SUB-SAHARA AFRICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN, SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SCIENCE RESEARCH (SJHSPR)
VOL. 26 (6) DECEMBER, 2022 ISSN: 2416-7999
Sub-Sahara African Academic Research Publications,
Centre for African Development Studies, University of Ibadan,
P. O. Box 10108, U. I. Post Office. Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria, West-Africa.
OVERVIEW OF LEGAL ISSUES IN THE USE OF INDIGENOUS HERBS FOR THE TREATMENT OF COVID -19 AND OTHER AILMENTS
LATEEFAT ADEOLA BELLO
Department of Commercial Law, ABU, Zaria
Medicine is as old as man; the consensus is that nature has a cure for every ailment. In time past life-threatening diseases that defied orthodox medicine were successfully treated in many parts of the world with traditional herbs, some of which have now been converted to drugs and supplements used by patients. Nature in itself is replete in the environment around us. Nigeria is richly blessed with abundance of herbs. The infusions from some of these herbs have been successfully used in the treatments of ailments that have defied orthodox medical treatment. While the COVID-19 pandemic engulfed the world, creating confusion in treatment and applicable remedies in its wake, many countries attempted the application of alternative medicine in the management of the disease. The use of indigenous herbs in this instance should ordinarily be a welcome development, but the possible use of herbs in the instant case has been trailed with controversy and negative publicity that created fear even amongst Nigerians, many of who may, in the past, have used these remedies for one ailment or another. This has raised questions on the effectiveness and reliability of herbs, what impedes the use(s) of herbs? Are there requisite legal and institutional frameworks to regulate the possible use of herbs for the treatment of COVID -19 and other related illnesses? What are the measures that must be put in place to protect this age long indigenous method for treatment of illnesses as a stop gap treatment in future occurrences? To address these questions, this paper adopts a doctrinal approach in its analysis of existing position on herbal cure, gives an overview of attempts to protect the indigenous knowledge of herbs and concludes with recommendations on providing an enabling legal environment to encourage, research and use of herbs as alternative to orthodox medicine as immediate and preparatory strategies in the fight against pandemics where orthodox treatment may fail to yield the desired results.
Keywords: Herbs, COVID -19 pandemic, Indigenous Knowledge, legal framework
NEEDS ANALYSIS IN ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES
1AKINTUNDE, ABRAHAM FEMI, (Ph.D.); 2 ADEYIGA, ABISOYE ADEDOYIN
1Department of Arts Education, Faculty of Education, University of Abuja. 2Department of Languages and Arts, School of Education, University of KwaZulu-Natal, 121 Marianhill Rd, Pinetown, Durban, 3605, South Africa.
Needs analysis is considered to be the cornerstone of English for Specific Purposes (ESP). This approach assumes that the language teaching will be adjusted to the specific linguistic and communicative needs of the particular learners with special attention being paid to the context in which they use, or will use, English language. In order to tailor the course to the learners’ needs, the ESP course should be preceded by an analysis of the learners’ needs as related to their future professional work and plans for the future, as well as to their preferred styles of learning. This Needs Analysis should also include within its scope some target situation analysis, which means the identifying of the features of the particular situations in which the students will use the foreign language, and also some discourse analysis, that is to say, the analysis of the language used in these situations. This paper examines a theoretical basis for the methodology which underpins courses of ESP, and explains the concept of Needs Analysis, methodologies and frameworks. It also provides the reader with the concept of ESP, EAP, EOP, and EIL, the role of the ESP teacher (practitioner), and teaching methodology (eclecticism). The paper concludes that Needs Analysis is the foundation on which we can develop curriculum content, teaching materials and methods that can lead to increasing the learners’ motivation and success.
Keywords: English for Specific Purposes, Practitioner, ESP Learners, Needs Analysis and methodology
EDUCATION AND POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IN NORTHERN NIGERIA: CASE SUTY KAFUR LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KATSINA STATE
*DR. ADAMU MOHAMMED; **AKILU MIKAILU; & **ABBAS ILIYASU WALI
*Department of Political Science, Faculty of Management and Social Sciences, Federal University Gusau, Zamfara State. **Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social and Management Sciences, Umaru Musa Yar’adua University, Katsina, Katsina State
This paper investigates the impact of level of education on political participation in Northern Nigeria, taking Kafur L.G.A of Katsina State as a case study. Many literatures relating to the concept of education and political participation have been reviewed with the intent to bridging the gaps these literatures could not bridge. Based on the data systematically collected from the field, the paper concludes that there exists a relationship between level of education and political participation. Similarly, the research discovers that other factors, apart from education e.g. the existing socio-economic condition of the people influences their willingness to participate in politics. The paper finally offers some recommendations on how to address problems related to education and political participation.
