SSAA Journal of Renewable Agricultural Tech. Research Vol. 26(1)


SUB-SAHARA AFRICAN JOURNAL OF RENEWABLE AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH (SJRATR)

VOL. 26 (1) DECEMBER, 2022 ISSN: 2813 – 9650

 

Published by:

Sub-Sahara African Academic Research Publications,

Centre for African Development Studies, University of Ibadan,

P. O. Box 10108, U. I. Post Office. Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria, West-Africa.

Email: ssaapublications@gmail.com


  PAPERS:  


QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF PLEUROTUSOSTREATUS (JACQ.EX FR.) P. KUMMPRODUCED FROM DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES

 

 

UGOCHUKWU, M. C., OKWULEHIE, I. C., AND EGBUCHA, K. C.

Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike.

 

ABSTRACT

The cultivation of mushroom due to its importance both nutritional and medicinal and to avoid inadvertent picking of poisonous ones by harvesting the wild ones has raised mushroom science to become a highly profitable agricultural business. This study investigated the cultivation of Pleurotusostreatus using different local grasses as substrates to evaluate their effects on their growth and quantitative yield of the fruit bodies of this mushroom. The substrates used were Andropogongayanus(A.G), Pennisetumpurpureum(P.P), Dactylischlorometa (D.C), Andropogongayanus+ Pennisetumpurpureum(A.G+P.P), Andropogongayanus + Dactylischlorometa (A.G + D.C), Pennisetumpurpureum + Dactylischlorometa(P.P + D.C). Completely randomized design with six treatments and four replicates were used. The highest fruit-body number was obtained from A.G (40.25±32.07a) in 1st flush and D.C (21.67±14.15a) in 2nd flush while the least was obtained from A.G+P.P (10.25±8.14a and 9.67±4.73a ) from both flushes . The largest cap diameter was obtained from A.G + P.P (5.45±0.68abcm and 4.96±0.30a) respectively from both flushes while the least was from A.G + D.C (3.65±0.16a cm and 3.89±1.58a) respectively from both flushes. The longest average stipe length in 1st flush was produced in D.C (2.85±0.37bcm) and 2nd flush was in A.G + P.P (2.69±0.52a cm) while the lowest in both flushes was produced in A.G + D.C (2.03±0.25a cm and 2.09±1.07a cm) respectively. The highest fresh weight was obtained from A.G (85.75±33.19b) in first flush and in P.P (67.33±12.22a) in second flush while the least  was obtained in P.P + D.C (26.67±14.47a ­ and 39.50±6.25a) in both flushes. Flush A.G had the highest biological efficiency (50.2%) while P.P+D.C had the lowest biological efficiency (18.3%). The use of these substrates are highly encourages as all of them performed reasonably in the production of P. ostreatus.

Keywords: mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, fruit bodies, cultivation, substrates.

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EFFECTS OF CINNAMON (CINNAMOMUM VERUM BLUME) BARK EXTRACT ON INSECT PESTS OF SMOKE-DRIED AFRICAN CATFISH (CLARIAS GARIEPINUS, BURCHELL, 1822)

 

 

1INUSA, M., 2MODU, B. M.,2 MSHELIA, M. B., 2 NDIRMBITA, W. L., 2SHETTIMA, H. M. AND 2USMAN, U.

1Borno State University, Maiduguri, Borno State. 2University of Maiduguri, Borno State

 

