SSAA Journal of Management Science & Career Development Vol. 26(7)


SUB-SAHARA AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCE AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT (SJMSCD)

VOL. 26 (7) DECEMBER, 2022 ISSN: 2385-8148

 

Published by:

Sub-Sahara African Academic Research Publications,

Centre for African Development Studies, University of Ibadan,

P. O. Box 10108, U. I. Post Office. Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria, West-Africa.

Email: ssaapublications@gmail.com


  PAPERS:  


ANALYZING THE DETERMINANTS OF CREDIT RISK FOR DEPOSIT MONEY BANKS IN SOUTHERN NIGERIA (A CASE OF SOUTH-WEST NIGERIA)

 

 

DR ADAMU, DANIEL K.

Faculty of Management Sciences, Actuarial Science Department, University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

This study is on analyzing the determinants of credit risk in Nigerian Deposit Money Banks (DMBs). The study employed secondary data, sought from the financial statements of the banks from 2011-2020 and adopted the specific variables and macro-economic variables thereof. The data were measured with panel data regression method. The findings revealed that Loan Loss Provision/Total Loan, Total Loan/Asset Ratio, Gross Domestic Product Growth, and Inflation had a positive and significant relationship. The results also showed that Bank Liquidity and Capital Adequacy Ratio had a negative and significant relationship. In line with the outcome of the study, it is thus recommended among others that banks’ management should endeavor to develop rigorous and robust credit policies that will enable efficient and effective assessment of the creditworthiness of banks’ customers.

Keywords: Risk, Determinants, Growth, Variables,Inflation, Policies.

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STRATEGIC PLANNING AND PERFORMANCE OF GTB AT OSOGBO DURING COVID-19 LOCKDOWN

 

 

*BABATOLA FELIX AKINLADE Ph.D.; & **OLUWATUSIN JAMES ADEKUNLE

*Department of Business Administration, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji, Osun State, Nigeria. **JABU Consult & Development, Joseph Ayo Babalola University

 

ABSTRACT

The study examined the effect of strategic planning on organization performance during the pandemic of Corona virus (Covid 19). The study further evaluate the planning-performance relationship in organization and determine the extent to which strategic planning affects performance in an organization during the pandemic period (covid ‘19). The two branches of Guarantee Trust Bank of Nigeria, Plc in Osogbo was used as the case study. Based on the objectives, relevant literatures were thoroughly reviewed, hypotheses were formulated and tested in the study. A total of 67 questionnaires was administered to the staffs of the bank and the participants were selected from the low to high cadre in the bank. Descriptive and inferential statistic were used. Data collected were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Regression analysis were used in testing the hypotheses. The hypotheses were confirmed to be statistically significant (p< .05). The study revealed the impact of strategic planning on the performance of organization cannot be undermined and adoption of a good and effective strategic planning enhance better performance of the bank during the pandemic. The study concluded that there is a strong positive relationship between strategic planning and organization performance and recommended that banks managers should ensure they invest more on strategic planning, so as to avoid any future events or failure.

Keywords: Strategic Planning, Organization, Performance, GTB and Covid-19

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BOARD GENDER DIVERSITY AND FINANCIAL PERFORMANCES OF OIL AND GAS COMPANIES IN NIGERIA

 

 

AYOOLA-AKINJOBI, OLAYEMI; & OLAYINKA, OLUWATOYIN DEBORAH

Department of Accounting, College of Management Sciences, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji, Osun State

 

Abstract

This study examined the relationship between board gender diversity and the performances of oil and gas companies listed on the Nigeria Stock Exchange.  The research design used was expo facto because data were derived from the audited financial report of the selected listed firms in the Nigeria Stock exchange within the period of 2014-2021.  The researcher purposively selected the oil and gas sector with a total population of nine listed companies. The dependent variable was firm performances represented by return on the asset while the independent variable was board gender diversity proxy by the percentage of women on board. It discovered that 18 out of 88 board members in the industry were female (21%). The ordinary least square method was used in analyzing the data and the finding revealed that there is a positive and significant relationship between gender board diversity and the performances of oil and gas industries in Nigeria, thus, the hypothesis was rejected.  Hence, the study recommended that the percentage of women on the corporate board in Nigeria especially in the oil and gas industry should be increased from 21% to 40% which is the international gender benchmark since it positively influences the performances of the firms.