Keywords: Education, Political Participation, Northern Nigeria, Kafur, Katsina.
ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF CRISIS FATIGUE ON POPULATIONS IN NIGER STATE AND THE NEED FOR COUNSELLING INTERVENTIONS
BAHGO, SAMAILA BENEDICT
Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education, Veritas University Abuja
The study assessed the impact of crisis fatigue experiences among communities in Niger state Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of psychological crisis fatigue mostly arising from constant uncontrolled kidnappings, wanton killings and exorbitant Ransome payments extortions by Fulani Herdsmen killers and kidnappers on the people of Niger State, Nigeria. The goal of the study was to determine the impact of crisis weariness that has been brought on by the ongoing deaths of herders as well as how this crisis fatigue has affected large populations in Niger State of recent. Two research questions served as the study’s main directions for the descriptive survey research design. The sample was made up of 790 respondents who were chosen from eight Local Government Areas of Niger State using a purposive sampling technique. To gather information from the respondents on their experiences with crisis fatigue, a 21-item questionnaire was created by the researcher. Simple percentages and frequency counts were used to assess the data. The study’s findings revealed that people in Niger State have a negative impacted history of experiencing crisis fatigue. They gave high ratings for the general public’s negative impact of crisis fatigue on the populations in Niger state. For instance, 100 percent of respondents had a negative impact of crisis fatigue, while 98.65 percent had no access to information about any type of support for dealing with crisis fatigue, and so forth. The circumstance made the responders more prone to feelings of hopelessness and melancholy. Based on these, the researcher offered a framework for community counselling interventions for not just Niger state crisis fatigue residents only, but for all crisis fatigue victims across Nigeria as a whole. And that the Nigerian government focus most of its resources on removing the causes of crisis fatigue across the country.
Keywords: Herdsmen kidnappers and Killers, Ransome payments and crisis fatigue.
MEDIA PRACTICE, COMMUNITY-BASED NEWSPAPERS AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH-WEST NIGERIA
ASEKUN-OLARIMOYE, O. S.; EKEH, C. M.; & ABIOLA, T. L.
Department of Mass Communication, Adeleke Univeristy, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria
Practicing media at the community level have been difficult to sustain over the years in Nigeria. A few existing within the South-west are in the hands of individuals rather than being operated by community members. This study explores the influence of community-based media on community development. The main objective was to investigate if community-based newspapers contribute to economic and socio-political development of host communities. The survey, conducted among eight hundred and five (805) local residents of community-based newspapers showed that the relevance of community media in driving development at grassroot level cannot be overestimated. Community-based newspapers were revealed to be effective tool to bring about employment opportunities, electricity, roads, health care delivery, culture, and promotion of literacy through education. Additionally, they promoted community participation in politics, advocacy and fundraising for more development in host communities and beyond. The study concluded that community media brings development closer to the people, and those who benefit directly need to be involved in the entire process leading to media availability either as volunteers or contributors.
Keywords: Media practice, community-based newspapers, community development, community media, and development
THE IMPACT OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE ON NIGERIAN BANKS PERFORMANCE (A CASE OF LISTED BANKS ON THE NIGERIAN STOCK EXCHANGE)
DR ADAMU, DANIEL K.
Faculty of Management Sciences, Actuarial Science Department, University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.
There have been a lot of cases of failures and collapse of banks across various countries economy must especially in the developing economies. For a country like Nigeria, poor corporate governance amidst other factors has been the core cause of the recorded crisis in the Nigerian banking system. This research empirically investigates the impact of corporate governance on Nigerian banks performance. The effect of the board size and the relative size of the non-executive director on return on investment (ROA) of a sample of nine (9 )selected banks were investigated. Secondary data were sourced from the Nigeria Stock Exchange fact for the years 2007 to 2016; data also from various banks publication such as their annual reports were also employed for the course of this research and also Corporate Governance Brief, 2018. The pooled OLS was employed to estimate the relationship between the variables. The study revealed that the relationship between corporate governance and banks performance in Nigeria is quite significant as a unit the board size and the relative size of non-executive directors increases the return on asset. The study concluded that proper structuring of the stakeholders in the corporate governance team will reduce and possibly prevent bank failure or collapse in Nigeria. Amongst other recommendations, it is advised that banks should engage in proper strategic training of board members and senior bank managers especially in areas that are promote internal control effectiveness, board structure and independence and in ethical bank practices.
