BERKELEY INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH, METABOLISM AND NUTRITION STUDIES (BJHMNS)
VOL. 21 NO. 3 – MARCH, 2023
Berkeley Research and Publications International,
Bayero University, Kano, PMB 3011, Kano State, Nigeria.
COMBINED SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF PHENANTHRENE AND BENZO[A]PYRENE MIXTURE IN JUVENILE CATFISH (CLARIAS GARIEPINUS)
U.O., OSUAGWU; C. O., UJOWUNDU; L. A., NWAOGU; AND R. N. NWAOGUIKPE
Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria.
The effect of joint mixtures of phenanthrene and benzo[a]pyrene on selected haematological and histopathological parameters of the Clarias gariepinus was investigated. Healthy juvenile C. gariepinus (n = 90) weighing 19.7 ± 1.8 g were exposed to sublethal concentrations of joint mixtures of phenanthrene and benzo[a]pyrene for a subchronic period of 35 days. Acute toxicity studies showed that phenanthrene and benzo[a]pyrene had LC50 values of 1400 and 16 μg/L respectively while the safe limits of the chemicals varied in the ranges of 0.00016 to 1.6 μg/L and 0.014 to 140 μg/L for benzo[a]pyrene and phenanthrene respectively. The joint mixture significantly (p < 0.05) reduced growth rate in exposed fish. The joint mixtures also led to significant (p < 0.05) declines in the studied haematological parameters including blood cell count (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Hct). The erythrocyte indices including mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) all showed significant (p < 0.05) declines in the presence of the joint toxicants. There were significant (p < 0.05) increases in white blood cells (WBC) count and platelet (PLT) count. Histopathological examination showed alterations in liver and gill sections of exposed fish
Keywords: subchronic, phenathrene, benzo[a]pyrene, safe level, haematology, histopathology, growth.
A SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE OF GOOD HEALTH AND WELLBEING: A STUDY OF THE PREVENTION OF MATERNAL MORTALITY IN NIGERIA
*GODWIN AGABA OCHUBE; **SIMON PANTONG WETFIR; & *NDALAZHI FLORENCE
*Department of Sociology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. **Department of Sociology, University of Jos
This article on the Sociological perspective of public health adopts the third goal of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which is good health and well-being. One of the first targets of goal three is to reduce the global maternal mortality ratio. The primary aspiration of all developing countries remained sustainable development. However, maternal mortality in Nigeria has become a public health concern. The study used secondary data from online sources and World Bank World Development indicators. Findings showed that poor health management, poor access to health facilities, poverty, unemployment, high illiteracy level and ignorance, especially among rural dwellers, poor gender relations, and a dearth of project management expertise had affected development. The implications showed that maternal care is absent, increased poverty and productivity. The article recommends that the government fight poor health management and corruption, ensure comprehensive health management and intensify public sensitization, especially for rural dwellers.
Keywords: Maternal Mortality, Good Health, Public Health, Poverty, Management, Sensitization
REVALENCE AND ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERNS OF SALMONELLA AND SHIGELLA SPECIES AMONG CHILDREN AGED 0-5YEARS WITH DIARRHEA ATTENDING GENERAL HOSPITAL MINNA, NIGER STATE, NIGERIA
ABUBAKAR FATIMA SADDIQ; NASIRU. U. ADABARA; AND ENEJIYON SHERIFAT OZAVIZE
Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.
Acute diarrhea remains one of the most prevalent diseases affecting young children in developing countries such as Nigeria. The findings of this study revealed that Salmonella and Shigella sp are among some of the major agents associated with acute diarrhea in children with a combined prevalence of 9.0% (Salmonella had a prevalence rate of 7.1% of the cases whereas Shigella accounted for a prevalence of 1.9%). Sensitivity test of the selected Shigella and Salmonella species against some antibiotics showed 100% sensitivity to Azithromycin while also being sensitive to Ceftriaxone, Ciprofloxacin, Cefuroxime, Augmentin and Gentamicin. 100% resistance was observed to Tetracycline and Ampicillin while also being resistant to Metronidazole and Trimethoprim-sulfamethozaxole. Proper environmental cleanliness, good personal hygiene and proper balance diet is recommended for children as well as antibiotics such as Azithromycin, Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone should be used in treatment of acute diarrhea caused by Salmonella and Shigella sp.