Abstract

The effects of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum Blume) bark extract on insect pests of smoke-dried African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) was carried out. The aim was to investigate Cinnamomum verum as a protectant of smoke-dried African catfish to increase its shelf life. A total of one hundred (100) live Clarias gariepinus were purchased from Gamboru fish market and transported to the Department of Fisheries, University of Maiduguri. They were slaughered gutted and washed thoroughly and Cinnamomum verum bark extract was applied to each of the treatments excluding the control. The fish were randomly assigned to five (5) different concentration of 0gram (control), 15g, 25g, 35g and 45g respectively soaked in one (1) litre of water. Each treatment was replicated thrice and soaked into the aqueous solution of the Cinnamomum verum bark extract. The fish was drained under shade and the whole fish treatment were arranged randomly in the smoking kiln and smoke-dried, after which they were stored. The smoked fish were then divided into three (3) batches. Batch A was used for sensory evaluation, batch B, for proximate composition analysis and batch C was for insect inoculation and kept for the period of 56 days. Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance and the differences between the means were separated using least significant difference (LSD). The effect of Cinnamonum verum bark extract on D. maculatus infestation in smoke-dried C. gariepinus showed that C. verum was most effective at 45g concentration. Number of larvae, pupa and adult of D. maculatus recorded were 8.67±3.01, 3.67±2.08 and 1.33±1.53 respectively. Likewise, for Necrobia rufipes, larva, pupa and adult were recorded to be 9.67 ± 2.08, 13.00 ± 4.00 and 6.00 ± 1.0 respectively. The crude protein recorded highest at fish treated with 35g with 71.92%, and ash was recorded highest in the control with 7.00% and lowest at 25g and 35g with 1.00% respectively. The fish weight losses were recorded in all the treatments after smoking and infestation. Therefore, effective concentrations to control insect infestation D. maculatus and N. rufipes and improve the crude protein content were at 45g and 35g. Dry Matter (DM) and Nitrogen free extract (NFE) with value of 84.20% and 36.54% respectively were recorded highest in 45g C. verum. The organoleptic properties of C. gariepinus revealed that the catfish soaked in 45g was Extremely Liked in relation to taste and texture. C. verum bark extract reduce the pest damages and spoilage caused by the two insects pest D. maculatus and N. rufipes of smoke-dried African Cat fish (C. gariepinus). It also preserved the nutritional compositions of the fish and maintained the sensory properties of the fish. Therefore, the use of C. verum bark extract should be incorporated into fish post-harvest management.

Keywords: Insects, Desmestes maculatus,  Nerobia, rufipes, Clarias gariepinus, Cinnamonum verum

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SILICA AEROGEL NANOPARTICLES AS HEAT SHIELD AND FLAME RETARDANTS

 

 

*OMATOLA, K.M.; **ONOJAH A .D.; **AMAH A.N.; & **AHIEMEN I.

*Department of Physics, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria. **Department of Physics, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT       

Silica aerogel nanoparticles have been synthesized from rice husk and beach sand via sol – gel technique as a green route. Flames from fire or heat waves have destroyed both lives and properties worldwide. Heat shield and flame-retardants (FRs) are synthetic materials used to prevent or slow the spread of heat and flame from fire. Hence, this group of materials is required in homes, school, transport systems, offices and industrial sites as safety substances. Flame-retardants can be use directly or as additives unto combustible items to slow ignition and prevent fire. Common categories of flame-retardants include chlorinated flame-retardants (CFRs), brominated flame-retardants (BFRs), phosphorus flame-retardants (PFRs), nitrogen flame-retardants (NFRs), Inorganic, and mineral compounds flame-retardants. In this work, we successfully characterized the silica nanoparticles grown in terms of the thermal energy transport through them with the use of a hotdisk thermal constants analyzer. The particle size and shapes’ distribution were verified using a transmission electron microscope. The aerogels’ ignition capabilities were tested by directly spraying them unto a flame as well embedding them in a combustive material before setting the material on flame. The results confirmed the low thermal transport via the aerogels and their non-combustive nature making their usage as heat shields and flame-retardants.            

KEYWORDSSilica aerogel, nanoparticle material, heat shield, flame retardant, thermal conductivity.

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EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER AND INTER ROW SPACING ON HERBAGE YIELD AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF RHODES GRASS (Chloris gayana TAN) IN SEMI-ARID ZONE OF YOBE STATE, NIGERIA

 

 

MUSA MABU ISA, SANI USMAN BAH2, MOHAMMED B3., AND HARUNA HAMZA4.

*Desert Research Monitoring and Control Center, Yobe State University Damaturu

 

Abstract

Field experiment was conducted in the field area of the Chad basin development (Laba) in Bursari local government area of Yobe State Nigeria, during the 2021 and 2022 dry season to study and evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilizer and inter-row spacing on herbage yield and nutrient quality of Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana Tan) for maximum yield and nutrient quality of herbage. Different levels of nitrogen fertilizer and inter-raw spacing were used for the assessment. A factorial combination of five fertilizer levels (0, 100, 120, 140 and 160KgNha-1) and three inter row spacing (30, 50 and 70cm) laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four (4) replications was used. At the end of the experiment (12 weeks after sowing) it was discovered that 60KgNha-1 significantly (P < 0.005) produces higher herbage yield as compared to the rest of the treatments. Similarly, 140KgNha-1 and 160KgNha-1 produces higher (P < 0.005) Sodium, phosphorus, Calcium, Magnesium and Potassium contents as compared to the rest of the treatments. From the result, it was also revealed that increase in nitrogen fertilizer is accompanied by increase in herbage dry matter yield (DMY) and mineral constituents of the forage grass proportionately. This results suggest that, 160KgNha and 50cm spacing produce the highest yield per hectare and highest mineral constituent of the plant nutrients. More so, optimum fertilizer level for higher and good quality forage in the study area was also observed in the range of 140 to 160kg N ha-1 and between 30 and 50cm spacing. Vigorous production can be maximized with the addition of more than 160kg N ha-1

