CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MODELLING AND APPLIED SCIENCE RESEARCH (CJMASR)
VOL. 27 NO. 9 – MARCH, 2023 EDITION
Cambridge Research and Publications International,
Africa (Nigeria): CAHDC, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBAPENEM RESISTANT ACINETOBACTER BAUMANNII ISOLATED FROM CLINICAL SAMPLES OBTAINED FROM IN-PATIENTS OF TWO SELECTED HOSPITALS IN MINNA, NIGERIA
AYAMS JUDE NDANUSA; ADABARA NASIRU USMAN; & ENEJIYON SHERIFAT OZAVIZE
Department of Microbiology, School of Life Science, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.
Carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) are fast rising threat to the global medical health care system. This study determined the presence of carbapenem resistant A. baumannii among in-patients of two selected hospitals in Minna, Niger State. One-hundred and ten samples comprising of urine, sputum and wound swab were collected from in-patients of each hospital. The samples were inoculated on MacConkey agar for the isolation of Gram negative bacteria. Acinectobacter baumanii isolates were identified using biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the resistance profile of the isolates were determined using the Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method and interpreted according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Carbapenemase production was detected using simplified carbapenem inactivation method while the presence of betalactamase encoding genes (blaOXA-23 and blaOXA-51) were detected using PCR. The results indicated that 7(5.65%) A. baumanii were isolated from all the samples. The isolates were identified as strain Ab7 (42.86%), NCTC_7364 (28.57%), Ab21 (14.29%) and NCTC_7412 (14.29%). About 71.5% and 85.7% of the isolates showed resistance against meropenem and imipenem respectively. Total (100%) resistance to Trimethoprim-sulphamethaxole, amoxicillin clavulanic acid, fosfomycin and tetracycline was also observed. Whereas, they were highly susceptible to ciprofloxacin (85.7%), gentamycin (85.7%), colistin (71.4%) and ceftriaxone (71.4%). The result also indicated that 100% and 42.86% of the isolates were positive for blaOXA-51 and blaOXA-23 genes respectively. High prevalence of CRAB among patients was recorded. This is of concern, routine surveillance and comprehensive infection control measures are needed to minimize the spread of this pathogen.
Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii, betalactamase, Carbapenem, Carbapenemase, Resistance
A STUDY OF ACTIVATION FUNCTIONS IN NEURAL NETWORK VARIANT TECHNIQUE
OWOJORI O. TUNDE1, OLABIYISI O. STEPHEN1, ISMAILA W. OLADIMEJI1, OMIDIORA E. OLUSAYO2 ISMAILA FOLASADE. M. 3,
1Department of Computer Science, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. 2Department of Computer Science, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. 3Department of Computer Science Osun State Polytechnic, Iree, Nigeria.
Activation functions are an extremely important part of the artificial neural networks that are used to calculate weighted and biases and also to generate the outputs of neural network. However, selecting an appropriate activation transfer for a classification problem has been task faced by researchers. This paper presented an approach for evaluating the various types of activation functions (sigmoidal, sine, hardlim, and trianglar) of Extreme learning machine (ELM). 997 data samples were collected from an open source on software defection. The dataset were pre-processed to make it suitable for classification. The parameters setting of the ELM network were given.with a fixed learning rate. Sigmoid function gave the highest accuracy of about 71%.
Keywords: Extreme learning machine, activation functions, sigmoidal, sine, hardlim, trianglar
ENHANCED IMAGE PROCESSING MODEL FOR WEED CONTROL IN AUTOMATED FARMING
OBIDIKE E. O.; ONUODU F.E.; AND OKENGWU, U.A.
Department of Computer Science University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Crops arevery important for the survival of the human race. It is s source of food to animals, humans and even other plants directly or indirectly. However, when a crop is attacked by weeds, it competes with the crop for essential nutrients and space and thereby inhibits the growth of the crops. Automated farming is a term who has increasingly gained popularity in recent times, in which farming practices are automated using powerful computerized tool, weed detection and classification is one of such processes which can be improved using machine learning. Several attempts have been made by researchers in previous years to achieve this feat however, there have been drawbacks which have limited the performance and accuracy of the existing models. In this work, an enhanced image processing model for weed control in automated farming have been proposed and implemented. Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) was used to train the image initially and define features of the image. CNN algorithm was used to train the classification network to different the weed prone segment of the image from the actual crops. The Rapid Application Development methodology was adopted in this approach. The system was implemented using Python programming language. The model had a performance accuracy of 95% which outperforms other existing models. Other parameters such as classification time (49 sec.), Learning rate (0.002) etc. were also used to evaluate the model. This study could be beneficial to Ministry of Agriculture, to Commercial Farmers, to Agricultural Institutions, to Farm Implement developers and to the research community.
