SUB-SAHARA AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIODIVERSITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH (SJBER)
VOL. 27 (4) MARCH, 2023 ISSN: 2211-8735
Sub-Sahara African Academic Research Publications,
Centre for African Development Studies, University of Ibadan,
P. O. Box 10108, U. I. Post Office. Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria, West-Africa.
EFFECT OF ICT FACILITIES AWARENESS AND PERCIEVED USEFULNESS ON LEVEL OF APPLICATION BY ESTATE SURVEYING AND VALUATION FIRMS IN BAUCHI METROPOLIS
ADAMU JA’AFARU KURMI; ADEGBENGA ADEYEMI (Ph.D.); & BALA ISHIYAKU (Ph.D.) *
Department of Estate Management & Valuation, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi
Information communication technology has penetrated the real estate profession around the world changing the way some tasks are performed. This study assessed the effect of ICT facilities awareness and perceived usefulness on level of adoption by Estate Surveying and Valuation Firms in Bauchi Metropolis, with a view to providing information that would enhance professional practice in the study area. Population of the research constitutes all staff of estate surveying and valuation firms within Bauchi Metropolis. Data was collected through the administration of 69 close-ended questionnaires from a sample frame of 75, out of which 61 were returned and analysed using SPSS. The result of the study shows that awareness on internet ranked 1st, social media platform 2nd, while awareness on office productivity software ranked the least. For level of adoption ICT facilities, internet ranked 1st, smartphones and tablet-device ranked 2nd and valuation software ranked the least. ICT facilities awareness has been found to have strong effect on the level of adoption of ICT by estate surveying and valuation firms having a beta of .437. The study concluded that awareness level of estate surveying and valuation firms is high, that the level of adoption of ICT facilities is high and that ICT facilities awareness have significant effect on level of adoption of ICT. The study recommends that of estate surveying and valuation firms should be attending training and workshop on ICT facilities relevant to their practice so as to increase their level of awareness, estate surveying and valuation firms should adopt ICT facilities more so as to put the profession on a global scale among its contemporaries, estate surveying and valuation firms should adopt valuation software more as it enhances accuracy and produce more reliable result as evident from previous literatures.
Keywords: ICT, Facilities, Awareness, Adoption, Estate Surveying & Valuation Firms, Software
AN EVALUATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY INVESTMENTS IN MINNA, NIGERIA
PHILIP AYOMIDE AJE AND NAMNSO BASSEY UDOEKANEM
Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
The study evaluated the performance of residential property investments in Minna, Nigeria. Data for the study were collected through field survey using multi-stage sampling technique. This involved the selection of estate surveying and valuation firms which are active in the residential property market in Minna through purposive sampling technique and thereafter, residential investment properties managed by these firms were selected using simple random sampling technique. Thus, a total of 382 residential investment properties were selected from the property portfolio of estate surveying and valuation firms in the city for the study. Structured questionnaire was administered to the managers of these properties for data collection. Data collected for the study include the capital value, annual expenses in form of taxes, rates, repairs etc. and annual rental value of 1-BR, 2-BR and 3-BR apartments for the period, 2009 – 2021. Data collected for the study were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. The analysis of variance in total return produced calculated F˗values of 2.139636, 2.928597 and 2.941148 for 1-BR, 2-BR and 3-BR apartments respectively with p ≤ 0.05. This indicates that the variance in total return for all residential investment property types across all the study locations is statistically significant. The study also found that the risk associated with this return varies according to the residential property investment types across all the locations considered in the study. It recommends that prudent residential real estate investors in the city require impeccable pre-investment appraisal of residential property investments at all locations in the city before investing their capital, particularly if they are risk averse.