Keywords: Forage, Nitrogen, Fertilizer, spacing Mineral, and Yield

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EFFICACY OF OCCIMUM GRATISSIMUM (SCENT LEAF) ON THE LARVAE AND ADULT OF CULEX QUINQUEFASCIATUS

 

 

S.B. ADAMU1, M. A. WAZIRI2, S. JIBRIL3, M.K. ISAH4 AND I.A. BURRA5

1,2,4&5Department of Biology, School of Secondary Education (Science) Aminu Saleh college of Education, Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria. 3Department of Chemistry, School of Secondary Education (Science) Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

Mosquitoes are the major vectors of diseases such as malaria, dengue, filariasis etc. which led to the thousands of death yearly. World Health Organisation (WHO, 2005). In Nigeria, the repellent activity of ointments formulated with Occimum gratissimum oil has been reported against Ae. aegypti and Culex quinquefasiatus mosquito (Esimone et al., 2011). Mechanical aspirator will be use to catch the blood fed female Culex mosquito and it will be introduced into a mosquito rearing cage containing a transparent rubber filled with a distilled water for egg laying. Mouse pellet will be use to feed the Larvae i.e L1, L2 and L3.Two set ups both for Smoke and scent will be set with a control experiment in each. Analysis of variance will be to compare between the two set ups for the efficacy of Occimum gratissimum to repels mosquito.

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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PARAQUAT AND ATRAZINE ON SOIL MICROBIAL POPULATION AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

 

 

*J. K. DAGZE1, H. NAHUNNARO2, AND W. S. MASPALMA3

1Department of Laboratory Sciences, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi. 2Department of Crop Protection, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola. 3Department of Material Science Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi

 

Abstract

This study was aimed at assessing the microbial population and chemical properties of atrazine and paraquat treated soils. Three (3) different concentrations which involved 1.8 (low dose), 3.5 (recommended dose) and 7.0 (high dose) kg/ha; and 2.0 (low dose), 4.0 (recommended dose) and 8.0 (high dose) L/ha of atrazine and paraquat respectively were used. Soil with no herbicide application was used as control. The different concentrations of the herbicides were applied once using a knapsack sprayer. Soil samples were taken four (4) times at an interval of two weeks beginning from two weeks after the application of the herbicides. Fungal count, bacterial and actinomycetes populations, soil pH, organic carbon (OC) and organic matter (OM) were determined using standard procedures. The results showed that the fungal count and actinomycetes population were higher mostly at the 2nd week after treatment application (WAA), but lower at the 8th WAA especially in soil treated with the higher doses of both herbicides. The control soil samples on the contrary recorded lowest fungal count and actinomycetes population at 2nd WAA but, the highest at 6th and 8th WAA. The bacterial population was highest at the 8th WAA but, lowest at 2nd WAA in soils applied the different concentrations of atrazine and paraquat. The OC and OM were significantly lower at the 2nd WAA but, higher at other WAA; and similar observation was made in the control soil samples. The soil pH on the other hand was highest at 2nd WAA, but lowest at the 8th in soils applied the two herbicides. The study concluded that the effect of atrazine and paraquat has no significant difference on soil pH, OC, OM but, on the fungal count, actinomycetes and bacterial populations.

Keywords: Soil, chemical properties, Atrazine, Paraquat, Fungal Count, Microbial Population, Week after treatment (WAA) 

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COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS CONCENTRATIONS IN SMOKED AND FRESH CLARIAS GARIEPINUS FROM GOVERNMENT ASSISTED CLUSTERED FISH FARM, IKORODU, LAGOS STATE

 

 

OLUSOLA A. BABALOLA

Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture Management, Lagos State University of Science and Technology, Ikorodu Lagos

 

ABSTRACT

Evaluation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in both fresh and smoked Clarias geriepinus muscles was conducted. Fifty numbers of C. garipenus between 200.5g and 655.2g in weight were collected from Government Assisted Clustered fish farm estate, Ikorodu, Lagos State for the analyses of sixteen PAHs. The analyses of PAHs in the muscles of fresh and smoked C. geriepinus were carried out by using Gas Chromatographic model HP 6890A. Statistical significance was assessed using a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) SPSS version 25. The result shows that there is no significant difference among the means concentrations  (p > 0.05) in fresh fish  and smoked fish muscle but concentrations of each 16 types of PAHs in the grouped smoked fish  shows that there is significant difference among the mean concentration  (p < 0.05). In conclusion, PAHs concentrations from both fresh and smoked C. geriepinus muscles from the Government Assisted Clustered fish farm are below FAO/WHO threshold limit but Government can introduce to the clustered fish farmers the use of gas or electric powered smoking kiln instead of wood/charcoal powered that will increase PAHs accumulations in smoked fish.