Keywords: Board of directors, board gender diversity, corporate governance, diversity, financial performances.

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“USING GOD’S NAME TO SELL AND MARKET” CONTEMPORARY INFLUENCE OF RELIGION ON SALES AND MARKETING OF GOODS AND SERVICES IN NIGERIA

 

 

AYOZIE DANIEL OGECHUKWU (PhD); & MUKTAR ALI MOHAMMED

Department of Business Administration, Federal University Lokoja, P.M.B 1154 Lokoja, Kogi State Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT

A religion is a particular set of beliefs in a god, or gods and the activities connected with these beliefs, e.g. the Christian or Moslem/Islamic religion. A religion is belief in a god or gods. A religious person has a strong belief in a god or gods. Every country has its own different political, economics, socio-cultural, technological, religious, and legal characteristics, and these variables determine the way marketing is studied and practiced.  These external variables especially the socio-cultural (religious beliefs) determine the way marketing is practiced, and how goods and services are bought and sold.  Nigeria, the country of study has two major religions (Christianity and Islam), and others like the African Traditionally Religion (ATR) which has its deities, priest and shrines of worship. ATR is still popular among certain tribe and ethnic nationalities in Nigeria.  Every marketing practice introduced by people of these religious divides, tend to favour their adherents.  This study examines the negative influence of religion on marketing practice, and discovers that religion and religious beliefs have a negative influence on marketing practice in Nigeria, especially in the alcoholic beverage, food and drinks industry. The adverse effects are also seen in the consumption of pork meat, the services and the cigarette producing industries.  Religion determines what people sell, buy or eat in Nigeria. In fact, it greatly determines how products are advertised and sold.  Thus in carrying out marketing practice the religious beliefs must be considered, although it should not discourage the marketer from performing their functions. Religions beliefs, norms and value have negative impact on marketing practice in Nigeria.

Keywords: Religion, Marketing, Sales, Islamic, Christianity, Belief

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ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF SELECTED SMEs OWNERS AND MANAGERS IN FCT, ABUJA, NIGERIA

 

 

ALABI, JACOB ABU (PhD); IBARHIM, MOHAMMED GADDAFI (PhD); & IFEGWU, JOHN IFEGWU (PhD)

Department of Entrepreneurial Studies, Faculty of Management Sciences, National Open University of Nigeria, Federal Capital Territory, Abuja.

 

Abstract

Entrepreneurship development is critical to the socio-economic status of citizens in countries around the world. The nature of the business environment in which entrepreneurs operate requires flexibility and dynamism on the part of the entrepreneurs as well as the capacity for creativity. The objective of the study is to examine the effect of entrepreneurship development dimensions on the socio-economic status of SMEs Owners and Managers in FCT. Abuja. The study made use of a cross-sectional survey research design using primary data. The results revealed that Entrepreneurship skill has a significant effect on the economic status of selected SMEs owners and managers and also entrepreneurship creation has a significant effect on the standard of living of selected SMEs owners and managers in FCT, Abuja. We therefore, recommended that SMEs owners and managers need to understand the importance of possessing entrepreneurial skills and the effect it could have on business success.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship development, Socio-economic status, Entrepreneurship skills, Entrepreneurship creation, Small and Medium Enterprises

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TAKAFUL INSURANCE AND PERFORMANCE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN NORTH WEST NIGERIA

 

 

OBINNA CHILEKEZI

Department of Entrepreneurship, Faculty of Management Science, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji Arakeji, Osun State

 