Keywords: Residential property; Investment performance; Total return; Risk; Minna
ASSESSING THE COST OF ENERGY AND DISTRIBUTION IN INSTITUTIONAL BUILDING (SCHOOL OF ENVIRONMENT)
HARUNA SAMINU, 1 ZAKARI ABDULLAHI TIJJANI 2
Department of Architecture, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil
The study is aimed at assessing cost of energy and distribution in building. (School of environment) Due to the risen cost of energy globally, it is a growing issue accounting for a high percentage of greenhouse emission contributing significantly to global warming; and it peculiarity to Nigeria is far greater and risen higher (Ecree 2010) it effects man and environment. Expenditure on energy as an economic factor is high. As such arise the need to look for possible solution to reduce the cost of running building like building on energy. Therefore, In hot-dry climate that are characterize by excessive heat and sun glare requires a sustainable approach to building design especially those that consume a lot of energy. To reduce the energy consumption, there is a need necessarily to employ cost saving measures which are environmentally friendly such as passive design principles in school of environment designs so as to enhance energy efficiency and conserve energy. Three building facilities are purposefully sampled; where an energy audit is conducted through the collection of data from two-year bills of utility and back-up sources of electricity supply. Inventory of all energy consuming appliances and systems in the three facilities are also taken to obtain its estimated energy demand. Data collected is analyzed, where cost of energy supply is estimated. Findings revealed that the major actor in energy consumption is the cooling demand, followed by other electrical equipment and lighting respectively. Fulfilling such demand is found to be hindered by lack of regular supply of electricity from the national grid which resulted to a level of dependence on backup power generators, making it an economically unsustainable agent of cost accumulation in management of institutional building.
Keywords: Assessing Energy Cost Consumption Efficiency
EFFECT OF STORAGE CONTAINERS ON THE QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER
LAGASI. J.E; DAFFI, R. E; ULOKO J. O; & EMMANUEL I. T.
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
The essentials of water in sustaining life, and the need for it to be adequate, safe and accessible to human and animals cannot be over-emphasized. However, the deteriorating quality of such water after some period of storage is of great concern. Hence the need to investigate the cause of this quality deterioration with respect to the storage facility used. This study therefore is aimed at determining the quality of water during storage in different container materials for a period of four weeks. The container materials used were plastic container (PC), metallic container (MC) and Earthen pot (EP). Water quality parameters examined were Temperature, Color, Total suspended solids, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Chemical oxygen demand (COD), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), pH, Magnesium (Mg 2+) Calcium (Ca 2+), Turbidity, Total dissolved solids, Iron (Fe), Electrical conductivity, Hardness and Escherichia coli (E-coli). Samples were taken at 7days interval and the results obtained showed that earthen pot EP preserved water quality better than other containers. It was concluded that earthen pot EP better preserved water quality during storage compared to plastic container (PC), metallic container (MC). Results show that although there is no significant difference in physical and chemical water quality of plastic container (PC), metallic container (MC) and Earthen pot (EP) there is a difference in microbial contamination as measured by E. Coli counts.
Keywords; Quality, Contamination, Storage, Parameters, Significant.
PEDOGENIC VARIATIONS IN TRACE ELEMENTS STATUS IN SOILS DEVELOPED ON DIFFERENT LAND USE: SYSTEMS UNDER HYDROMORPHIC CONDITION IN DADIN KOWA, GOMBE STATE, NIGERIA
1JUGULDE, D. A., AND 2SALEM, A.
1Deparment of Crop Production, Federal Polytechnic Bali, Taraba State. 2Department of Soil Science, Federal University of Kashere, Gombe State, Nigeria
An assessment was conducted on the status and distribution of Trace elements in soils developed under five different land use systems in Dadin kowa, Gombe State. Two soil profiles pits were dug in each of identified land uses, described and sampled. The physical and chemical properties of the soils were determined. All soil samples collected were analysed using standard Laboratory procedures. Results revealed that, the textural classes for the studied soils were predominantly loamy sand to sandy loam in nature. The Bulk density, particle density and total porosity varied from 1.60 to1.67 g/cm3, 2.57 to 2.71 g/cm3 and 35.82 to 40.41% respectively. The soil reaction was slightly acidic to neutral (pH 6.39 – 6.68). The electrical conductivity (EC) of the soils of all the soil mapping units was below the critical limits of 4dSm-1, an indication of the non-saline nature of the studied soils. The values of OC, TN and AP content of the studied soils across land use and horizons is substantial > 10g/kg, and is rated medium to high, 1.1 to 1.40g/kg, rated low to medium and 8.03 to 9.35mg/kg, rated low, respectively. The results further indicated that extractable Iron (2.49 to 5.19mg/kg), Zinc (0.60 to 3.48mg/kg), Copper (0.25 to 1.57mg/kg) and Manganese (1.59 to 2.84mg/kg) were rated high, medium, and medium to high, respectively, in their soil content. It was also observed that differential land management systems had significantly (p<0.05) influence the content and distribution of trace elements in the studied soils. The incorporation of crop residue and addition of organic matter will not only maintain the availability of micronutrients, but at the same time the general physical and chemical properties of the soils, which will in turn enhance sustainable crop production.