PERFORMANCE OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE AS FUEL IN A BINARY DIRECT CARBON FUEL CELL
AJAW A. R., ADENIYI O. D., ADENIYI M.I. AND OLUTOYE M. A.
Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, PMB.65, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.
A variety of abundant carbonaceous fuels such as municipal solid waste (MSW) and biochar from biomass carbonization can be utilized to generate electricity in a direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) system.In this paper, characterized municipal solid waste of different fractions of sawdust, sugarcane bagasse and orange peel were characterized. The proximate and ultimate analysis employed to determine the High heating value (HHV). The result shows that the HHV of municipal solid waste of the different fractions of sawdust, sugarcane bagasse and orange peel were 6.79, 9.78, 7.68 and its combination which makes up the municipal solid waste to be 11.00 MJ/kg respectively. The calorific values were evaluated to be 7.0, 6.7, 5.8 and 7.9 MJ respectively. The XRD and SEM/EDX reveals that amorphous carbon were present in the analysis. It shows the possibility utilizing municipal solid waste (MSW) as fuel in a direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) for power generation.
Keywords: Municipal solid waste, Energy, Biochar, DCFC.
QUALITATIVE BEHAVIOUR OF BIOCHEMICAL-OXYGEN DEMAND AND DISSOLVED-OXYGEN INTERACTIONS FOR A MILD ENVIRONMENTAL PERTURBATION ON DODO RIVER
1I.E. NWAFOR; 2R.E. AKPODEE;
1Institutes of Geoscience and Environmental Management, 2Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University.
In studying the qualitative behaviour of biochemical-oxygen demand (BOD) and dissolved-oxygen (DO) interactions for a mild environmental perturbation on the BOD, we have used a computational method of the Runge-Kutta ODE45 numerical scheme for the analysis. The results outputs shows that due to a slight change in the initial condition of the inclusion of a mild random environmental perturbation value of RNI=0.1 on the BOD coordinate for DO(IC=4.13) and BOD(IC=2.08) portrays a threat to the aquatic environment as the grey areas indicates a depletion in the coordinates of the DO down the trend, based on the monotonic decrease in the relative abundance of the DO coordinate with a critical DOmc = 2.0295 against the actual DOc = 2.6357 at the 21st day and recovery at DOm = 1.8670 against actual recovery DO = 2.6677 on the 26th day of our experimental time before the control. In the same scenario, due to the inclusion of a mild environmental perturbation on the BOD coordinates for a random noise intensity value of 0.1, we observed a slight gain in the coordinate of the BOD with BOD0 (IC = 2.08) on the base day which depleted to BODm = 1.3714 against the actual BOD = 1.5171 on the Sixth (6th) day. The BODm coordinates due to the modification, fluctuates drastically from BODm = 1.3714 on the sixth (6th) day to a converging (saturating) value of BODm = 0.4248 on the 361st day of our experimental time. The detailed results of this study is fully presented and discussed accordindly.
Keywords: Random Noise Intensity, Environmental Perturbation Biochemical-Oxygen Demand, Dissolved Oxygen, Numerical Simulation, Biological Extinction, Model Parameters.
DATA VISUALIZATION: CHALLENGES AND TOOLS
Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi (FPTB).
Data is being processed daily as the result of activities of users on the internet. An activity of a single user for instance on a social media platform can generates volumes of data every day. When such users in their millions of even billions generate huge data, the resultant data is called big data. This data is so huge that and so processing and interpreting it becomes so challenging. Challenges like loss of information as the result of increase in response time can affect data visualization. Representing such huge data in a textual form will not convey all the information needed to be communicated. To convey such information fully and efficiently the data has to be represented in pictorial or graphic format for easier communication and interpretation. This paper explains the challenges of data visualisation and the various tools used to visualise big data.
Keywords: Big Data, Challenges, Visualisation, Tools and Pictorial.