Abstract

Takaful insurance is a mutual insurance that was developed by insurance practitioners in Sudan as they felt that the convectional insurance as practice goes contrary to their religious belief. This class of insurance was introduced in 2006 to further depending the insurance penetration which has been very low more so that some Moslems believe that the convectional insurance practice goes contrary to Shariah. The main objective of this study is to find out if adoption of Takaful insurance will enhance performance of SMEs especially those who were not patronizing the conventional insurance products. The purposive sampling method was adopted and questionnaires administered to customers of the Takaful insurance companies who are SMEs operators. The finding from the investigation shows that there is a positive growth in the performance of the Takaful insurance companies and majority of the small scale business owners who were not buying conventional insurance products are buying from them. The study finally recommended that the operators of these companies should increase the creation of awareness of their products to their target market.

Keywords: Insurance, Islam, Religion, SMEs, Takaful

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SERVICE QUALITY AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION: EVIDENCE FROM SELECTED HOTELS IN GOMBE METROPOLIS

 

 

*HASHIM ILYASU; & **ABDURRASHID GIDADO MUHAMMAD

*Department of Business Administration, Gombe State University, Gombe. **Department of Foundation of Education, Federal College of Education (Tech), Gombe

 

ABSTRACT

Speed in service delivery is seen as an important ingredient which changes the shape of service provision, especially hotel business, into a competitive stance. This idea forces service providers in making sure that their customers are given what they need and want on time for effective enhancement of their satisfaction. This study is an attempt to examine the relationship between service quality (independent variable) and customer satisfaction (dependent variable) using proxies of tangibility; responsiveness; assurance; empathy; and, reliability as dimensions of service quality among selected hotels in Gombe metropolis. The main objective of this study is to is to examine the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction, but the specific objectives are to examine the relationship between service quality dimensions and customer satisfaction among selected hotels in Gombe metropolis. The study employed simple random sampling for selecting the hotels while convenient sampling technique for reaching the respondents. The study used Krejcie and Morgan’s formula for unknown population while the sample size determined was 387 customers of Bima International, Custodian, De Grand, Don Kay, and Maidugu hotels. The study used the descriptive statistics using the adapted questionnaire from previous reviewed literature, and the data analysis was done using SPSS (23.0) and PLS-SEM. The null hypotheses were tested and the study found that tangibility; responsiveness; assurance; and, empathy have positive and significant relationship with customer satisfaction, but reliability has no positive but significant relationship with customer satisfaction. The study recommended that hotels should improve reliable services in order to keep maintaining their customers properly. Moreover, service quality dimensions should be properly maintained for customers to patronize their service regularly.

Keywords: service quality, customer satisfaction, evidence, hotels, metropolis.

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ENTREPRENEURIAL ORIENTATION AND SMEs’ PERFORMANCE IN OYO STATE, NIGERIA: MEDIATING EFFECT OF INNOVATION

 

 

*LADOKUN, I. O.; **OLAOYE, BOSEDE. O.; ***AREMU, A. B.; & ****AJIBOYE, FOLASHADE. A.

*Department of Marketing, the Polytechnic, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. **Department of Business Administration and Management, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree, Osun State, Nigeria. ***Department of Business Administration and Management Studies, the Polytechnic, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. ****Department of Marketing, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree, Osun State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

The study investigates the mediating effect of innovation on the relationship between risk-taking, pro-activeness, competitive aggressiveness, and SMEs’ performance.  A purposive sampling technique was used to select 250 SMEs who have been in business for more than 3 years and are registered with the Oyo Ministry of Commerce and Industry.  A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the participants. The socio-demographic information of participants was analyzed using descriptive statistics while the hypotheses generated lent support to the use of Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The study establishes that risk-taking has a significant influence on SMEs` performance. The relationship was positive meaning that the more the SMEs take risks, the higher the SMEs’ performance.  The study further reveals that competitive aggressiveness is positively and significantly correlated with SMEs’ performance. Evidence shows that pro-activeness has no significant effect on SMEs’ performance.  The study also confirms that innovation partially mediates between risk-taking and SMEs’ performance and partially mediates between competitive aggressiveness and SMEs’ performance.  The evidence further reveals that innovation does not mediate between pro-activeness and SMEs’ performance. It was concluded that entrepreneurial orientation has a significant effect on SMEs; performance, while innovation is a powerful platform for SMEs to gain global relevance in a globally competitive environment. As a result, the study recommends that Nigerian SMEs should take proactive measures for the growth of the sector. Also, small business operators/managers should  enhance their entrepreneurial spirit and use the results to improve organizational learning processes, creative output, business performance, decision-making, and in rapidly changing work environments.