Keywords: Copper, Extractable, Hydromorphic, Pedogenic, Trace Elements, Zinc
INTEGRATION OF FLEXIBLE DESIGN TECHNIQUES IN THE DESIGN OF A MIXED-USE BUILDING TOWARDS ADDRESSING DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES IN ABUJA
ABDULSALAM M.; & EZE, J. C.
Department of Architecture, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria
As the needs of owners and residents change, buildings often need to be refurbished, resulting in high costs during construction, operation and maintenance with loss of functional use of the building. Most new building projects are focused on a specific program for which they are perfectly meant for. However, in this era of economically challenging times we need buildings that can easily adapt to changes in the market in order to prolong their durability. Combining living and working gives a lot of planning problems because, both the two functions compliments one another in the use of qualities spaces. In addition, the usual cycle of building and demolishing buildings is now becoming a big problem which needs strategic solutions. Hence, this study develops a systematic approach to study and analyze the properties of expected changes in the facility constructed and specific design strategies that may increase significantly the flexibility or ability to adapt to changes in the building. Therefore, three types of changes to the building are in its function, the capacity of the system, and the environment and flow of people in and around the building. These design strategies can provide specific means to change the interactions between the functions, systems and environment which will effectively and efficiently compensate for changes during refurbishment, later. It was recommended that these design strategies will increase the initial value of construction costs average less than 2%, usually reducing the original construction time.
KEYWORDS: Adaptability, Approach, Flexibility, Mixed-used and Strategies
ANALYSIS OF TREND IN RENTAL VALUE OF RESIDENTIAL PROPERTIES IN ABUJA
AYENI, O. F.; KEMIKI, O. A.; POPOOLA, N. I.; & MUSA, H. D.
Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Federal University of Technology, Minna
The study analysed the trend in rental value of residential property in Abuja. The study utilized systematic random sampling to relevant rental data from registered estate surveyors and valuers. the study sampled 2401 residential transactions across the selected areas in Abuja. The study utilized both trend analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The result of trend analysis revealed that average rental values in Wuse and Maitama exhibited upward and steady movement showing a stable market and overlapped other areas. The result of analysis of variance revealed there is statistically significant difference in rental values across the study area. Further analysis of HSD revealed that bulk of rental difference can be found in Wuse and Maitama. The study concludes that the value of environmental amenity should be captured in the price of residential properties close to it. The study recommends that government, developers and prospective investors should consider investing in residential property types specifically two and three bedrooms as it promised good returns on capital invested.
Keywords: Trend, Rental Value, Residential, Properties, Abuja.
IMPACT OF BIOPHILIC DESIGN STRATEGIES ON WELLBEING: A REVIEW
OMAGA ANGELA ELE-OJO; & LATEEF ADEMOLA LAWAL1
Department of Architecture, Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria.
Increasing urbanization and technological development continue to have impact on people’s connection to nature and access to greenery and open spaces. Emerging from these concerns is a new set of design principles and practices where nature seems to play significant role, especially in the built environments. “Biophilic architecture.” is a design approach that suggests that humans have an innate connection with nature and could assist to create healthy living and work space for human’s comfort and wellbeing. A significant amount of literature in environmental psychology field provides empirical evidence that nature benefits humans, and that landscape and built environments can be designed to link humans and nature. The paper is aimed at providing a narrative review on biophilic design and human health outcomes. The initial review found that elements such as natural daylight, ventilation, and living architecture (green roofs and walls) which are integrated on or within a building envelope could be useful in creating well designed buildings capable of improving users’ health and well-being. To achieve the status of a restorative-built environment, the study suggests that architects and designers need to shift focus on the value and the use of natural elements such as forest-like landscapes, natural water features, and natural light in their designs.