Keywords: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Clarias geriepinus Assessment

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ACCESS TO AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES AMONG CROP FARMERS IN NORTHERN TARABA STATE, NIGERIA

 

 

1JOSHUA, J.J.; 2NDAGHU, A. A.; AND 3BASHIR, M.B

1Department of crop science, college of agriculture Jalingo, Taraba state, Nigeria. 2Department of Agriculture Economics and Extension, Moddibo Adama University Yola,Adamawa State, Nigeria. 3National Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Services, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT

The study assessed agricultural extension services among crop farmers in Northern Taraba State, Nigeria. Specifically the study describe the socio-economic characteristics of crop farmers, assessed crop farmers access  to agricultural extension services and assess the agricultural extension services desired by crop farmers. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used to select one hundred and sixty one (161) farmers for the study, comprising of 65, 65 and 39 from Ardo-Kola, Lau and Zing Local Government Areas respectively. Frequency, percentage and mean ranking were used to analyse the data for the study. Results shows that the mean age of  the farmers were 35 years, majority (73.9%), 67.1% were male, 59.6% were married while 67.1% had acquired primary and secondary education (59.6%), with farming as their primary occupation (54.0%) and had a mea household size of 7 persons precisely small scale farmers (60.1%) who cultivates <2 ha with no or less contact to extension service (64.%) in the last cropping season, despite the fact that majority (54.7%) were members of cooperative societies, they (65.8%) had no access to credit facilities as well had a mean annual income of N124, 539.00. The result of desired extension services by the farmers  such as improved seeds (79.5%), pest and disease management practices (88.8%), fertilizer application (77.0%), weed management (72.7), storage and post harvest handling (86.3%), farm tools and machineries (90.1%), security (88.2%) respectively. Result of the logit regression reveals gender (0.0267) and membership of organization (0.0981) were positive and statistically significant at 5%. Based on the findings it is recommended that more extension workers needs to be employ  so as to meet up with the high demand of extension services, government and NGOs should proffer communicable means of presenting information to rural farmers..

Keyword: Access to Agricultural Extension Services,  Crop Farmers,  Northern Taraba

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EFFECTS OF WEATHER VARIABILITY & CHANGE ON CASSAVA AND YAM PRODUCTION IN SOUTH WESTERN NIGERIA

 

 

ADIGUN J.O1 AND ADELASOYE K.A2

2Department of crop and Environmental protection. LadokeAkintola University Technology. Ogbomoso, Nigeria. 1Agricultural Research Council of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

Agriculture remains the main stream of Nigeria economy, contributing over 40% of the country’s gross domestic products {GDP}. It is the lead sector for generating income, employment and sustenance for rural dwellers, climate variability and change have adversely affected this sector and the situation is expected to worsen in the future. Unfortunately, there is paucity of information on the effect of climate variability and change on yam and cassava cropping system in south western Nigeria. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of climate variability and changes on cassava and yam production in south western Nigeria. Multi stage purpose sampling techniques was used to select arable farmers.154 and 69 respectively in Oyo and Ekiti states totally 223 selected farmers, a structured questionnaire was administered to elicit information from the respondents. The data were subjected to statistical analysis {p<0.50} were measured on four rating scale, and weighted Mean Score {WMS} was calculated and ranked. Respondents from Oyo and Ekitistates ranked Heavy rainfall as the {1st} , late rainfall, poor yield and low income as {2nd} , pest and disease{5th}, drought and erosion as {6th}, fire{8th}, wind{9th}, cold{10th}, and heat {11th} ranked the least as severity of the risks/hazards of weather variables and changes in the study Areas.

