg) and Potassium (K) is not found in both Fresh green and dry beans samples. Sodium (Na) and Calcium (Ca) were not found in the Dry beans sample alone unlike other samples. It could be inferred that, the industrial process that the canned beans underwent is a yardstick towards it nutritional value as show from the result. Also following the canned beans sample in mineral element value is the fresh green beans and this could also be as a result of the nascent nature of the beans compared with the dry sample that had underwent more dehydration naturally by sun drying, hence, could be reason for the limited metal concentration.
Keywords: Beans, Minerals, Trace metals, Iron, Sodium, Calcium.
A PROPOSED IMPROVED CAPTCHA BASED INTRUSION DETECTION MODEL
ABDULRAHMAN ABDULKARIM; ISHAQ MUHAMMED; FATIMA AHMED ABUBAKAR; ATIKA AHMAD JIBRIN; & SUBERU YUSUF
Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.
Intrusion Detection System is a process of intelligently monitoring events occurring in a computer system or network, analyzing them for signs of violations of a security policy. Its primary aim is to protect the availability, confidentiality and integrity of critical networked information systems. This paper considered and reviewed a CAPTCHA based intrusion detection model. The improved model is designed by creating a method of incorporating signature along with CAPTCHA to clear the controversy identified in the existing model. The improved model is expected to be implemented by the design of an interactive website such as an authentication page. In a future work, results from implemented model would be analyzed and evaluation of the performance against the existing model would be carried out. Higher detection rate and a lower false positive rate are being expected to be achieved.
Keywords: Intrusion Detection System IDS, Signature, CAPTCHA, Intrusion Prevention System IPS