Keywords: biophilia, biophilic design, healing environment, nature, wellbeing.
A REVIEW ON INNOVATIVE BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES
BELLO, S. T.; AND DR. EZEH, J. C
Department of Architecture, School of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria
Increasing demand for sustainable development in Sub-Saharan Africa has led to a growing interest in exploring the region’s resources and opportunities for sustainable architecture in the 21st century. The objective of this paper is to explore the opportunities and challenges of using innovative building technologies to create sustainable architecture in Sub-Saharan Africa. The methodology used in this study is a literature review, with a focus on recent research and best practices in the field of sustainable architecture. The major findings of this study indicate that innovative building technologies such as energy-efficient lighting and cooling systems, rainwater harvesting, and solar power can significantly reduce the environmental impact of buildings in SubSaharan Africa. These technologies can also help to address some of the challenges facing the region, such as limited access to electricity and water, and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, the adoption of these technologies in Sub-Saharan Africa is not without challenges. These challenges include high upfront costs, limited technical capacity, and the need for supportive policies and regulations. To overcome these challenges, it is important to develop innovative financing mechanisms, build technical capacity among local communities and professionals, and establish supportive policies and regulations. In conclusion, this paper highlights the importance of using innovative building technologies to create sustainable architecture in Sub-Saharan Africa. It also identifies key challenges that need to be addressed to ensure the successful adoption of these technologies in the region. Finally, this paper offers major recommendations for policymakers, architects, and other stakeholders to promote the adoption of innovative building technologies for sustainable architecture in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Keywords; Sustainable architecture, Innovative building technologies, Sub-Saharan Africa, Opportunities, Challenges
EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION PRACTICES IN PART OF MINNA METROPOLIS AND ENVIRONS, NIGER STATE, NIGERIA
NUSA, ABUBAKAR; & PROF. A. ABDULKADIR;
Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology Minna
This study evaluated the effectiveness of environmental sanitation practices in part of Minna metropolis and environs in Niger State with a view to identifying the different environmental sanitation problems emanating from the level of adequacies of the amenities. The objectives are to: assess the knowledge of environmental sanitation among household in the study area, examine the environmental sanitation practices in the study area, examine the environmental sanitation facilities and services delivery in the study area and evaluate the effectiveness of environmental sanitation practices in the study area. Data used for the study were collected using two (2) instruments: questionnaire administration and field survey made by the researcher. The questionnaires were administered using the systematic random sampling technique whereby 399 respondents were sampled. Descriptive statistical tools were used for the study such as frequency percentage counts and charts. The study established that the majority 233(58.4%) of the respondents were male. It also revealed that most of the respondents had tertiary qualification with the highest percentage proportion 70%. The study indicated that households are knowledgeable about environmental sanitation with the aggregate mean score of 3.209 which is greater than the decision means score of 2.50. The respondents using pipe borne water regularly accounted for 68.2%, well water 66.7%, 63.7% use borehole water and two significant methods of water purification are boiling and use of chemical purifiers accounted for 46.4% and 13.5% respectively. The findings revealed that waste storage receptacles mostly used are bucket out of use representing 61.2% and jerry can 60.4% and the most prominent duration of waste storage before disposal is between 5˗7 days accounted for 40%. It was established that the sanitation facilities among household with the proportions of buildings that have soak away pit, septic tank, waste water pit and drainage are77.7%, 9.5%, 74.7% and 77.4% respectively. The study also indicated that the effectiveness of environmental sanitation practices in Minna metropolis and environs are fairly effective with the aggregate mean score of 3.1 which is slightly greater than the decision mean score of 3.0. It was concluded that adequate and positive knowledge of environmental sanitation with good attitude and practices exist among households in the study areas. The study recommends that policymakers in government and non-governmental organizations should redesign a plan of action to maintain the positive knowledge, attitude, and practice of environmental sanitation among households in Minna metropolis and environs.