Keyword: Agriculture, Climate change, farmers, production, weather variability & change

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PRICING STRATEGY AND EFFECTIVE MARKETING OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE IN NIGERIA: REFERENCE TO MAIZUBE FARM, MINNA

 

 

KOCE, HENRY DIKO

Department of Marketing, Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

Pricing is a widely utilized tool employed by business organizations and profit-oriented firms to drive home their profit maximization objective. The present study examined three major pricing strategy variables (penetration, bundle and loss leader)) as they affect effective marketing of agricultural produce in Nigeria. The study used descriptive survey design; population of the study comprised 22 selected Maizube Farm produce distributors in Bida modern market; as a result, the sample size determined is 22 since the figure is relatively manageable. A well- structured self-administered questionnaire was used as the main tool for data collection and was administered to the 22 respondents. Reliability of the research instrument was calculated and the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.868. Data were analysed using multiple regression analysis. From the hypotheses tested, the result indicated that there is a significant relationship between penetration pricing and effective marketing of agricultural produce. Findings also indicated that there is positive and significant relationship between bundle pricing and effective marketing of agricultural produce. The study concluded that all the relationships between pricing strategy and effective marketing of agricultural produce were significant resulting in the rejection of all the three null hypotheses postulated, H01 to H03 and accepted all the alternate hypotheses. Furthermore, this study recommended that farmers and their distributors should further exploit the potentials offered by these strategies to boost their sales and profitability through attraction of more customers. Finally, the study suggested that future studies should focus on other sectors of the economy apart from the agricultural sector.

Keywords: Pricing; Strategy; Effective; Marketing; Agricultural Produce; Nigeria

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EVALUATION OF SOME MINERALS COMPOSITION OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES PART CULTIVATED IN COLLEGE FARM, JERE, NIGERIA

 

 

GWANA ADAMU MOHAMMED1*, MU’AZU ABDULLAHI KOFAR NA’ISA2, FATI ALI DIMARI3, AISHA ALI DIMARI4 ABDULLAHI HASSAN MOHAMMED5, MOHAMMED ZUBAIRU MAINA6, FATIMA, ABDULLAHI SAIDU7

1, 5, 6, 7 Laboratoty Unit, Department of Animal Health and Production Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2Kano-Nigerian Erosion and Watershed Management Project, No. 229, Kofar Kansakali, Kano, Kano, Nigeria. 3, 4 Department of General Study, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, Maiduguri, Nigeria.  5, 6, 7 Department of Animal Health and Production Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, Maiduguri, Nigeria

 

Abstract

Agricultural practicing is becoming cumbersome due to environmental pollutions. Natural or manmade, climatic change patterns have been causing various impacts on human and animals throughout the word. This research study was conducted on evaluation of some mineral compositions of Moringa oleifera Leaf part cultivated in College Farm, Jere, Nigeria. All materials used were of analytical grade and conducted under cleaned and hygienic environment. Standard operation procedures thoroughly followed. The method applied were as the methods described by Gwana et al., (2016) and AOAC, (1990). The results obtained in triplicate, revealed the mean concentration values of the seven elements (minerals ions) being determined and evaluated. These minerals ion were; Ca++ (101.92), Fe++ (0.60), K+ (8.73), Mg++ (65.88), Mn (0.38), PO4 (5.18) and finally Zn++ (0.33) all in g / l. The finding reveals that there are some mineral substances in the plant sampled such as Ca, Mg, K and PO4 were found in abundance while Mn, Fe and Zn were found in moderate concentration values level compare to most values that were reported for medicinal and vegetables plant in literature. These elements are very important to body system to functions well and healthy. There are the needs to carry out intensive research on the all parts of the Moringa oleifera plant including the roots, leaves, stems, stem barks, flowers and seeds in order to evaluate the nutritive and non-nutritive compositions of the plant.

Keywords: Climate change, Environmental pollution, Food and health, Mineral ions, Minerals composition, Moringa oleifera,

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EFFECT OF FOUNDATION SEEDS ON THE OUTPUT OF YOUTH VEGETABLE FARMERS IN FCT, NIGERIA

 

 

AJAKAIYE OLATUNBOSUN BOLASHADE

Department of Agricultural Technology, School of Agricultural Technology, Kogi State Polytechnic, Itakpe.

 

Abstract

Effect of foundation vegetable seeds on the output of youth farmers were investigated in Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria. The multistage sampling techniques was employed to collect data from 160 vegetable farmers using  a well-structured questionnaire. The data collected were estimated using descriptive statistics as well as Stochastic Frontier Production Function Approach. Results from the descriptive analysis revealed that majority (87.5%) of the vegetable farmers were unmarried, (63.75%) were males, (85.63%) were between 21 and 40 years old, (61.88%) had tertiary education. The mean age, household size, farm size and farming experience were 25 years, 5people, 4 hectares and 6 years respectively. The results from the Stochastic Frontier Production Function for MLE and OLS revealed that factors such as: farm size, fertilizer and seeds improved vegetable output for foundation vegetable seed users while factors such as : farm size, labor and fertilizer impact vegetable output for non-vegetable seed users. The foundation vegetable seed users increased the output of seed users more than the non- users in the study area. The results with respect to farmers production constraints showed that high cost of fertilizer, poor storage facilities, perishability of product, poor credit facilities and poor sales were the major constraints to vegetable farming in the study area. Policy framework to address issues of fragmented farmlands, high input cost and storage facilities were recommended.

