CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LAW, POLITICS AND HUMANITIES RESEARCH (CJLPHR)
VOL. 27 NO. 6 – MARCH, 2023 EDITION
Cambridge Research and Publications International,
Africa (Nigeria): CAHDC, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
GLOBALIZATION AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON THE NIGERIAN HEALTH SYSTEM
*GODWIN AGABA OCHUBE; & **UMARU USMAN
*Department of Sociology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. **Department of Public Administration, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
Globalization is the process that describes how economies, nations, and peoples are increasingly interdependent and interconnected. It has contributed to the growth and improvement of Nigeria’s health system through innovations and diffusions of health technologies, health knowledge, and human rights. The improved health system is central to human well-being and happiness, contributing to a healthy population, economic growth and progressive growth in Nigeria. However, many factors influence health care funding by government departments, civil society groups and communities, donor organizations, and ministries of health as organizations and actors. Such factors include ethnic origin, gender, geography, age, socio-economic status and educational level. This paper describes the nature and functioning of the health system, approaches to healthcare funding, pros and cons of government interventions, actors involved in public health policies at global, national and local levels, and the measures that can improve public healthcare across all level.
Keywords: Globalization, Development, Healthcare, Innovations, Economy
IMPACT OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ON ADOLESCENTS’ SELF-ESTEEM IN DOMA, NASARAWA STATE
SANI S. O. AHMADU; AND LAWRENCE L. ORKUUGH (PhD)
Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria.
The study examined impact of domestic violence, the role of parents and family environment on children self – esteem. Sixty four participants were used for the study. Their age ranges from 12 – 18 years. They consisted of 33 females (51.6%) and 31 males (48.4%) randomly selected from Government College Doma and Foundation Integrated College Doma, Nasarawa State. The study used Domestic Violence Scale (DVS) and Index of Self – esteem to measure the Adolescents’ self – esteem in Doma. Correlation coefficient and t-test were used for the analysis of data. The results showed that there was an inverse significant relationship between self-esteem and domestic violence [r(1,64)= – 0.942, p<0.05]. Also there was a statistically significant difference between adolescents from violent and non – violent homes on the measure of self-esteem [t (62) = 10.7, p< 0.05]. The research concluded that domestic violence has significant negative impact on adolescents’ self-esteem. It has been recommended that cordial relationship in the family will help ameliorate the challenges children face in their self-esteem as they grow up in the family.
Keyword: Violence, Domestic violence, Children Self – esteem.
CULTURE AND MOTIVATION TO WORK IN NIGERIAN ORGANIZATIONS
LAWRENCE L. ORKUUGH (PhD)
Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Nasarawa State University.
In order to survive and for human beings to be effective, Sociologists and Anthropologists believe that humans must learn the skills, acquire knowledge and adapt to ways of behaving in the society into which they are born. It is the intention of this article to examine the issues raised in the traditional motivation to work theories with particular reference to Culture and Motivation to Work in Nigerian Organizations. Our examination and critical review of literature on influence of culture and motivation to work in Nigerian organizations concluded that, the applicability or workability of motivation and management principles is largely dependent on the cultural traditions of the society in which a work organization is located. There is no culture-free context of motivation and management principles.
Keywords: Culture, Motivation, Work, Nigerian, Organizations
A CRITIQUE OF SOCRATES’ STATEMENT THAT “KNOWLEDGE IS VIRTUE”
UTSUA TERZUNGWE PETER; & EGBEJI, PATRICK ODU
Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, Nasarawa State University, Keffi
One of the paradigm shifts in the history of philosophy is the dramatic turn from the reflection on the basic stuff of all things to a consideration of human moral behaviour. This key shift was enabled by one of the greatest moral philosophers in the Golden Age of Ancient Greek philosophy called Socrates. Among many other ethical precepts attributed to his philosophical ingenuity, he is also popular for the statement that “Knowledge is virtue”. This position of Socrates has raised critical debates among philosophers with some supporting him while others criticizing him. Using the exploratory as well as critical approaches, this paper delves into the debate and criticizes the Socratic position by denying such equation.