MINERAL AND FUNCTIONAL PROERTIES OF LOCAL SNACKS (ALKAKI) PRODUCED FROM WHEAT, RICE AND BENINSEED FLOUR BLENDS
NDALIMAN M.B1; & BELLO H.K
1Department of Nutrition Dietetics, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida 2Department of Hospitality and Management, the Federal Polytechnic Bida
USABILITY COMPARISON OF ALTERNATIVE KEYBOARD BASED INTERACTIONS FOR GRID BASED GRAPHICAL AUTHENTICATION SYSTEMS
SURAJO YUSUF1; HASSAN UMAR SURU1; IBRAHIM SULEIMAN1; DANJUMA MAIRO1; & MUHAMMAD SAIDU5
1Computer Science Department, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Kebbi State, Nigeria. 2Computer Science Department, Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria
Alphanumeric text and numeric’s continue to be the dominant authentication methods in spite of the numerous concerns by security researchers of their inability to properly address usability and security flaws and to effectively combine usability and security. These flaws have, however, contributed to the growing research interest in the development and use of graphical authentication systems as alternatives to text based systems. Graphical passwords or graphical authentication systems are password systems that use images rather than characters or numbers in user authentication. In spite of the growing acceptance of graphical passwords, empirical studies have shown that graphical authentication systems have also inherited some of the flaws of text-based passwords. These flaws include predictability, vulnerability to observational attacks and the inability of systems to efficiently combine security with usability. Hence, there is a continued quest to find a system that has both strong usability and strong security. This paper compares the usability of click base, numeric base and alphanumeric base passwords in three research models namely; passface, passpoint and object base models. A significant result for total login time was established between numeric and click base passwords for all the three model designs.
Keywords: passfaces, passpoints, clickbase, authentication, password.
A DESIGN OF A PROGRAMMED FARMLAND WATERING SYSTEM USING ARDUINO NANO MICROCONTROLLER: IMPERATIVE TO COMPUTER LOGIC CURRICULUM
UMAR, ABDULRAHEEM OJO; & GARBA, SULEIMAN
Department of Computer Science, FCT College of Education, Zuba, Abuja
Farming plays a vital role in the economy and development of a most African country like Nigeraia. At present most Nigeria farmers irrigate their farmlands manually at regular intervals.This manual method consume more water, which could lead the damage of crops and consume much time and efforts from the farmer. A programmed farmland system is a designed to facilitate the automatic supply adequate water from a reservoir to the farmland once the sensor detects dryness or low level water content in the soil which represent (Logic 1)and turn off when the sensor detect the farmland is moist enough using a threshold which represent (logic 0) . One of the objectives of this work is to see how human control could be removed from irrigation and optimize the use of water in the process. The system is a low cost system of water irrigation using Arduino Nano microcontroller board to process the information, temperature and soil moisture sensors to detect the temperature and water quantity present in soil, A pumping mechanism is used to deliver the needed amount of water to the soil which depend on ON/OFF motor that will be automatically be turn on or off base on the moist level of the land This system will be designed around a Arduino Nano microcontroller that will be programmed using python language to control the microcontroller opening (Logic 1) and closing (Logic 0) the supply of water. Low cost, make the system to has the potential to be useful to farmers.
Keyword: Farmland, Arduino Nano, Soil Moisture Sensors, Microcontroller, Pumping Mechanism.
ELECTRICITY PRIVATISATION IN NIGERIA: UNCOVERING LESSONS FOR A BRIGHTER FUTURE
*OMOFUMA OSAMONYI, THOMAS TEMITOPE G., AKINROGUNDE OLUWADARE O. AND EDWIN THEOPHILUS E.
Department of Electrical/Electronics Engineering, Ogun State Institute of Technology, Igbesa,
This paper discussed the lessons from the privatisation of the electricity sector in Nigeria. The origin and factors for privatisation programs in Nigeria to the stagnation of government-owned enterprises and the system’s corruption services were examined. However, the paper explored the conceptual meaning of privatisation and commercialisation. Similarly, the unfruitful output of the privatisation program in the country for more than two decades was examined. The paper concluded that Nigerians have yet to fully realise the benefits of the country’s privatisation efforts as corruption and inefficiency continue to be the norm. The program only allowed some corrupt leaders to acquire those properties at the expense of the average Nigerian. Hence, the program’s purposes and laudable objectives still need to be met and fulfilled. Therefore, the study suggested some far-reaching recommendations to ameliorate problems associated with privatisation programs in Nigeria.
Keywords: privatization, commercialisation, electricity sector, stagnation, Nigeria.
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A MOTORIZED MELON SEED OIL EXTRACTING MACHINE
J WADAI, N. D. JONES, AND AARON J. ZIRA
Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria.