Keywords: Foundation seeds, Stochastic Frontier Model, Vegetable Output, MLE, OLS, Youth Farmers, FCT Abuja.

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FAMINE AND STARVATION IN DRYLANDS AFRICA: THE PARADOX OF PERSISTENCE AND THE VIOLATION OF UNIVERSAL RIGHT?

 

 

*QUADRI, S.; *SILWAL, P.; & **ABDULSALAM, N,

*International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Kano, Kano State, Nigeria, **Bayero University Kano, Kano State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

This article examines the vexed issue of an endemic food crisis in sub-Saharan Africa. Notwithstanding the acclaimed global institutional capacity against hunger; undernutrition, starvation and famine persist. This amplifies the growing dilemma of famine causality, particularly in dryland environments thereby provoking a plethora of questions upon which this paper is focussed. Is famine demand or supply driven?  Is famine a matter of recurring complex political emergencies (CPE) or man-made?  Is famine a failure of humanitarian response or simply an act of God? Why does famine persist in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)? To accomplish this task, the paper uses a cross-section of twenty sub-Saharan African countries within a set of panel data models to explore the link between food security and World Governance Indicators. The study employs Panel Vector Autoregression following Love and Abrigo (2016) and Panel Generalized Method of Moments of Arrelano and Bond (1991) and Blundell and Bond (1998). Diagnostic checks show the robustness of the choice of the models in explaining the dynamic causal effect of good governance and food security within the sampled countries. This paper argues that the vulnerability of SSA to hunger and starvation is more politically/conflict driven, among other causalities, validating the concept of an irony of persistence and violation of universal human rights. Vicious ethnic and religious rivalry, inordinate socio-economic dominance, deadly power struggles are clear culprits. Sustainable democracy, rule of law, strong institutions, and a universal criminalisation of starvation, are recommended as panacea. The ritual of humanitarian calls and/or food aid for Africa should have an expiry date.

Keywords: Conflicts, Drylands, Famine, Hunger, Starvation, Universal rights

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FACTORS INFLUENCING POST-HARVEST LOSS IN MARKETING OF SELECTED VEGETABLE CROPS AMONG MAJOR VALUE CHAIN ACTORS IN ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

 

 

*ROBERT, K.; & **SANI, R.  M.

*Government Day Secondary School Demsawo, Jimeta-Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria. **Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

This studied the factors influencing post-harvest loss in marketing of selected vegetable crops among major value chain actors in Adamawa State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select the total of 316 marketers comprising 89 wholesalers, 128 retailers and 99 processors. Data were collected using structured questionnaire and analysed using inferential and descriptive statistics. The result of the regression analysis shows that, for tomato wholesalers, age, household size and duration were significant (P<0.01) with R-2 of 82%, for pepper wholesalers, the result shows that, household size, duration and distance were significant (P<0.01) with R-2 of 61%, and for okra wholesalers, the result shows that, household size, duration and distance were significant (P<0.01) with R-2 of 57%. Also, for the tomato retailers the result shows that, age, household size and duration were significant (P<0.01) with R-2 of 77.75%, for pepper retailers the result shows that, years of marketing experience, duration and distance were significant (P<0.05) with R-2 of 53.32% and for okra retailers the result shows that, household size, duration and distance were significant (P<0.01) and age was significant (P<0.05) with R-2 of 66.05%. Similarly, for tomato processors, the result shows that age, years of marketing experience, duration and distance were significant (P<0.01) with R-2-of 80.56%, for pepper processors the result shows that duration and distance were significant (P<0.01) and years of marketing experience was significant (P<0.05) with R-2 of 72.66% and for okra processors, the result shows that, years of marketing experience, duration and distance were significant (P<0.01) with R-2 of 74.77%. The mode of transportation designed to convey vegetable produce only were the major strategy statement adopted by the wholesaler with mean score of 4.7, while access to capital by financial institutions were the major strategy statement adopted by retailers and processors with mean scores of 4.4 and 4.3 respectively. It is therefore concluded that, age, household size, years of marketing experience, duration and distance significantly influences the quantity of tomato, pepper and okra. The studied recommended that, training on post-harvest loss management practices be given to the value chain actors (marketers) by the extension agents..