Keywords: Risk-taking, Aggressiveness, Pro-activeness, Innovation, SMEs performance.

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PROVOCATION AS ADEFENCE TO MURDER

 

 

BARRISTER NZEWI CHINO NNENNE

Department Of Bussiness Administration, Federal Polytechnic, Oko, Anambra State, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

For centuries provocation has been regarded and accepted in the common: law as a defence to a charge of murder. The common law is the law distilled from the decisions of courts and judges and formulated and reformulated from time to time as cases and circumstances call for its authoritative statement in the area of law under review. It is the common law which governs this area of the law in Victoria. It is to be constantly borne in mind that provocation is a defence of a special kind in that if successful it does not lead to an acquittal on the charge but to a reduction from a conviction of murder to one of man-slaughter. It is a defence which springs from an appreciation and understanding of the frailty of human nature and which, even in times not so long past could mean the difference between a mandatory sentence of being hanged by the neck until death and a sentence tailored to suit the moral gravity of a particular homicide.

Keywords: Provocation, Defence, Homicide, Murder, Suit, Law

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FUNDING ACTIVITIES OF MICROFINANCE BANKS: TOOLS FOR FINANCIAL INCLUSION AND SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES’ PERFORMANCE IN POST- COVID-19 ERA

 

 

*AYO-OYEBIYI, G. T.; **OYEDELE, OLORUNTOBA; ***EGUNJOBI, G.O.; *BABALOLA, O.A.

*Department of Banking and Finance, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree, Osun State, Nigeria. **Department of Accounting and Finance, Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria. ***Department of Business Administration and Management Studies, the Polytechnic, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

 

Abstract

This study examined the impact of microfinance bank activities on small and medium enterprises performance and financial inclusion after COVID1- 19 surge in Oyo State, Nigeria. A purposive sampling technique was used to select 5 microfinance banks from each senatorial district, totaling 15 microfinance banks as a sample size for the study.  Registered Small and Medium Enterprises in Oyo State were senatorially stratified after which fifty (50) small and medium enterprises were randomly selected across the three senatorial districts of Oyo State. The questionnaire was employed to collect data and scales measuring emergency loans, fixed assets loans, working capital loans, local purchase order financing, SMEs performance, and financial inclusion. The study confirmed that MFBs offered financial support (emergency loans, fixed asset loans, working capital loans and local purchase order financing) to boost financial inclusion and SMEs performance in Nigeria after COVID-19.  Evidence shows that SMEs performance is significantly influenced by emergency loans, while financial inclusion is not significantly influenced by emergency loans. The study established that fixed asset loans have significant effect on financial inclusion but have insignificant effect on SMEs performance. Also revealed that working capital loans have direct link with SMEs performance, and financial inclusion but have no significant effect on SMEs performance, and financial inclusion. It was also revealed that local purchase order financing has no significant effect on SMEs performance, and financial inclusion.   Consequently, the study recommended that the financial and regulatory supports should be given to microfinance banks by the Central Bank of Nigeria to enable the sector to support small business and less privilege in the economy.

Keywords:  Emergency loans, Fixed assets loans, Working capital loans, LPO financing, financial inclusion.