The Motorized Melon Seed Oil Extracting Machine was designed and developed using locally available engineering materials for quality melon seed oil extraction. The machine was designed and developed with less technical requirement for maintenance and can perform considerably large quantity of oil from melon seed found in Nigeria within a short operational period. The optimal performance test of the machine presents a result of a through-put of 20kg/hour, at extraction rate of 17.8 liters per hour with 89% yield and an efficiency of 83.97% when tested using 5 kg of melon seed. The machine cost is also estimated at ₦92,750:50 with two (2) month return on investment at full capacity utilization. Hence the melon seed oil extracting machine is affordable, easily operated and maintained by both Urban and rural dwellers with little training.
Keywords: Development, Design, Melon seed, Oil extraction, Hygiene, Motorized machine.
ANALYTICAL SOLUTION OF THE IMPACT OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION ON THE UNEMPLOYMENT RATE IN NIGERIA: INCORPORATING CONTROL STRATEGY
IBRAHIM DANBABA; MUHAMMAD MUKHTAR HUSSAIN; KABIRU ZAILANI
Department of Mathematics, School of Secondary, Education (Science), Aminu Saleh, College of Education,Azare, Bauchi State
In this paper, we developed a mathematical modeling to investigate the impact of vocational education on the unemployment rate in Nigeria by incorporating control strategy. In developing our model, the population was compartmentalized into Vocational-Theoretical-Unemployed-Employed-Apprenticed (VTUEA). The model developed in a system of differential equations. Equilibrium points of the system and basic reproduction number were obtained, existence and uniqueness of the solution, invariant region, positivity of the solution was established. The dynamics of the rate of unemployment is determined by the Implementation Success Ratio of Vocational Education Program if the unemployment-free equilibrium is positive and if the unemployment will persist in the country. The results showed that the dynamic of the system is well-posedness. It’s recommended that Parents should continue encouraging their children to study vocational education at all level of educational system and government should institute apprenticeship Centre across the country.
Keyword: Positivity, Existence and uniqueness, Invariant region, Unemployment free equilibrium, Endemic equilibrium, Implementation success ratio.
THE EFFECT OF NPK FERTILIZER ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF AMARANTHUS
ABUBAKAR DAUDA JUGULDE
Department of Crop Production, Federal Polytechnic, Bali, Taraba State
Amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) is one of the most important underutilized crops inherent to Central and South America. In Africa, old-fashioned leafy vegetables are used as a source of nutrients and vitamins for both urban and rural populace. It is extensively cultivated in different regions of the world as well as in Nigeria as food and leafy vegetable NPK fertilizers are as supplement to natural crop nutrients supplied by the soil especially when the soil fertility decreases.Nitrogen fertilizer affect respond of amaranth cultivars in relation to growth and yield. Four experiments were conducted on the Research Farm of the Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic. The first experiment was to see the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on the growth of AmaranthUS. The second was on the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on the yield of Amaranthus. The third was to compare the effect of different concentration of nitrogen fertilizer on the growth of Amaranthus. The fourth was compare the effect of different concentration of nitrogen fertilizer on the yield of Amaranthus. The results show that nitrogen fertilizer had statistical significant effect on the growth of Amaranthus (p < 0.01). Nitrogen fertilizer had statistical significant effect on the growth of Amaranthus (p < 0.01). Different concentration of nitrogen fertilizer had a statistical significant different effect on the growth of Amaranthus (p < 0.01). Different concentration of nitrogen fertilizer had a statistical significant different effect on the yield of Amaranthus (p < 0.05).
Keywords: NPK, Growth, Yield and Amaranthus
DEVELOPMENT OF INDIGENOUS VEGETABLE LEAF (AMARANTUS HYBRIDUS) SLICING MACHINE
AARON J. ZIRA1, ADAMU M. BARKA2 AND JONES, N.D3
1,3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State. 2Deparpment of Agric & Bio-Environmental Engineering, Federal polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State.
A vegetable leaf slicing machine was designed and fabricated using the locally available material to easy the hygienic slicing of vegetable leaf material and for prevention of injuries associated with manual process of using knife for the same purpose. The functional parts of the machine consists of operating handle, cutting blade assembly, cutter housing and a rotating shaft. The machine was tested with a slicing rate of 150 kg leafy vegetable per hour and an efficiency of 92 %.the result shows that the developed machine can be used for domestic and commercial purposes.