Keywords: Environmental sanitation, Waste, Household and Minna metropolis.
IMPACT OF THE APPLICATION OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM ON LAND ADMINISTRATION IN THE FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, NIGERIA
AGBANA SAMUEL OLUFEMI; & KEMIKI OLUROTIMI ADEBOWALE
Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria
Land plays an important role in the economy of nations and the manner in which land falling within their territories are being administered has been a matter for popular discourse in several fora globally. A major outcome of these discussions has been the need to automate Land Administration processes through the use of tools such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Nigeria is not left out in this global drive and a few states including the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) have adopted the use of GIS for its Land Administration. This paper examined the impact which GIS has on the land administration process within the FCT with particular reference to time taken transactions and the revenue generated from the process. The findings revealed that the application of GIS to Land Administration has greatly impacted on the time taken for transactions with the time taken for some processes reduced by over fifty percent and revenues have been largely improved even surpassing empirical projections such that the peak revenue after introducing GIS is about 718 percent above that of the pre GIS period. The study recommends that other state governments should consider adopting the GIS tools to Land Administration if not already in use, best practice standard should be inculcated, introducing online transactions should be strongly considered and Staff training, sanction and reward systems should be taken seriously.
Keywords: Land, Land Administration, Geographic Information System, Titleholder
ASSESSMENT OF DOUBLE SKIN FACADE FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN HIGH-RISE OFFICE BUILDING, ABUJA
UMA U. D.; AND ISAH A. D
Department of Architecture, School of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.
The cooling need of office buildings for adequate work efficiency and comfort in hot humid climates like that of Abuja has led to an increase in building energy consumption. In other to achieve these needs a high amount of energy has been significantly placed on the energy grid system of the city and furthermore due to the unstable supply of electricity the users of the such buildings have alternatively resorted to the use of other sources of power which is generation through the burning of fossil fuels. This has contributed in turn contributed significantly in global warming and ozone layer depletion. Building envelopes have been proven to enhance in building sustainability substantially in the aspect of energy efficiency around the globe. This study is aimed at assessing the effect of double skin façade (DSF) cavity depth and external skin material on energy efficiency in the hot humid climate of Abuja. The study employed a mixed methodology with the use of case studies and computational simulations using the quasi-experimental approach. With the use of prototype DSF models and a purposively selected case study of a typical commercial office building reference base case models were generated and energy simulations performed using Energy Plus Design Builder to obtain annual cooling load data for varying base cases with and without a DSF solution. The most optimal DSF external skin material and cavity depth combination is the Amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV-DSF with a cavity depth of 300mm which had a significant reduction in the total energy consumption. Further application of these findings on the Churchgate Tower, Abuja base case reduced the total annual cooling loads of the building. This implies that adequate selection of DSF cavity depth and envelope material would increase energy savings thereby enhancing energy efficiency. This study therefore recommends the use of the photovoltaic double skin façade as it performed well in reducing cooling loads and also provides potentials for substantial energy generation especially in high-rise buildings.
KEYWORDS: Double-skin Façade, Envelope, Energy, Efficiency.