Keywords: Critique, Socrates, Statement, Knowledge, Virtue
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF AUDIENCE PERCEPTION OF REALITY SHOWS IN NIGERIA: BIG BROTHER NAIJA
OMOLAYO OLUSOLA JEGEDE; ADERONKE A. ADEBOWALE; PHEBEAN MONIJESU AYANTUGA; & REBECCA AGBOOLA OLORUNPOMI
Department of Mass Communication, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria
The study compared and analysed perceptions of staff and students of Federal College of Fisheries and Marine Technology on reality shows in Nigeria with focus on the Big Brother Naija show. Data was generated with a 19-item self-developed questionnaire validated by two colleagues. The instrument was administered on 325 respondents randomly selected from the staff and students of FCF&MT, Lagos, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty-three (153) were selected from the staff while 172 students were selected for the study using a simple random sampling technique. The study reveals that the audiences found the programme informative and educative. The study also reveals through the t-test conducted that there is a significant difference between the staff perception and the students’ perception of the show. The students’ group has a positive perception of the show while the staff’s group has a negative perception. Majority of the respondents also agree that the show should not be banned. However, the study shows that most participants who had negative perception of the show rarely watched the show or never even watched it. The study concludes that age plays a significant role in the perception of audience and that negative perception of the show may be borne out of bias or pre-conceived notion. It also concludes that the positive perception may also be from illusion on the part of the youth based on the belief that housemates become successful and famous. The study therefore recommends that the producers of the programme inculcate more cultural content to reflect the traditions of Nigerian culture; stricter penalties for violence be put in place to discourage violent acts in the show; more educative yet entertaining items be introduced in the itinerary of the participants of the show etc.
Keywords: comparative analysis, perception, reality shows and big brother Naija
UNDERSTANDING THE CONCEPT OF C THE CHALLENGES OF DEMOCRACY, INSECURITY AS IT AFFECTS EDUCATION AND NIGERIA’S UNITY
DR EFEURHOBO DAVIS OCHUKO; AND EGBON THOMASTINA NKECHI
Political Science and Public Administration, University of Delta, P.M.B 2090, Agbor.
The paper examined the problems, challenges of democracy as well as insecurity in Nigeria as it affects the educational standard and the country’s national unity. The objectives of the paper is anchored on the following: Assess the relationship between democracy and insecurity, establish relationship between democracy and insecurity, activities of insecurity and the consequences of insecurity on the education and unity of Nigeria. The study adopted the frustration aggregation theory as theoretical framework and the qualitative research analysis method. This enabled the researchers to have a critical observations, case studies amongst others. The major findings include the following; poor democratic practice resulted to insecurity, insecurity arose from poor education etc. The study concluded that poor democratic practice has destroyed the national unity of the country. It was recommended that government should come up with rational and sustainable ways to improve the democratic practice in Nigeria in order to enhance security and education. There should also be better measures to promote national unity geared towards egalitarian society. Stake holders of democracy should endeavor to maintain some decorum, ethic, good behaviour that will bring about good governance.
Keywords: Insecurity, Democracy, Education, Unity.
UNDERSTANDING THE CONCEPT OF CRIME FROM A PERSPECTIVE VIEWPOINTS
*AISHATU MUSA; **KAUMI ALKALI KALLI; & **ADDA GANA
*Department of Social Services, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. **Department of Industrial & Labour Relations, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Borno State
Crime is not a new concept. It has been around since the beginning of civilization, and the theories of why people commit. Crime is an essentially contested idea. There is no one definition of a crime that is accepted by everyone everywhere. Yet, the easiest way to think about crime is to look at it in terms of a legalistic perspective; from this point of view, a crime is an act which is forbidden. This way of thinking about crime is the most straightforward way to think about crime. It is a violation of the law. More specifically, it is a violation of the law that governs criminal behavior. In doing so, the act will have particular components to it; specifically, it will have a facet of criminal blame as well as a facet of criminal harm. The paper explored on what is crime and the different definitions given by various schools.