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TRUST IN SUPERVISOR, ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND WHISTLE-BLOWING INTENTIONS: A CONCEPTUAL STUDY

 

 

IBRAHIM MAHMOUD; SAMSON OLARINRE OLAJIDE; ALIYU BAWA YELDU; AND SALISU YUNUSA

Department of Accountancy, School of Accountancy and Finance, Directorate of Management Programmes, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin kebbi, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

This study proposed a new framework for moderating role of trust in supervisor on the relationship between organizational commitment and whistleblowing intentions. Several studies have been extensively reviewed in respect of trust in supervisor, organizational commitment and whistleblowing intentions for that purpose. The study prepares the new proposed framework as suggestion for further studies.

Keyword: Supervisor trust, organizational commitment, whistleblowing, intentions

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IMPACT OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ON TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN BAUCHI STATE

 

 

MUSTAPHA MAKAMA

Department of Business Administration and Management, School of Management Studies, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic, Bauchi.

 

Abstract

This study investigated the impact of corporate social responsibility on tertiary institution in Bauchi State. The focus was the impact of philanthropic corporate social responsibility PCSR on academic staff development. Cross sectional design was used and data was generated on a five point likert scale. PLUM ordinal regression was used to test the hypotheses. A 0.05 level of significant was considered. Result showed that substantial number of respondents acknowledged the concept of PCSR however the relationship between PCSR and three constructs of academic staff development were significantly negative. We recommend government legislation to make businesses extend their CSR activities to tertiary institutions.

Keywords: Corporate, Philanthropic, Ordinal, Tertiary, Institution. 

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A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF BANKING AND INSURANCE INDUSTRIES ON THE LEVEL OF ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA

 

 

*AGUNUWA EKOKOTU VINCENT (Ph.D); & **JOHNSON-ITABITA PATIENCE (Ph.D)

*Department of Banking and Finance, School of Business Studies, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe-Oghara. **Department of Business Administration/Management, School of Business Studies, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe-Oghara

 

Abstract

The focus of the study is on a comparative analysis of the impact of the business activities of both insurance and the banking industries on the level of economic growth in Nigeria. The main objective is to establish their relative performance in order to determine their relative influence on the level of economic growth in Nigeria. In this study, the levels of performance of both industries are proxied by the level of their profitability. The study covered the period between 1994 and 2020. The Co-integration and the Error correlation mechanism were used to analyze the data. The result of the ADF showed that the variables are I (-1). The result of the Johansen Co-integration test showed a long run relationship amongst the profitability of both the banking and insurance sector and that they have a positive and significant impact on the level of economic growth, but the elasticity indicates that the banking sector performed better than the insurance companies. Thus the study recommends amongst others, further reforms in the banking and the insurance industries, in order to enhance or improve their performance in the Nigerian economy.

Keywords: Bank Profits, Insurance Profits, Economic Growth, Interest Rate, Co-integration.

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EFFECT OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTION DEVELOPMENT ON FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN NIGERIA, 1960 – 2021

 

 

OYESIJI, YINUSA KOLAWOLE*; BELLO, ADELEKE HUSSEIN**; OLADEJI, EMMANUEL OLAYINKA***; SIKIRU, ISIAKA OLAWALE****

*’ ***,****Banking and finance department, The Oke Ogun Polytechnic, Saki. **Accountancy department, The Oke Ogun Polytechnic, Saki.

 

Abstract

Foreign Direct Investment in Nigeria has dropped by $325.82m in two year, according to data from the National Bureau of Statistics. This study intends to examine effect of financial institution development on foreign direct investment in Nigeria. Data were source from word bank indicators (wdi) for this study. Autoregressive distribution lag (ARDL) was employed to analyse the data and the result revealed that A month lags of foreign direct investment (FDI), gross domestic product (GDP), inflation (IF) and real interest rate (RIR) have positive significant effect on foreign direct investment, Two months lag of FDI as positive significant effect on FDI while MS2 has negative significant effect on FDI, Three month lag of IF has negative significant effect on FDI, Four months lag of IF has positive significant effect on FDI and current year DCP has positive significant effect on FDI.  It is recommended that the Central bank of Nigeria (CBN) should encourage all banks to grant more loans to domestic private sectors which in turn lead to increase foreign direct investment in Nigeria.