Keywords: diarrhea, Salmonella, Shigella, antibiotics, and resistance
PRODUCTION OF LACCASE BY BACILLUS SUBTILIS AND ASPERGILLUS NIGER FOR TREATMENT OF TEXTILE EFFLUENT
SULEIMAN UMAR; OLABISI PETER ABIOYE; & SHEHU USMAN ABDULMALIK
Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Minna Nigeria
Evaluation of laccase produced by Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger isolate for treatment of textile effluent was investigated in the study. The bacteria and fungi isolate (Bacillus subtilis and aspergillus niger) strains were tested for laccase producing ability through plate test method. An increase in temperature and pH was revealed to have a significant effect on Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis at (0.61±0.02 and 0.51±0.15) and (0.27±0.15 and 0.39±0.14) respectively. Although Aspergillus niger had high resistant to change in temperature and pH compared to Bacillus subtilis. The findings further revealed that at different quantity (10 mL, 20 mL and 30 mL) of application of laccase produce by Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis, there are significance difference of the absorbance rate with average of 0.46±0.13 and 0.49±0.11. The physical chemical properties such as pH, total dissolved solid, electrical conductivity of the textile effluent tend to varies significantly with the application laccase at different quantity. The researcher thereby concluded that laccase produced by Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis are very good agent for treatment of textile effluent.
Keywords: Laccase, Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger, textile effluents, enzyme
ANTIDIABETIC, ANTIOXIDANT AND HYPOLIPIDEMIC POTENTIALS OF M. CHARENTIA METHANOL LEAF EXTRACT ON ALBINO RATS
JUDE NWAOGU; ISAH MUSA FAKAI; OGBO JOHN OGBALE; AND ABDULHAMID ZUBAIRU
Department of Biochemistry, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Kebbi State, Nigeria.
Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin (type 1 diabetes) or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces (type 2 diabetes). The aim of this research was to determine antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic potentials of M. charentia methanol leaf extract on rats. The phytochemical screening was carried out using standard laboratoryprotocols. Alloxan was used to induced diabetes and extract was administered orally (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, for 21 days. Antidiabetic, lipid profile and antioxidant activities we determine adopting standard methods. Histological examination of liver and pancreas during 21 days of treatment was also carried out. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phlobatanins, saponin, glycoside, phenols and terpenoids. The extract revealed a significant (P<0.05) reduction in fasting blood glucose level in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. However non-significant (P>0.05) differences were observed in serum lipid profile levels,antioxidant vitamins and enzymes in extract treated diabetic rats, when compared with diabetic, normal and standard drug treated rats. Histopathological studies of the pancreas showed comparable regeneration of the cells by extract which were earlier necrosed by alloxan. M. charentia methanol leaf extract revealed an outstanding antidiabetic potential with regeneration effect on pancreatic islets of Langerhans, and also revealed a non-toxic profile at acute dose. However, the extracts exhibit minimal hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities on diabetic rats
Keywords: Alloxan, Antidiabetic, histology, antioxidants, M. charentia, Lipid profile.
COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE DENATURING VEGETABLES OILS DURING FRYING
*MUSA N.U. ²USMAN M., ³IBRAHIM M.N., ⁴ABDULLAHI M.A., ⁵MUSA H.U., ⁶ABDULSAMAD I.,
1&2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, the Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, P. M. B. 0231, Bauchi –Nigeria. ³Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Kaltungo, Gombe State Nigeria. ⁴Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Federal University of Health Sciences Azare, Bauchi State Nigeria. ⁵Adamu Tafawa Balewa College of Education Kangere, Bauchi state- Nigeria. ⁶Department of Chemical Science, Federal University of Kashere, Gombe State Nigeria.