Keywords: Vegetable leaf, Slicing, hygienic, Injuries
DEVELOPMENT OF A DIGITAL SOIL MOISTURE SENSING-BASED IRRIGATION SCHEME
FREDERICK OJIEMHENDE EHIAGWINA*1,, JOHN OLUSEGUN AZANUBI2, SUNDAY OGHENERUEMU ASAKPA3
1, 2Department of Electrical/Electronics Engineering, The Federal Polytechnic Offa, Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria. 3Department of Computer Science, The Federal Polytechnic Offa, Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria
This study proposed using an automated watering system to provide for plant needs while using less water and labor. A system can be operated by an automatic irrigation system without the need for human intervention. The system comprises of soil moisture sensor, a PIC Microcontroller and a relay interface board. The irrigation system consists of lanes through which each segment of the land is flooded and the flooding is controlled using valves. There is also a motor pump that is used to fill the water Tanker. The three soils were dried in a frying pan until all the moisture was gone to produce the results. For the red soil, the black soil, and the sandy soil, 250 grams were measured. Sensor values were obtained after each addition of 25cm3 of water. For the three soils—black soil, sand soil, and red soil—the value of the soil sensor in dry soil was 1021, 1022, and 1020, respectively. The resistance value dropped dramatically to a range of 500 after adding 50 cm3. The resistance value decreased as there was more water added. The drop in soil resistance started to decrease at a considerably slower rate at about 100 cm3 of water. This is so that more water cannot significantly increase soil resistance because the soil is already saturated with water at this time. Three states were established for the sensor after calibration. The states are dry, damp, and soggy. Upon reaching the dry condition, the microcontroller activates the water pump via a relay circuit.
Keywords: Irrigation, soil sensor, moisture sensor, wireless sensor network
A CRITICAL REVIEW OF THE PRESENT AND FUTURE PROPSPECTS FOR ELECTRONIC PAPER
*OFUALAGBA MAMUYOVWI HELEN; & **OMAMOKE LAYEFA
*Department of Computer Science, Delta State Polytechnics Otefe, Oghara, Delta State. **Department of computer science, University of Africa Toru-orua Sagbama, Bayelsa State
Electronic paper display techniques are ways or style in which electronic paper display devices apply to mimic the appearance of ordinary ink on paper. Electronic paper display is also called E-paper display or EPD. E-paper is capable of holding text and images indefinitely without drawing electricity or using processor power, while allowing the paper to be changed. Most importantly, the state of each pixel can be maintained without a constant supply of power. E-paper can become an essential tool for future products on a large scale as the world tend to rely more and more on technology, having lightweight devices with long battery life. From the questionnaires raised with respect to the awareness and use of E-papers, it was concluded that in the nearest future, there will be a rise in the use of E-paper and a high reduction in the use of conventional papers.
ASSESSING THE PROSPECTIVITY OF THE AJOUKUTA – KADUNA – KANO NATURAL GAS PIPELINE
MUHKTAR HABIB1; LAMIDO SANI INUWA1; AND ABUBAKAR TANKO2
1Department of Petroleum and Gas Processing Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Nigeria. 2Department of Mineral and Petroleum Resources Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Nigeria
The aim of this investigation is to justify the development of the Ajaokuta-Kaduna-Kano (AKK) Gas Pipeline within the federal republic of Nigeria. The project entails the construction and operation of a 614km Ajaokuta-Abuja-Kaduna-Kano 40’’ Natural Gas Pipeline. The proposed pipeline will be provided with pipeline quality gas sourced from numerous gas gathering projects in the southern region of Nigeria, at a minimum pressure of 1,000 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) at the Ajaokuta tie-in, and delivered to Kano also at a minimum pressure of 1,000 psig. The long-term objective of the project is to provide gas to Europe, in view of the supply deficits following the Russia-Ukraine unrest, through the Trans-Saharan Gas Pipeline (TSGP) project. The TSGP upon completion, will provides a golden opportunity for Nigeria to exploit her gas potentials and utilize its gas resources to enable her earn as much revenue from it as it is earning from oil. Moreso, this will enable Nigeria meet her nagging domestic gas utilization needs; eliminate gas flaring and in the long run assist the nation meet global greenhouse gases/climate change policy requirements. Taking into account the scenarios presented above, there is an obvious need for Nigeria to promptly harness its enormous gas resources to (a) enhance its electricity generation; (b) stimulate its comatose industries (c) improve domestic use of gas and (d) boost its natural gas export and by extension its GDP. It is therefore believed by this research, that the proposed Ajaokuta-Abuja-Kaduna-Kano Gas Pipeline Project is an additional stride within the Nigerian government policy as it will facilitate and ensure effective gas supply network in the North and South of Nigeria as well as moderate the environmental impact linked with gas flaring.
Keywords: Ajaokuta, Kaduna, Kano, Natural Gas, Pipeline, Nigeria