Keywords: Crime, Legal View, Sociological stands, Conflict.
EFFECT OF URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEM AND FLOODING OCCURRENCES IN MINNA METROPOLIS, NIGER STATE, NIGERIA
AKPAN, ENO EMMANUEL; & DR S. OJOYE
Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology Minna
This study examined the drainage network and flood occurrence in Rafin Yashi, Kure market, IBB specialist, Tayi and MYPA junction in Minna metropolis. The objectives of this study include; examine the floods occurrence in the study area, examine the factors that are responsible for flooding in Minna metropolis, examine the drainage characteristics of the study area, and analyze the pattern of urban drainage system and flood occurrence of the study area. However, this study employs quantitative research method, through which both primary and secondary data were collected. The primary data were collected through the use of semi-structured questionnaires and the secondary data were obtained from the Niger state Geographic Information System (NIGIS) from 2011-2020. Descriptive statistics and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) were utilized to analyse the data. However, about 70% of the respondents were male and 30% were female. The result of the study showed that excessive rainfall is the major cause of rainfall in the study. Areas within 150-200metre were identified as areas vulnerable to flood and areas at 400metre were identified as areas with very low vulnerability to flooding. Approximately 39% of the study area were prone to flood in 2011, while it was about 48% of the area were vulnerable to flood in 2020, this can be attributed to changes in land use. There is 68% chances of flood occurrence in Rafin Yashi within 1-5year, 42% chances of flood occurrence in Kure market between 6-10years, 59% of flood in IBB specialist occurs within 1-5, 52% of flood occurrence in Tayi within 1-5years and 42% of flood in Mypa occurs within 1-5years. The Digital Elevation Model (DEM) indicated that areas like Tayi village and Rafin Yashin are located on higher elevation which makes it runoff water to drain into downstream, thus, making it rare for flood to occur in these areas. Whilst, areas like Mypa junction, IBB specialist and Kure Market were located on the downstream, which made difficult for runoff to drain into the nearby streams. Rafin Yashi and Tayi village were identified as the watershed of the study area. However, this study concluded that excessive rainfall is the pertinent cause of flood in the study area.
Keywords: Flood occurrence, Rainfall, Urban Drainage System and Minna
IDENTIFICATION OF HATRED SPEECHES ON TWITTER
2ADAMU HABU, 1S. K ALARAMMA, 1B. I YA’U, 1M.A MUSA
1Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Nigeria. 2University of St Andrews, Jack Cole Building, North Haugh, St Adrews, KY16 9SX, UK
Freedom of speech has allowed people to freely communicate and social media platforms, such as Twitter offer users the opportunity to express their opinions and insights freely, there is a significant risk of users silencing each other based on prejudice by means of hateful Tweets. Hate speech is used more and more, to the point where it has become a serious problem invading these open spaces. Hate speech refers to the use of aggressive, violent or offensive language, targeting a specific group of people sharing a common property, whether this property is their gender (i.e., sexism), their ethnic group or race (i.e., racism) or their believes and religion. Since Twitter’s public nature makes these messages more widely disseminated, it is important to aid in the detection of such messages, which may cause harm to targeted (groups of) users. . In this paper, we propose an approach to detect hate expressions on Twitter. Our approach is based on unigrams and patterns that are automatically collected from the training set. These patterns and unigrams are later used, among others, as features to train a machine learning algorithm. Our experiments on a dataset composed of 10,393 tweets show that our approach reaches an accuracy equal to 91.8% on detecting whether a tweet is hateful, offensive, or clean (ternary classification).
Keywords– Hate Speech Detection; Sentiment Analysis; Twitter.