Keywords: Corporate Governance, Strategic Training, Collapse, Performance, Internal Control, Governance, Returns, Investment.
ASSESSMENT OF BROADCAST MEDIA USAGE OF DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY ON THE COVERAGE OF ELECTRONIC TRANSMISSION OF ELECTION RESULTS IN NIGERIA
OJO, TITILOYE OYEYINKA Ph.D
Department of Mass Communication, KolaDaisi University, Ibadan
There is an urge by most developing nations to shift from the traditional voting processes to the use of digital technology in their various political systems. Today’s, digital electronics technology have open more access to the use of electronic Voting Systems in several national electoral processes due to its high accuracy, precision, flexibility and support for technology integration. In a situation of this nature, broadcast media as part of the fourth estate of the realm are expected to disseminate objective, accurate, verified and authoritative information about the whole process and also to demonstrate the ideal of building a sustainable democracy. This study is examined broadcast media usage of digital technology in the coverage of electronic transmission of election results in Nigeria. This study adopted descriptive survey and structured interview. Questionnaire and interview guide were utilized for data gathering. This paper was anchored on the social responsibility and Agenda-setting theories of the media. Qualitatively, professionals such as media practitioners, Independent National Election Commission (INEC) officers, public analysts, selected electorates and political parties’ representative. Data collected was analysed using descriptive statistic while the qualitative data was recorded, transcribed and process qualitatively. From the findings, it is clear that the usage of digital technology helps the broadcast media to effectively inform, educate, entertain and sensitize the public about election erring and transmission of the results electronically. The study revealed Digital technology usage affected the selected broadcast positively in the areas of creating new contents, translation of sound and picture into digital data, increase in capacity of transmission, improvement of picture quality, clear and quality signal and simultaneous news dissemination. This study found out that the selected broadcast media still maintaining their principles of agenda-setting, gate-keeping, surveillance and watchdog in the discharge of duties to the society. This study established that finance, death of manpower, poor power supply, high import rate and inconsistency of regulatory system are the challenges confronted by the selected broadcast media. From the findings, this study recommends the following; the broadcast media should take advantage of its audio-visual digital technology to disseminate election results in Nigeria. Government should help in reducing high import rate and also provide loans for the acquisition of digital technology capable of bettering their operations. Government and media proprietors should partner to provide enabling environment in terms of policy implementation, manpower training and poor power supply.
Keywords: Broadcast Media, Assessment, Digital technology, Electronic transmission of elections.
A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT (NESREA) ACT
*DR. ODEYEMI, OLUWATOBI IYOBUCHEBO; & **OSHO, SHOLA SOENE
*National Enforcement Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency. NESREA **Ikeji-Arakeji, Osun State.
Nigerians do not pay enough attention to their environment and the negative effect of their activities on the environment. Even the Agency saddled with the protection of the environment has not made much difference. The National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (‘NESREA’ or ‘the Agency’) was established by the National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (Establishment) Act No. 25 of 2007– as a replacement to the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (repealed by Section 36 of the NESREA Act. The extant legislation is currently codified as the National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (Establishment) Act, Cap N164, Laws of the Federation, 2010 (‘the Act’). This study focuses on the NESREA ACT, its establishment, powers and limitations of the Agency. The Act should be amended to include the regulation of the oil and gas industry. Pre action notice as a prerequisite to instituting legal action in Court should be removed from the Act.
Keywords: Awareness, Compliance, Regulations, environment, enforcement, Pollution, Environmental Law.
INSTRUMENT OF PERCEPTION CHANGE USED BY OPINION LEADERS TO CHANGE VOTER PERCEPTION OF URBAN AND RURAL ELECTORATES IN THE 2019 GUBERNATORIAL ELECTION IN SOUTHWEST, NIGERIA
AMOS, KOLAWOLE ZECHARIAH, PhD.; ADEOSUN, ‘SHOLA, PhD.; & KAZEEM, SEMIU BABS.