CHALLENGES IN THE VALUATION OF SPECIALIZED PROPERTIES: A STUDY OF SELECTED HEALTH CARE CENTRES IN MINNA, NIGERIA
GARBA, IDRIS; & PROF. M. B. NUHU
Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Federal University of Technology, Minna
Valuation is the act or process of determining an opinion of or conclusion of value of an asset on a stated basis of value at a specified date in compliance with International Valuation Standard. The determination of the opinion of value of the healthcare properties is face with a lots of challenges or issues due to the uniqueness arising from its specialized nature and design, its configuration, size, location or otherwise. Healthcare properties are developed to provide healthcare services. These services make it design to be categorized under specialized properties. The scope of the study was to examine the challenges in the valuation of specialized properties with specific reference to Jummai Babangida Aliyu Maternal and Neonatal wing (Minna General Hospital Extension), Dr. Senetor Ibrahim Idris Kuta Memorial Primary Healthcare Centre and Dr. Musa Inuwa Hospital. The aim of the study is to examine the challenges associated with the valuation of selected health care properties in Minna with the following key objectives which include examine the methods of valuation (cost, income and sales method of valuation) of specialized properties, examine the process in the valuation of health care properties, examine the issues/challenges in the valuation of health care properties. The methodology utilized for this study are physical measurement of health care properties which produce site and floor plans with their details of constructions and questionnaire administration. Data were analysed using statistical techniques such as the percentage, frequency tables and graph. The result shows that issues associated in the valuation of healthcare property to include; limitation of method options or approaches to the valuation process of specialized property (healthcare property) due to its specialty and uniqueness in nature, inadequate record keeping for both assets and financial transactions and the inability to gain access to some restricted part of the medical/healthcare facility leading to making assumptions which must not be 100% correct. This may affect the opinion of Value of the subject property. Also the result shows that when Estate Surveyor and Valuer has limited access to the subject property for valuation he can make use of technology like satellite imagery, Google earth application and making adequate enquiry from the staff of the hospital, make reasonable assumptions and state clearly in the valuation report that inspection was limited or restricted to the open surroundings of the property. It therefore recommended that the three (3) methods or approaches of valuation; Cost, Income and Sales Comparison Methods should be applied in the Valuation process in order to arrive with objective opinion of value of healthcare properties. There is need for the government to enforce compliance of International Valuation Standard which brought about International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) and good Accounting Record Keeping in the health care industry as well as estate surveyors and valuers should embrace the culture of thorough market survey on hospital equipment through internet and visitation of sales outfit and self-adaptation to the characteristics of healthcare properties.
Keywords: Healthcare, Valuers, Challenges, and Valuation
EVALUATION OF SAFETY DESIGN CONSIDERATION FOR CRIME PREVENTION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN OF MIXED-USE BUILDING, ABUJA
DALHAT NAZIFI; AND REMI EBENEZA OLAGUNJU
Department of Architecture, School of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.
People across the world face growing insecurity, violent conflict spreading and intensifying and the natural systems on which human life depends on, is in jeopardy. In recent time, Architecture designs have emerged worldwide as one of the most promising and currently effective approaches to reducing opportunities for crime. The basic principles of crime prevention through design in building is that proper design and effective use of the built environment can be used to reduce the fear and incidence of crime and thereby improve the overall quality of life. Studies have shown that in communities where these principles have been implemented, criminal activity has decreased by as much as 40 percent. Environmental crime prevention has many positive aspects which deter crime instead of addressing criminal activity after it occurs. This study set out to proffer solutions to the rising insecurity challenges in mixed use buildings in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. This was achieved through the development of a framework from CPTED, on architectural strategies used to deter crime from thriving in mixed use buildings. A user perception survey was carried out using case study to identify safety and security inadequacies in the selected buildings. The outcome of the study shows that designers and developers play important role and influence in enhancing the safety and security of the community. Hence, confirming the need to improve the impediment of variables like Natural Access control, Landscape for Security, Natural Surveillance, Activity Support, Zooning for Security, and Tour guide and Watch tower, in respect to CPTED principles in the design of Mixed-use building in Abuja.
Keywords: CPTED, Mixed-Use Building, Safety and Security.
INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE VARIATION ON THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE AND SLAG CEMENT CONCRETE
SESUGH TERLUMUN; MC OKAH; VICTORIA HASSANA JIYA; PRECIOUS MUNACHISO; & JULIET UGOCHUKWU
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Air Force Institute of Technology, Kaduna, Nigeria
This study investigated the thermal resistance of Slag Cement Concrete. Slag cement is an environmentally friendly alternative to Portland cement. Heat from fire alters the physical and mechanical properties of concrete. Given the decisive role of thermal resistance in the operation and performance of structures, it is necessary to evaluate the effect of heat on the performance of Slag Cement concrete. In this study, Compression Tests, and Density Test were carried out to examine the effects of heat on some mechanical properties of Slag Concrete. Concrete cubes and cylinders consisting of granite, sand as coarse and fined aggregates and slag cement as a binder were prepared and The concrete samples were cured for 28 days after which were subjected to varying temperatures of 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300˚C at 30, 45 and 60 minutes and the change in their compressive strength was measured and compared. The result of the experiment shows that the loss in compressive strength of the slag cement concrete was 0.45% at 100oC, 1.75% at 1500C, 2.67% at 2000C, 5.98 at 2500C and 12.04% at 3000C, while that of ordinary Portland cement was 0.29% at 1500C, 1.01% at 2000C, 5.88% at 2500C and 12.07% at 3000C. It was observed that higher temperatures exert adverse effects on the strength of concrete. The compressive strength of slag cement concrete was found to be considerably higher than Portland cement as already established by other researchers. From the results, it was observed that below the temperature of 2500C both concrete did not lost significant Strength, in fact, Portland cement gain 0.67% strength at 1000C, but from 2500 and above, there was a significant loss of strength. The results show that Slag Concrete has a good thermal resistance ability and as such can be suitable even in industrial areas.