INFORMATION SEEKING BEHAVIOUR OF UNMARRIED PREGNANT TEENAGERS IN SAMARU TOWN OF KADUNA STATE
*ISYAKU, AISHATU KUTA; & **IBRAHIM, MUHAMMAD LAWAL
*Department of Library and Information Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. **Institute of Education, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
This study explored the information seeking behavior of unmarried pregnant teenagers in Samaru Community, Kaduna State. the objectives of this study was to identify the sources of information that are available to unmarried pregnant teenagers and to determine the factors that affect their access to antenatal care information services. The study adopted a qualitative case study research design and snowball sampling technique was used to collect data from the three participants of this study. The study found that Human and Print sources were the available sources of information for unmarried pregnant teenagers in Samaru and the factors that affect their access to antenatal care information services include the fact that unmarried pregnant teenagers are not allowed in general hospitals and the fear of disclosure of their pregnancy. The study recommended the revitalization of Sex-Education as a core General course in the first year in universities and Religious leaders should incorporate sex-education in their Islamic school curriculum and Bible study sessions to educate adolescents on the virtues of abstinence from sexual activities until they marry.
KEYWORDS: Maternal Mortality, Information Poverty, Unmarried, Pregnant, Teenagers, Antenatal care information service, Access.
USE OF INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN LIBRARY OPERATION AND MANAGEMENT IN TWO POLYTECHNIC LIBRARIES IN ADAMAWA STATE OF NIGERIA
DANIEL MATHEW MARKE; & RAYMOND ANDREW WAZIRI
Library Department, Federal Polytechnic Bali, Taraba State
This work is focus on the use of ICT in library operation and management in two polytechnic libraries in Adamawa State of Nigeria. the paper explains different types of ICT facilities and their use in the library operation. The descriptive survey design was adopted in carrying out the study. The population of the study comprised of two selected academic libraries in the northeast zone, while librarians and library officers were used as the subject of the study. There are 27 librarians and 31 library officers in the selected academic libraries. The analysis presented herein showed that the two polytechnic libraries in Adamawa state of Nigeria are not the cutting edge of ICT compliance or knowledge management and information provision. The study also reveals that librarians with some minor exceptions are qualified with adequate ICT skills. Based on the findings the following recommendations have been suggested: The manual system of library operation in the libraries should be replaced with ICT based library operation system, all the library staff should be ICT compliance. Funds should be made available to the Polytechnic libraries etc.
Keywords: Information Communication Technology (ICT); Housekeeping Operation; Library Operation; Nigeria.
MONETARY POLICY AND AGRICULTURAL SECTOR OUTPUT IN NIGERIA
MOMOH ABDULRAHEEM; ISERE, VICTORIA OSHUARE MERAB; & AL-HASSAN, ABDULKADIR
Department of Humanities & Social Sciences, School of General Studies, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi
Monetary policy through its influence on the financial sector of the economy plays a major role in making credit available to the agricultural sector. This paper empirically examined the impact of monetary policy on agricultural output in Nigeria for a period of 40years (1981 – 2021). The study relied on secondary data for our analysis which were sourced from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and National Bureau of statistics (NBS).The study used ratio of Agricultural output to GDP (AGRGDP) as the dependent variable and Monetary Policy Rate (MPR), Treasury Bill Rate (TBR), Money supply (MS), Lending Rate (LENR) and Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund (ACGSF) as independent variables. The Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) stationarity test, Johanson cointergration technique and adopted the Auto regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) procedure introduced by Persaran Smith and Shin for the estimation were adopted. The results revealed that there is a long run relationship between dependent and the independent variables. The result further shows that the main monetary policy instruments (MPR, LENR, MS, and TBR) and money supply were significant while ACGSF was not statistically significant. It was found out that money supply, lending rate, treasury bill rates and monetary policy rate are important drivers of agricultural output. The study therefore recommends among others: The Central Bank of Nigeria should supervise the disbursement of the Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund and ensure that the funds are properly channeled to the agricultural sector; Lending rate should be reduce to encourage borrowing and hence expand investment and productivity in the agricultural sector.