Keywords: Factors, Value Chain Marketers, Vegetable Crops                                             

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EFFICACY OF DIATOMACEOUS EARTH (PROTECT-IT) ON MANAGEMENT OF COWPEA BEETLE (CALLOSOBRUCHUS MACULATUS (COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE)) INFESTING STORED BAMBARA GROUNDNUT (VIGNA SUBTERRANEA)

 

 

*BUKAR, A.; *DAWUD, A. M.; *KURA, Z. A.; & **GARRA, F. A.

*Department of Agricultural Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, P. M. B. 1427, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. **Department of Animal Health and Production, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, P. M. B. 1427, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

Laboratory studies was conducted at Entomology Laboratory of University of Maiduguri under ambient laboratory conditions to assess the efficacy of diatomaceous earth (DE) against C. maculatus infesting bambara groundnut. The bioassays were conducted on treated seeds of Bambara groundnut variety Farin ngangala. C. maculatus adults was bioassayed on 50g seed samples using CRD replicated three (3) times at the following dose rates; DE (250, 500, 750, 1000, 1500 mg/kg of seeds) The effects of treatments on seed germination was conducted on freshly treated seeds and at 90 days after treatment (DAT). The results showed that DE applied at 1000mg/kg and 1500mg/kg completely suppressed ovipostion, adult emergence, damage and weight loss. DE only affected germination at the highest dose rate of 1500mg. It was concluded that DE could be used to manage C. maculatus populations in stored bambara groundnut.

Keyword: Diatomaceous earth; Cowpea; Oviposition; Mortality; Germination

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RESPONSE OF SESAME CROP (SESAMUM INDICUM L.) TO INTEGRATED NUTRIENT USE IN ANYIGBA, KOGI STATE NIGERIA

 

 

YUSUF M.1*, AKOWE, I. I 2, BEIDA, A. S2, IYAJI, J.2, ABDULHAKEEM, S.2, ALAO, A. O.3.

1,2 Department of Agricultural Technology, Kogi State Polytechnic, PMB 1101 Lokoja, Kogi State Nigeria.3Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, PMB 4000 Ogbomoso, Oyo State Nigeria.

 

Abstract

This field experiment was conducted during the 2021 cropping season at the Prince Abubakar Audu University Research and Demonstration farm, Anyigba. The study investigated the comparative effect of Cow dung, Poultry manure and NPK fertilizer on the seed emergence, growth and yield of sesame. The research consisted of three main factors (Cow dung, Poultry manure and NPK fertilizer), fifteen (15) treatments in total with each factor consisting of five levels of application (0, 150, 300, 450, 600 kg/ha) respectively. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), with three (3) replications. Parameters measured include: Days to seedling emergence, plant height, number of leaves, number of branches, stem girth, number of capsules, fresh weight of capsules, dry weight of capsules and seed weight/plot. Growth and yield characters measured were significantly influenced by 300 kg/ha NPK fertilizer and 600 kg/ha of cow dung and 600 kg/ha poultry manure respectively. however, cow dung had no significant influence on number of capsule/plant. Highest seed yield was obtained at 600 kg/ha poultry manure and thus recommended. Alternatively, integrated use of 300kg/ha NPK + 600kg/ha PM will suffice for best performance given their complementary use.

Keywords: Cow dung, Integrated Nutrient Use, NPK fertilizer, Poultry manure, Sesame.

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SOLUTIONS TO ENERGY CHALLENGES IN AGRO ALLIED INDUSTRIES

 

 

ABUBAKAR ALIYU ALIYU

National Metallurgical Development Center, (NMDC), Zaria Road Jos Nigeria. (Federal Ministry of Mines and Steel Development)

 

ABSTRACT

This report examines the challenges of energy use and efficiency in   Agro-allied industries and proffer a possible solution in sustainable energy options across the sector. focusing on and in unlocking greater energy efficiency within the sector. Energy demand across the sector is projected to grow steadily, both in agriculture and agro-allied industries. Increasing dependence on energy usage (mainly fossil fuels) throughout the entire Agricultural value chain raises concerns about the impact of high or variable energy prices on production costs, competitiveness, the final price of the product for the consumer, greenhouse gas emissions, as well as concerns about energy security.