URBANIZATION AND IT’S CONSEQUENCES IN NIGERIA. A REVIEW
BEJIDE MUNIRAT MONISOLA
Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo State
The study examined urbanization and its consequence in Nigeria. There are three periods of urbanization; the pre-colonial urbanization, the most important regions were south-western and northern Nigeria, the colonial urbanization, during this period, three categories of towns were created. The first, second and third class towns. Lagos was the only first class town, there were eighteen second class towns, twelve in southern Nigeria, and only six in northern Nigeria. The classification guided the colonial administration in the distribution of amenities and other developmental infrastructures. The consequences of urbanization has revealed by the study are; housing problem, over crowing, traffic congestion, unemployment and underemployment, environmental decay, infrastructure decay and so on. The following recommendations were made based on the findings of the study; building of sustainable and environmentally friendly cities, provision of essential services, creation of more employment opportunities and population control among others. Conclusion, In order to solve the problems of urbanization in Nigeria, the government should be alive to their responsibilities, and also, the key stakeholders in urban areas should be proactive.
Keyword: Urbanization, consequences, solution and review.
SITE SUITABILITY ANALYSIS OF SOLID WASTE DUMP IN ALIMOSHO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, LAGOS STATE
1A.O. OYEYODE, 2A.O. AJANI, 3O.A. AKINSANYA, 4A.I. AYODEJI, 5S.T. OYEBANJI, 6T.O. AWEDA
1Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Federal School of Surveying, Oyo, Nigeria. 2Department of Cartography and Geographic Information System, Federal School of Surveying, Oyo, Nigeria. 3Shimat GEODATA Limited, Lagos, Nigeria. 4Digit-Tek Geomatics Company Limited, Lagos, Nigeria. 5Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Federal School of Surveying, Oyo, Nigeria. 6Department of Computer Science, Federal School of Surveying, Oyo, Nigeria
The solid waste materials in cities are the natural outcome of human activities, in cities and municipalities of most developing countries. In Nigeria, it is a major concern of the government due to the health problems associated with improper disposal of waste. Due to the different parameters involved, deciding upon a suitable location is very complicated, costly and time consuming. Geographic Information System (GIS) allows users to view, understand, query, interpret and visualize spatial and non-spatial data in many ways that reveals relationships, patterns and trends in the form of maps, reports and charts. This study determined the most suitable site(s) for waste disposal in Alimosho L.G.A, Lagos State. Suitable disposal site must follow some safety criteria that will enable the wastes to be isolated so that there is no unacceptable risk to people or the environment. The Criteria for site selection used for this study includes physical characteristics, socioeconomic, and land-use factors.
Keywords: – Solid Waste Materials, Suitable Location, Health Problems, GIS, Land-Use Factor
IMPACT OF URBANIZATION ON WATER SUPPLY IN KADUNA METROPOLIS, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
1MUHAMMAD LAWAL UBALE; AND 2ONOJA BENJAMIN UFEDO
1Department of Urban and Regional Planning, College of Environmental studies, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna Nigeria. 2Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Nigerian Defence Academy Post Graduate School, Ribadu Campus, NDA, Kaduna, Nigeria.