Keywords: Monetary Policy, Agricultural sector, Economic growth, Agricultural output, Nigeria, Employment
WASTE-TO-WEALTH MANAGEMENT IN NORTH-EAST NIGERIA: APPLICATION OF WASTE REDUCTION MODEL FOR ENERGY
*DANJUMA MAIJAMA’A; & *SAMAILA ADAMU
*General Studies- Economics Unit, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic, Bauchi. **Department of Economics and Development Studies, Federal University of Kashere, P.M.B. 0182, Gombe State, Nigeria.
Given the inevitability of waste generation by all countries, the study explored waste-to-wealth values chain and energy saving from waste management in North-East Nigeria via application of Waste Reduction Model (WARM-Model). Survey research design using interview as a primary means of data collection for the study was used. With the help of purposive and snowballing sampling techniques, primary data were collected from the waste dealers directly and complemented by other secondary sources for the analysis. The collected data were analyzed using E-Views econometric software and Microsoft Excel in the estimation of waste generated, energy saved and the profitability of waste management by the activities of waste dealers in the study areas of the region. The study explores challenges in waste management and proffer appropriate strategy for handling the waste. The three most populous and most waste generating North-Eastern states were found to be Bauchi, Borno and Adamawa. All were investigated as representative of the region. The outcome unveils huge amount of wealth from trading various recyclable waste materials and energy saved via WARM-Model application. Bones and rubber have respective least gross margin of gain of three hundred thousand Naira (N300,000.00) and three hundred and ninety-nine thousand nine hundred Naira (N399,900.00) but are relatively easy to gather within short period of two to three weeks. An estimated 585,116.2515 kWh of energy is saved from recycling 30 tons of metal/iron which is gathered within an average of 21 days by a waste dealer among many waste dealers in the region. Further outcomes of the study are of help in enticing will-be participant in waste-to-wealth value chain in North-Eastern Nigeria, reducing cost of waste evacuation on the site of government, a guide for informed policy on environmental waste management capable ensuring environmental safety and wealth creation. Establishment of waste recycling plant to help manage the increasing waste in North-East Nigeria is recommended.
Keywords: Recycling, Scrap, Waste-to-wealth, Energy, Environment, North-East, Nigeria
TERRORISM: THE ACTIVITIES OF AL – SHABBAB AND STATE FAILURE IN SOMALIA: 2015 – 2020
ELIZABETH AISHATU BATURE Ph.D; & HUSSEIN ABUBAKAR ASSIDIQ
Department of Political Science, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna.
Somalia had descended into anarchy from the early 1990’s following the overthrow of Siad Barre’s regime. Clan division took center stage as each group sought to assert political authority rise to the emergence of warlords. Presence of a weak Transitional Federal Government and resultant governance vacuum contributed to the rise of power of the Union of Islamic Courts (UIC) which somehow managed to bring some level of order in the lawless State. Despite global and regional efforts aimed at finding a lasting solution to the Somalia problem, the current national government is inherently weak to effectively govern, secure its internal and external security as well as provide the political goods to its population. the study is aimed at investigating the relationship between terrorist activities of Al-Shabaab and State failure in Somalia and if this development somehow could explain the worsening of humanitarian situation that has occurred between 2015 – 2020. Anomie theory otherwise known as the social strain theory associated with an American scholar Robert K. Merton was adopted in this study as theoretical framework of analysis. The study explored the root cause of Terrorism in Somalia as a Failed State and identified Al-Shabaab’s contribution to Somalia as a Failed State. The study also revealed that State-building in Somalia can only be successful by implementing a comprehensive approach based on a strong security and development policy. It is recommended in this study that the Somali government needs to take full ownership of building the institutional capacity of the state, albeit with considerable attention to local interests and the clan structure.