Vegetable oils are popular cooking medium in many parts of the world. Despite problems related to the intake of excessive calories and health concerns regarding the ingestion of trans-fatty acids, the flavor and texture of fried food continue to be greatly appreciated. The result of the rate of change of the various chemical parameters with increasing temperature of the fried sample were recorded, the refractive index has the highest value of (1.477-1.495 ml/g) in palm oil, soybean oil (1.482- 1.492 ml/g) which is found to be moderate, but lowest in peanut oil with the value of (1.463-1.477 ml/g). The acid value in palm oil (2.7377-6.0619ml) which is the highest, then peanut oil (1.2000-3.490ml) and lowest in soybean oil (1.1732-2.8940ml). The peroxide value in palm oil is (4.613-9.0844ml/g) which also showed the highest value, then peanuts oil with the value of (3.7406- 7.4813ml/g) but was found to be lowest in Soybean oil which is (3.1172-5.7000ml/g). The iodine value was highest (12.0178-13.7879ml/g) in soybean oil, then palm oil with values of (10.669-13.6481ml/g) and lowest (10.3409-12.5768ml/g) in peanut oil. The changes in chemical properties of the oils after heating has provided a clue to the deteriorative effects, at high temperature in the oil sample and this shows that soybeans oil have better resistivity to temperature than peanuts oils and palm oils. According to the result obtained, soybeans oil has higher nutritive value even at higher temperature over the palm and peanut oil. Soybeans oil should be encouraged to be used in food processing that requires frying at higher temperature.
Keywords: Effects, Temperature, Denaturing, Vegetables Oils, Frying.
ATTITUDES OF FOOD HANDLER’S IN CENTRAL ZONE OF TARABA STATE TOWARDS KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICES OF FOOD HYGIENE
B.M. ADAMU1; & S. I. ABUBAKAR2
1Clinic, Federal Polytechnic Bali, Taraba State Nigeria. 2Department of Agricultural and Bioenvironmental Engineering Technology Federal Polytechnic, Bali
This study examines the attitudes of food handlers in the central zone of Taraba state towards knowledge and practices of food hygiene. The population of the study is 600 food handlers (comprising of 200 each from Bali, Gashaka, Gassol, Kurmi and Sardauna Local Government Areas selected at random). However, 360 questionnaires were finally retrieved (87 for Bali, 59 for Gashaka, 98 for Gassol, 61 for Kurmi and 97 for Sardauna). The results obtained were analysed using simple descriptive statistics. The information gathered indicated that 97% of the respondents did not undergo any training on food handling. In addition 95% are not using any form of personal protective equipment (e.g. apron and cap) while handling or processing food. Only 37% of the respondents make provision of disinfectants to customers in their food businesses and only 29% knows about food poisoning. Finally 78% of the respondents believe that continues awareness should serve as good step in educating food handlers on how to prevent the spread of food borne diseases. It is recommended that authorities should embark on programmes that will educate food handlers so as to curtail the spread of food borne diseases.
Keywords: Attitudes, Food handlers, Central zone, Knowledge, Hygiene.
BIOETHANOL POTENTIALS FROM GUINEA CORN HUSK AND RICE HUSK: A COMPARATIVE STUDY
ELINGE, COSMOS MOKI; ATIKU, FAROUQ ABUBAKAR; IGE, AYODEJI RAPHAEL; BIRNIN YAURI; ABUBAKAR UMAR; & MISITURA LAWAL
Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Nigeria.
High rate of growth and easy availability of agro wastes has made it as vibrant newable carbon source for biofuel production. The present study was undertaken to screen the possibility of using guinea corn husk and rice husk as a substrate for bioethanol production by microbial fermentation using monocultures of Aspergillus niger and Zymomonas mobilis isolated from palm wine using acid hydrolysis with 2MH2SO4. Ethanol yield was (26.91cm3) from guinea corn husk and (18.35cm3) rice husk respectively was maximum at 120th hours and lowest (2.08cm3) and (4.83cm3) at 24 hours respectively.