Department of Mass Communication, Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Abeokuta, Ogun State
Electorates’ perception of candidates contesting for political offices, no doubt, is a key factor in determining the voting decisions of the electorates. Having realized the importance of voter perception to electoral victory, candidates for political offices are always concerned about how to influence or alter voters’ perception of who they are. Past studies revealed that one of the key agents of perception change is the opinion leader who, by virtue of his goodwill, credibility and closeness to the voters can influence their perception of candidates. The type of leadership style used to ensure perception change and the degree of the change in perception attributable to opinion leaders’ influence have however not been thoroughly investigated by existing studies. This study employed survey research design. The population of the study included all 11,897,401 registered voters in the three South-west state that conducted gubernatorial election in 2019. The states are: Ogun, Oyo and Lagos. A sample size of 1,067 was generated. The multi-stage sampling technique was used for the study. The study showed that opinion leaders significantly influenced voters’ perception of political candidates as information given by opinion leaders made them to view a particular candidate positively during the 2019 gubernatorial election in South-west, Nigeria. Urban (x=3.69) and rural (x=3.80). The study concluded that the main instrument of perception change employed by opinion leaders among urban and rural electorates was the quality of information offered by opinion leaders about a particular candidate. The study, therefore, recommended that opinion leaders should concentrate on offering illuminating information about their preferred candidates rather than the use of gifts or coercion to change voter perception.
Keywords: Opinion leadership instrument, Opinion leadership style, Perception change, Urban and Rural electorate, South-west, Nigeria.
AN ASSESSMENT OF THE MOST-FAVOURED NATION TREATMENT OBLIGATION AS CENTRAL TO MULTILATERAL TRADING UNDER THE WTO REGIME: THE AFRICAN PERSPECTIVE
SULAIMAN SHEHU, Esq.
Public Administration Department, School of Business Studies, The Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.
The World Trade Organisation (WTO) came into being on the January 1st, 1995. It is the only global International organisation (with more than 164 members) making rules on trade between countries. Its Secretariat is in Geneva, Switzerland. Central to WTO are Agreements that are signed by the Members and ratified by their various parliaments. WTO aims and objectives are establishing a uniform institutional framework for smooth conduct of trade relationships between member states. It aims to ensure that trade between member states is being carried out efficiently, conveniently and without inhibition. In a nutshell, trade liberalisation is the ‘core goal’ of the WTO and this includes but is not limited to removal of trade barriers such as unfair trade tariffs, promoting fair treatment for international investors, promoting a non-discriminatory policy among Members, preferential treatment for the developing nations and implementing the Most-Favoured Nations Treatment (known as MFN) among member states. Article 11(2) of the WTO Agreement distinguished between Multilateral and Plurilateral agreements: while in the former is a binding agreement on every member of the WTO which must be consented to with the WTO Agreement at one or as a whole, in the latter, a country can decide to either ratify a particular agreement(s) or not, in other words, it is not binding.
Keywords: WTO, Africa, GATT, GATS, Most, MFN, Multilateralism.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSES OF MEDIA COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS IN NIGERIA AND VIETNAM
*ABATI MOBOLAJI OLUWASEUN, PhD; & **KAREEM GANIY AJIBOLA
*Dept. of Mass Communication, Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro, Ogun, State. **University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos State
The role of mass media in the society generally, has helped in keeping the people informed and educated. It also helps in making government accountable for its actions through the watch-dog functions. This paper examines the nature, operations and stakeholders of the media systems in Nigeria and Vietnam, from their political, socio-cultural and economic background. It also looked into media ownership, economic influence, mode of funding and the effect of media systems in the two countries. The paper hinges its framework on the provisions of the Libertarian and Authoritarian theories of the press. Findings from the study showed that Vietnam is gradually opening up its media space due to the effects of globalization, while Nigeria is strengthening its media sector with the passing of the freedom of information act. The study is descriptive in nature, using secondary data for information collection.
Keywords: Comparative Analysis, Media, Communication Systems, Libertarianism, Communism.