Keywords: Somalia, Al-Shabaab, State Failure, Terrorism and Security
THE EFFECTS OF ONLINE BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS ON CUSTOMERS IN NIGERIA: AN OVERVIEW OF JUMIA
Department: Registry, the Polytechnic, Bali, Taraba State
This paper focuses on the effect of online business transaction on customers in Nigeria with a particular attention on Jumia. In a lighter note, it is a kind of electronic business transaction that normally take place between the company and its customers around the world. The customers are people with technological ideas who know how to perform such a transaction online. However, this kind of electronic business transaction is inseparable with some risk and implications like any other business. In Nigeria, most customers find it difficult to trust such kind of business due to lack of its physical interface where complaints may be reported to by consumers. More to that, too many online business transactions are found to be failures to customers in Nigeria. This results to some vehement challenges such as inadequate knowledge of online business transaction. The method used in this study is secondary as a result of sourcing of all the relevant information from ready-made materials such as textbooks, journals, periodics and internet. Some of the outcomes of this paper showcase that inadequate knowledge of e-transaction, lack of physical interface with the company, third party involvement, poor network provision, lack of trust among others ate highly problematic. Therefore, some useful recommendation in relation to that are provided. Some of which include: educating customers on e-transactions, providing a means for physical interface with the company in case of any complaint, avoiding third party involvement for fear of fraudsters, stable network provision for the online business transaction and many more.
KEYWORDS: Internet, Facebook, Business, E-Business, Transaction
COHESIVE FEATURES AS RHETORIC IN 1999 INAUGURAL SPEECH OF OLUSEGUN OBASANJO
Democracy is understood to be the most cherished means of installing political leaders globally. One of the strong tenets of democratic processes is politicking. In playing politics either when seeking election, a reelection or to sustain political positions, persuasive instrument is very crucial. Among many other persuasive instruments is linguistic use which is described as an instrument for constructing textual works. This study however, focuses on cohesion as rhetorical instrument. It investigates how Chief Olusegun Obasanjo as elected Nigerian president structures cohesive devices which is one of the instruments of textual unity in his 1999 inaugural speech, to persuade and garner supports for his new democratic administration. The data comprises ten extracts purposively and randomly drawn from the speech. One extract each is selected for the identified cohesive features. The linguistic framework used for the analysis is cohesion with close insight from Halliday’s (2004) Systemic Functional Grammar. The study discovers that Obasanjo deploys heavy cohesive devices to create textual unity and as a strong rhetorical mechanism in his inaugural speech. This study reveals that a good structural arrangement and systemic choices of cohesive devices are not only good to create strong textual unity but is also functionally potent to communicate political senses and to mobilise electorates’ supports. The study concludes that many politicians purposively structure some linguistic choices to reconstruct readers’ minds so as to persuade them to their sides accordingly.
Keywords: Democracy, Politicking, Rhetoric, Cohesion, Inaugural Speech and political communication
THE NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF COLONIALISM ON AFRICANS AND EUROPEANS’ RELATIONS
INUWA ALIYU BOBO; AND ABUBAKAR MOHAMMED
Department of History, A.D. Rufa’i College of Education, Legal and General Studies, Misau, Bauchi State
Very few, if anyone, can argue that Africa’s relation with Europe is an asymmetrical one which costs the continent positive and sustainable developments in the political, economic and social spheres. Before the coming of Europeans into the continent, there was a traditional system of administration, economy and social relationships ranging from powerful empires to decentralize groups of ancient kingdoms e.g. Ghana, Dahomey, Songhai, Mali, Kanem-Borno. As far as Africa is concerned during the period of early development, it is preferable to speak in terms of traditions rather than civilizations. It should be noted that the defining contact between Africa and Europe originated with the slave trade, which saw the capture and forceful transportation of millions of Africans across the Atlantic Ocean. The colonization of Africa also led to the colonisers’ (stronger partner) exploitation of African colonies (weaker partner), especially the resources, to strengthen and enrich the economies of Western nations.
KEYWORDS: Negative impacts, Relations, African, European.