Keywords: Foreign direct investment, financial development, Domestic credit to private sectors, Inflation, Real interest rate.

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E-RETAILING AND ITS IMPACT ON ACHIEVEMENT OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION OF CONSUMER PRODUCTS

 

 

KOCE, HENRY DIKO

Department of Marketing, Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

Electronic retailing has facilitated the emergence of new marketing strategy and business philosophy in recent years. The study adopted descriptive survey method and it is aimed to examine the impact of E-retailing on customer satisfaction. The study population is 305 consumers who were selected simple random sampling method. Taro Yamane formula was used to arrive at the sample size of 173 respondents. Structured questionnaires were administered to the sample whereas only 150 were filled and returned.  Chu-square (X2) was used for hypotheses with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Findings showed that buying commodities on online gives contentment due to its convenience and time saving but many also asserted that concerns is always about security of their accounts. It is therefore concluded that E-retailing is a veritable platform firms can use to reach prospects without incurring more cost but its adoption is not widespread due to apprehension of insecurity. The study therefore recommends that issue of cybersecurity should be taken seriously and hands must be on deck by security operatives to for safety of the internet if e-retailing business is to thrive in Nigeria.

Keywords: E-retailing, Impact, Achievement, Customer Satisfaction, Consumer; Products.

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THE IMPACT OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSBILITY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF MANUFACTURING COMPANIES IN NORTH EAST NIGERIA

 

 

JAAFAR ALIYU LIMAN

Department of Business Administration and Management, School of Management Sciences, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi state, Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has evolved from a theoretical concept to a complex managerial tool used to build a company’s reputation and enhance its competitive advantage hence currently an integral part of business strategy to enhance firm performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of corporate social responsibility on organizational performance in north east Nigeria. Manufacturing is a key driver of global trade and highly espoused in north east Nigeria development plan. The specific objectives and hypotheses sought to examine and test the effect of firms’ sensitivity to multiple stakeholders comprising employees, customers, community and government on financial and non-financial firm performance. The study was anchored on stakeholder, resource based and social contract theories. Descriptive survey research design was use to explain existing CSR phenomenon in relation to firm performance. Primary data was obtained by use of a self-administered questionnaire and secondary data obtained from organizations’ annual reports, journals, books, researches, theses, dissertations, articles and company websites by use of a similar questionnaire as used in primary data, after the response, to validate the primary data. Regression analysis was used to test the relationship between CSR and firm performance by use of SPSS, where data was presented in descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of the study revealed that customer, community and government relations have positive and significant effect on performance of manufacturing firm in north east Nigeria.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, employee relation, manufacturing companies

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CRYPTOCURRENCY MINERS: AN EMOTIONAL FINANCE VIEW OF WORTHLESS CURRENCY IN A DIGITAL ERA

 

 

*OBIAH MMADUBUIKE EMMANUEL; *ADIOHA, N.F.; & **MBAERI, C.C.

*Department of Accountancy, Imo state Polytechnic, Omuma (Mbano Campus), Imo State, Nigeria **Department of Banking and Finance, Imo state Polytechnic, Omuma (Mbano Campus), Imo State, Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT

The study reviewed the emotional finance view of worthless currency by cryptocurrency miners in this digital age. It adopted descriptive survey research design as a qualitative paper. Therefore, relevant data were collected and analyzed from secondary sources such as academic journals, conference book of proceedings, etc. The paper revealed that the emotions of the miners were propelled by profitability from mining the cryptocurrency and cautioned them that the currency no matter how profitable it is today, is still a worthless currency. It equally identified volatility, unpredictability, unacceptability, lack of recognition, among others as what renders cryptocurrency worthless. The paper recommended that regulatory and supervisory agencies operating in the financial industry like Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), Security and Exchange Commission (SEC), and other relevant agencies should hesitate campaigning against the mining of these cryptocurrencies as there is numerous numbers of them with different names to secure the vulnerable citizens.

Keywords: Cryptocurrency, Miners, Mining, Digital Era

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