This paper examined the impact of urbanization on water supply in Kaduna metropolis, with a view to generating population and urban growth data over the years. The study employed the use of Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS). Data used include: Landsat Imagery of 1973, 1990, 2012 and 2022. The data was used to determine the rate of growth within the study area and its impact on water supply to the study area. The study revealed that, the water supplied to Kaduna metropolis remained at 18,400,089 l/c/d; while the population drastically changed from 191,898 people to 3,046,000 people from 1973 to 2022. The study concluded that, Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) to be applied in monitoring changes in population and the rapid growth of Kaduna metropolis. The study recommended that, the Kaduna State Water Corporation (KASWAC) is to apply current global technology of Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) in providing adequate water supply to Kaduna metropolis at any given time.
Keyword: Urbanization, Water Supply, Remote Sensing (RS), Geographical Information Service (GIS).
ASSESSMENT OF VALUERS HEURISTICS APPLICATION IN VALUATION PRACTICE IN SELECTED STATES IN NORTHERN NIGERIA
OKOH, SUNDAY OKUOMA1, KEMIKI, OLUROTIMI ADEBOWALE2, AJAYI, MICHAEL TOLU2, ANKELI, IKPEME ANTHONY3
1Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Federal Polytechnic Bida. 2Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Federal University of Technology, Minna. 3Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Federal Polytechnic, Ede.
Emphasis on heuristics in valuation have been on anchoring and adjustment with little attention accorded the other types of heuristic valuation. The crux of the study is therefore to assessed the degree of the application of the other types of heuristics in practice in Kaduna and Kano states, Nigeria with a view to determine heuristics influence in valuation practice in the study areas. To achieve the aim, the study adopted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 59 out of 75 and 43 out of 45 estate surveying and valuation firms in the metropolitan cities of Kaduna and Kano respectively. Each of the metropolis was stratified into zones for ease of administrative coverage from where the respondents were randomly selected. Both inferential and descriptive statistical tools were employed in the analysis of data. The study found the applications of other heuristics valuation by Valuers at varying degree in Kaduna and Kano beside anchoring and adjustment. Relative Occurrence Index revealed that there are significant influences of valuers’ heuristic behaviour on valuation estimates. In addition, coefficient of determination showed that 68.5% and 83.5% of the variations in valuation estimates in Kaduna and Kano are attributable to valuers’ heuristic behaviour. It therefore recommended the need for adequate and proper market survey strategy, comprehensive and up to date property data bank, contemporary valuation methods and techniques, regular refresher courses and pupilage training and the adherence to professional ethics and code of conduct among others.
Keywords: Valuer, Heuristics, Valuation Practice, Anchoring and Adjustment
DETERMINANT METHOD OF WASTE GENERATION IN NIGERIAN AIRFORCE BASE, KANO
FUNKE M. JIYAH,1 HALIMA A GOYOL 2 AND MUIBAT YUSUF3,
1Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger State. 2Department of Building Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger State. Nigeria. 3Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger State. Nigeria.
Waste is generated universally and is a direct consequence of all human activities. The aim of the study is to examine the method of waste generation in Nigerian Air force base, Kano in order to propose a sustainable method of waste disposal. Data collection method involved the use of stratified random sampling techniques to determine the number of houses to be sampled. Sample frame was 270 houses in the three categories of housing units (low housing units was 36, medium was 84 and high density units was 150). Each stratum of population had proportionate sampling fraction of 25% to ensure that each category of housing units is well represented. Thus, 9, 21 and 38 houses were respectively sampled, totally 68 houses as the sample size. Wastes were collected and scaled once a week to get the weight of waste generated from different households. The wastes were then sorted into different components to identify the types of waste generated as well as the most common waste generated; these include paper/cartoon, clothes, leaves, perishable goods, bottle/glass. The results revealed that quantity of waste generated within the dwelling units varies according to income level of the household dwellers and perishable waste account for the highest waste generated. The high composition of non-biodegradable wastes requires alternative waste management like composting disposal method for environmental friendly systems. Composting is, therefore, recommended as the best method of disposal of solid waste generated in the air force base, and the non-biodegradable should be sorted out and recycled.
Keywords: Solid Waste, Compost, Disposal method, Housing unit, Kano