TOWARDS IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF TEACHING AND LEARNING OF HISTORY IN NIGERIAN SCHOOLS; THE PLACE OF EFFECTIVE TEACHING METHODOLOGY
UMAR IBRAHIM BABA; MOHAMMED CHIROMA; USMAN ABDULMUMIN; & INUWA ALIYU BOBO
History Department, School of Arts and Social Sciences, A.D. Rufa’i College of Education, Legal and General Studies, Misau, Bauchi State
The success of any lesson is determined by the preparedness of the teacher, learners’ interest, instructional resources and conducive environment for learning and above all the method of teaching adopted by the teacher. The selection of the method to be used by a teacher depends on the skills of the teacher and the knowledge he/she wants to impart. History as one of the important school subjects needs to be well taught in order to make learners appreciate the relevance of the learning. For this to happen the students’ participation in the lessons is very important and therefore selection of appropriate teaching method which should be student centered is necessary. The paper discusses the position of history teachers and teaching processes in history lessons, teacher preparedness which is also useful for effective teaching and learning of history and most importantly some innovative methods of teaching history. As part of the way forward the paper recommends that our institutions of learning should make history education programmes attractive so that students can enroll into history programmes in order to train more teachers for history and also government should make adequate provisions in the educational policies that will ensure full implementation of the teaching of history in our institutions of learning.
REVIEW OF NATIONAL INSECURITY AND THE NIGERIA ECONOMY
DIBIA, GODWIN CHUKWUEDO; & EGBULE, VENATUS
Department of Arts & Humanities, Delta State Polytechnic, Ogwashi-Uku, Delta State.
National insecurity and the Nigeria economy was reviewed in order to bring to bare the high level effect these “security threats” can cause on the development of the Nigerian Economy. The review pointed to the fact that insecurity will not only jeopardize the growth of the economy but every aspect of Nigeria’s socio political development. Many factors were posited to be the main causes of these threats ranging from corruption, political thurgery to lack of concern of the Government towards the Nigerian Citizenry. The researcher therefore suggested some recommendations to alleviate if not totally eradicate the presence of these threats; these include care for the citizenry by way of employment, education etc, accepting the contribution of every reasonable sect in planning security strategies to eradicate these threats.
POSSIBLE WAYS OF CURBING THE PROBLEM OF EROSION IN NIGERIA: AN APPRAISAL
*KEKE KYRIAN I.; **VEN JONATHAN C.; ***NWARU CHRISTIANA CHINWE (PhD)
*Social Studies Department, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education (A.I.C.F.C.E) Owerri **Imo State Polytechnic, Omuma, Oru-East, Imo State, Nigeria ***School Of General Studies, Imo State Polytechnic, Omuma, Imo State, Nigeria
Erosion is a natural phenomenon and in each year is determinant on the level of down pour or rain fall so to speak. One thing is certain and that is the fact that rain must fall, secondly that erosion is a sure must that it must come up, what seem so worrisome is the fact that certain people fail to have thought over where they are building their habitats and secondly the menace of erosion in such areas. The rate of rain fall in one year usually differs from what it might look like in other years, no doubt. At certain times weather forecasters in Nigeria like other countries furnish the people with information before the beginning of each rainy season, at one time or the other, such information is taken for granted and we find ourselves in the doldrum of erosion menace. In Nigeria, at present very many people are already victims of erosion devastation, yet its not over for tge year as scores of lives and property have been lost to erosion. The question every right thinking Nigerian will be asking is, since we know that erosion is an outcome of excessive downpour, what could be done to avoid its devastating effects. The above posed question form the gamut of this study. Various data collection techniques as oral interviews, journals, textbooks, periodicals, questionnaire and the internet were used. The basic need theory was adopted as theoretical framework. Thereafter, conclusion was drawn.
Keywords: Possible, Ways, Curbing, Problem, Erosion, Nigeria.
HARNESSING THE POTENTIAL OF NIGERIAN PIDGIN TO SERVE AS A TOOL FOR NATIONAL INTEGRATION
IBRAHIM, MUSTAPHA AFOLABI; AUTA, IBRAHIM KANYA; & KAJINYANA, JOSEPH AYEACE
Department of English, Kebbi State Polytechnic, Dakingari
This paper critically examined the issues surrounding the choice of an indigenous language(s) as Nigeria’s national language, and resolved that provided focus remains on the indigenous languages, the national language question will continue to linger in the Nigerian linguistic space in spite of the provisions in the language policy. It argued that Nigerian Pidgin is a language capable of not only being the national language for Nigeria, but has all the potential to serve as a unifying factor and a major tool for enhancing national integration in a nation so divided along ethnic lines. It concluded that seeing as Nigeria’s national language issue may never be peacefully resolved in favour of an indigenous mother tongue due to the multiplicity of languages and the deep affinity that their speakers have with them, the Nigerian government should consider recognizing, standardizing and adopting Nigerian Pidgin as Nigeria’s national language and as the language for instruction and research.