Keywords: Bioethanol, Fermentation, Guinea Corn husk, Rice husk, Aspergellus Niger, Zymonoras mobililis
EFFECTS OF SUPPLEMENTATION ON THE PROXIMATE COMPOSITION AND CONSUMER ACCEPTABILITY OF LOCAL SNACKS (ALKAKI) PRODUCED FROM WHEAT, RICE AND BENINSEED FLOUR BLENDS
*NDALIMAN, M. B.; **BELLO, H. K.; & ***SADIQ, U. M.
*Department of Nutrition Dietetics, the Federal Polytechnic. **Department of Microbiology, the Federal Polytechnic. ***Department of Hospitality and Management.
This paper is to study the effects of supplementation on the proximate composition and consumer acceptability of local snacks (Alkaki) produced from Wheat, rice and beninseed flour blends. The Alkaki is a Sweet snack mainly eaten during special occasions like weddings in the Northern part of Nigeria. Alkaki is rich in carbohydrate, Mineral (To maintain the body PH; it makes your bone strong) vitamins and antioxidants that helps prevent the body from certain cell damage. In the previous study protein-energy malnutrition has been identified as one of the most important problems in Africa. For the purpose of this study materials sampled at 100% Wheat Alkaki; 10% Benniseed and 90% wheat; 20% Benniseed and 80% wheat; 0% Benniseed and 100% Rice and 0% Wheat; and 5%Wheat and 10%Beninseed and 85% Rice. The results of analysis indicated that sample A (20.12±0.03) was significantly higher in protein content ranges from (15.74±0.97 to 20.12±0.03). These values were higher than other related previous studies. The study reveal that the Local snacks can be produced from Wheat/rice and Benniseed blend using cooking method.
Keywords: Supplementation, Proximate, Composition, Acceptability, Local Snacks (Alkaki).
EVALUATION OF HEAVY METAL CONTAMINANTS IN SOME PLANTS USED IN PHYTOTHERAPY IN ISIN AND MORO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS OF KWARA STATE, NIGERIA
OLADOSU, JEREMIAH IBIYEMI
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bali, PMB 05, Bali, Taraba State, Nigeria.
Phytotherapy had been considered to be less expensive and readily available in the world today because it involves the direct use of certain readily available herbs which possess specific phytochemical agents capable of combating varying degrees of infections and ailments. Some heavy metals are useful to human body but at high concentrations they can be destructive. This research work evaluated the concentration of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and nickel in seven different plants used for herbal medicine within Kwara state. They are vernonia amygdalina, Moringa oleifera, Occimum gratissimum, Anacardium occidentale, Cassia alata, Garcinia kola and Hibiscus sabdariffa collected from four different locations within Isanlu-Isin and Bode-Saadu in Isin and Moro LGAs of Kwara state respectively. Arsenic concentration: highest- 6.31ppm, which is higher than the FAO/WHO standard of 5.00ppm, lowest – 0.001ppm. Cadmium concentration: Highest- 14.08ppm which is also far higher than the 0.30ppm standard, lowest- 0.001ppm. Copper concentration: Highest- 131.0ppm, lowest- 2.30ppm which was below the standard of 150ppm. Lead concentration: Highest- 68.23ppm which is far beyond the 10ppm standard, lowest- 0.003ppm. Nickel concentration: Highest- 91.10ppm was observed which was also higher than the recommended maximum tolerable amount, lowest- 0.002ppm. The trend of this results implicated Bode-saadu, which is a commercial hub compared to Isanlu-Isin, as the location with arsenic, cadmium, lead and nickel toxicities and this is directly linked to environmental pollution via anthropogenic activities.
Keywords: Heavy metal toxicity, Phytotherapy, Health risks, Kwara State.
ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY OF BACTERIA AND FUNGI FROM EZCEMA PATIENT
OLATERU COMFORT TOSIN1,, POPOOLA BUKOLA MARGARET2 AND AJAO OMOBAYONLE3
1,3Department of Biology, the Polytechnic Ibadan. 2Department of Microbiology, Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo.
Eczema is an inflammatory skin condition that affects people of all ages and causes severe pain, dryness, and itching of the skin. Samples were collected from twenty patients with observed Eczematous skin. The swabbed sticks were streaked on Nutrient and MacConkey media, and incubated at 37oC for 24-48hours for enumeration of bacteria. Potato Dextrose agar was employed to culture fungi present in the samples. Morphological and Biochemical tests were carried out on presumptive microbial colonies. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates to clinically used antibiotics was done using agar well diffusion method. The results obtained indicate the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus, Fusarium oxysporium, Penicillium species and Aspergillus flavus from Eczematous samples. Most of the Staphylococci isolates were multidrug resistant. The study’s findings underscore the necessity of adequate cleanliness as well as appropriate diagnosis and treatment.
Keywords: Eczematous skin, patients, bacteria, Staphylococci isolates, multidrug resistant.
CONSTRAINTS TO THE PERFORMANCE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED PRIVATE HOSPITALS AND CLINICS IN KANO METROPOLIS, NORTHERN NIGERIA
ALIYU MUHAMMAD MAIGORO1,4 , BALA ADO KOFAR MATA2, USMAN SUNUSI USMAN3,4, IBRAHIM ADAM ABDULLAHI4
1Department of Clinical Services, Federal Medical Centre Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria. 2Department of Business Administration & Entrepreneurship, Bayero University Kano. 3Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State. 4Department of Public Health, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Bauchi State University, Gadau, Nigeria.
Small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) abound in Nigeria. Their increasing number is due to the fact that they require less capital, little labour, low technological knowledge and a little managerial ability to establish. In Nigeria, SMEs especially in the private hospitals and clinic have not performed creditably well, and have not played expected significant role in economic growth. Whilst some hospitals have been able to properly position themselves in the industry, others have continually struggled to survive. The main objective of this study is to examine constraints to the performance of small and medium sized private hospitals and clinics in Kano, Nigeria and proffer possible solutions. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. A semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire was used to elicit information from 20 private hospitals and clinics in Kano metropolis. Descriptive statistics were employed in the analysis of the data; frequencies and percentages were employed as statistical tools to analyze the data collected. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20 at 5% significance level and 95% confidence interval. The results shows that half of the hospitals and clinics (50%) has been in existence for more than ten years and lack of insufficient capital, lack of infrastructural facilities (such as irregular power supply, water and roads), lack of skilled personnel and insecurity challenges were the major constraints to the performance of small and medium sized private hospitals and clinics in Kano state. In conclusion, there is need for Nigerian government to empower the private hospitals and clinics owners through policies that will be favourable for banks and other financial institution to grant loan to them at lower interest rate as well as support in the provision of basic infrastructural facilities such as regular power /water supply and good roads.
Keywords: Constraints, performance, small and medium sized hospitals, Kano, Nigeria
HEALTH EDUCATION TEACHING IN SCHOOLS A MUST FOR A HEALTHY NATION
*JACOB MAIKANO GAJERE (PhD); **ANTHONY OTU BROWN; & **AMADAOWEI FORSMAN
*Department of Social Development (Youth and Sport) **Department of Primary Health Care Education
The nature of diseases are known, the causative agents and preventive measures are also known. It is the responsibility of individuals, families and communities to strife to be healthy. Health education in schools (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary) offers this opportunity. The need for effective teaching of health education in schools of and to prepare teachers for the task were discussed. Teaching of health education in schools was seen as since qua non for a healthy nation. Recommendations were made for effective teaching of health education in schools.
Keywords: Health Education, Healthy Nation