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QUALITY EVALUATION OF BISCUIT PRODUCED FROM WHEAT FLOUR AND MALTED BROWN FINGER MILLET USING DATE PALM AS SWEETENER

 

 

JIBRIL, MARYAM

Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 0231, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

This study is to assess the quality evaluation of biscuit produced from wheat flour and malted brown finger millet using date palm as sweetener. To achieve the purpose of the study, the raw materials used (wheat flour, finger millet, margarine, powdered milk, eggs, baking powder and salt) been obtained, the result shows that the samples BFMW1, BFMWF2 and BFMWF3 has an increase in crude protein content which ranged from (8.14%, 9.91%, and 9.03%) respectively. This study has indicated that the use of such composite flours with high nutrient value is a good method to improve the nutritional excellence of baked goods like biscuits.

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EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES ON BIO PRESERVATIVE ACTIVITY OF BACTERIOCIN

 

 

1IHUM, T.A.  2AFOLABI, A.A. AND   1IJAWARE O.A

1Durable Crops Research Department, Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute Ilorin, Kwara State 2Perishable Crops Research Department, Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute Ilorin, Kwara State

 

Abstract

The use of bacteriocin in the food industry has to a large extent replaced the use of chemical preservatives in enhancing the shelf-life and safety of foods. Consumer demand for higher quality and naturalness of foods has recently increased. Thermal processing is used extensively within the food manufacturing process and can have adverse effects on the bio-active capability of a bacteriocin potentially rendering it less effective.  Stability of bacterioicn of L. plantarum NRIC 0383 at temperatures of 30, 50, 70,90 and 121oC was determined. Antimicrobial activity of bacterioicn of L. plantarum NRIC 0383 against six bacteria isolates (Staphylococcus aureus CIP 9973, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum Pec 1, Enterobacter cloacae AS10, Klebsiella aerogenes OFM28, Escherichia coli 2013C-3342 and Proteus mirabilis UPMSD3)  from selected  vegetable samples  remained stable at temperatures of 30, 50,70 and 90°C save at 1210C when over 50% of its activity against the test bacteria was lost at exposure time of 15 minutes. This research has therefore established the ability of bacteriocin of L. plantarum NRIC 0383 at inhibiting food-borne pathogens while remaining stable and active at high temperatures thereby providing a safer and reliable alternative to the use of harmful chemical food preservation.

Keywords: Food, Lactic acid Bacteria, Microbial, Preservation

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HAZARD ANALYSIS OF HEAVY METALS IN FOOD CROPS AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

 

 

UMARU ABDULLAHI; AND NASIRU YAHAYA AHMED

Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering Technology. Federal Polytechnic Bali, Taraba State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

The contamination of heavy metals has spread widely across the environment, causing health risks to the human race and hazard for the environment. Heavy metal contamination of soil and food crops is an issue of global concern that ultimately results in toxicity and diseases in humans and animals through consumption of contaminated food crops. The major concern that requires sustainable advancement both statistically and on the basis of Qualitative assessment is food security. Recently, antagonistic impacts of unforeseen toxins have impacted the quality of crops and have created a burden on human lives, adding to dreariness and in severe cases even death. Consequently it is vital that communities with high levels of heavy metal pollution avoid eating large quantities of these food items. Also, there is need for monitoring the levels of these injurious elements in food crops. This paper reflects the contamination of the food crops with heavy metals, the way of transport of heavy metal to food crops, degree of toxicity after consumption and the strategies to maintain the problem.

Keywords: Heavy metals, Food crops, Assimilation, Health hazard.

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IMPACTS OF IFAD ON INCOME AND LIVELIHOOD OF RICE MARKETERS IN BASSA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KOGI STATE, NIGERIA

 

 

1MOHAMMED, U., 2AHMAD B.S., 1UMAR, A.1WAZIRI, A.

1Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Services, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai. 2National Cereals Research Institute Baddegi, Niger State.    

 

ABSTRACT

The study was on Impacts of IFAD on Income and Livelihoods of Rice Marketers in Bassa Local Government area of Kogi State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 127 of rice marketers. Data were collected using structured questionnaire and interview scheduled; and analyzed using descriptive statistics (percentage and frequency), multiple regression and Likert scale. The result of socio econimic characteristics revealed that majority of respondents were female, married with long year of experience in rice marketing. The result in the study area showed that the coefficient of training on marketing method (179429) was positively significant at 1% level of implying that access to training is expected to have positive effect the income of rice marketers. The constraints faced by rice marketers showed that poor credit was ranked 1st with mean value of ( =3.01), this was followed by insufficient fund ( =5.07) ranked 2nd and lack of good market was ranked 3rd with mean value of ( =6.37). The study recommended that: marketer should be trained on how to sources for alternative income through diversification in the study area.

Keywords: Impacts, Income, Livelihoods, Rice, Marketers.

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