Keywords: Nigerian Pidgin, national language, indigenous languages, multilingualism
NEW DIMENSIONS FOR THE MOTIVATION OF NIGERIAN WORKERS IN THE 21ST CENTURY AND POSSIBLE WAYS OF PROMOTING DEVELOPMENT
*VEN EGESI JONATHAN.C; *NWARU CHRISTIANA CHINWE; & **AZUBUIKE CHINEDUM AUGUSTA
*Imo State Polytechnic, Omuma, Oru-East **Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri
Nigerian workers have been discovered to be contributory to development and growth of the Nigeria. One fact that must be mentioned is the fact that as a country Nigeria as a country cannot boast of any form of development without the civil servants. Though one may be asking what benefit the civil servants are to the nation, states or local governments. This paper is of the opinion that civil servants are not mainly set up for monetary gains, rather their services are so crucial that we cannot do without them. But one other thing that must be said is that Nigerian workers have been discovered to lack motivation and this has made the civil service to lose its taste and vigour. The civil service have been considered by many as a place for the never do well kind of people, or sometimes a place for women to work. This is purely because the motivation and drive is no longer there. The government should ask themselves where actually they have gotten it all wrong. What must be mentioned remains that if things continue the way it is, a time will come when people turn down the offer of working in the civil service and governmental agencies no matter how much they are promised to do it. This foreseen embarrassing situation for the purpose or reason for this study. Instruments of data collection as oral interview, journal, periodicals and text books were used to gather data for analysis. The Expectancy theory and Goal theory were adopted as theoretical foundation, thereafter, conclusion was drawn.
KEYWORDS: Dimension, Motivation, Nigeria, Century, Possible, Promotion, Development.
MITIGATING ELECTRONIC PAYMENT APATHY: PERTINENT FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA
EHIGHEBOLO, IZIN ANNE
Department of Humanities and Social sciences, School of General studies, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo state, Nigeria
Many countries of the world have witnessed a transition from the regular use of physical currencies for transactions to electronic payments because of the inherent benefits. With the introduction of electronic payment in 1996 and its nationwide implementation in 2012, electronic payment is yet to be fully embraced in Nigeria. Using the magnitude of transactions performed with five selected electronic payment channels from 2012 to 2019; this study adduces illiteracy, lack of awareness of electronic payment benefits, lack of trust in the payment system amongst others as some of the reasons for the lukewarm attitude towards its usage. The paper argues that addressing this aloofness is necessary to achieve economic growth in Nigeria and so suggests that stakeholders make conscientious efforts to improve the necessary infrastructure required for an effective electronic payment system; be innovative in getting more user-friendly electronic payment channels; sensitize the populace about the safety and benefits of electronic payments and establish a functional technical team to address glitches when they occur.
Keywords: Electronic payment, E-payment channel, Economic growth, Nigeria
EMPOWERING DELTA STATE ENGLISH TEACHERS ON ORAL ENGLISH PROFICIENCY IN A MULTILINGUAL CLASSROOM
EBOH-NZEKWUE, ROSELYN; NKEREUNWEM, OGONNA NCHEKUBE; DOMINIC, PATIENCE NGOZI; & OZOEMELEM-GAD, ODIRICHI MICHAEL
Language and Communication, Education Department, School of General Studies, Federal College of Education Technical, Asaba, Delta, Nigeria
Every language has oral and written forms. Proficiency in oral English is a dire necessity in the Nigerian multilingual classroom. Like other second language learners, Delta State English Language learners face some challenges. These include those arising from lack of proficiency in oral English. To that end, this study examines the impact of empowering Delta State teachers on oral English language proficiency in the Nigerian multilingual classroom. Data were drawn from questionnaire, observation and library and internet textual materials. Ten (10) respondents each were randomly selected from the twenty-five (25) Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Delta State. The 215 questionnaires used for analysis were those duly filled and returned out of the 250 administered to the respondents. The analysis shows that empowering teachers on oral English proficiency greatly impacts on students in learning and using oral English. The teachers too gain expertise, acquire and demonstrate mastery of oral English proficiency and perform better in and outside the classroom. Their students undoubtedly tap from these. The study concludes that empowering the teachers on oral English proficiency implies arming them for competence and efficiency in teaching oral English and building learners’ proficiency. The study recommends that government and financially buoyant organisations should give priority to teacher education and consistently organise and fund empowerment programmes for teachers.
Keywords: Oral English, Proficiency, Teacher education, multilingual Classroom, Delta State, Impact, Empowering