Berkeley Journal of Health, Metabolism & Nutrition Studies Vol. 20 No.3


BERKELEY INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH, METABOLISM & NUTRITION STUDIES (BJHMNS)

VOL. 20 NO. 3 – DECEMBER, 2022


Published by:

Berkeley Research and Publications International,

Bayero University, Kano, PMB 3011, Kano State, Nigeria.

Email: berkeleynigeriapublications@gmail.com


PAPERS:


MEDICINAL PLANTS USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF TYPHOID FEVER IN TALATA-MAFARA LOCAL GOVERNMENT, ZAMFARA STATE, NIGERIA

 

YUSUF YAHAYA MIYA1, IBRAHIM FRIDAY SULE2, YUSUF SARKINGOBIR3, ABDULRAHMAN HAMZA3

1Kushtia Islamic University Bangladesh. 2Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi, Nigeria. 3Department of Environmental Education Shehu Shagari University of Education Sokoto, Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT

An ethnobotanical study was carried out between January and December 2019 in Talata-mafara, Zamfara State, therewith aimed at enumerating and reporting medicinal plants to treat the typhoid fever in Talata-mafara, Zamfara State. This would give a baseline data for onward screening and anti-salmonella activity study of the plants. Ethnobotanical data were collected with the aid of a tape recorder and supported with a structured questionnaire during the interview interactive session with the Traditional medical practitioners. The results revealed a sum of five different plant species from five families; therewith the most utilized plant was Terminalia avicennioides. Therein, that some of the plants are more utilized than the others, thereby confirming their importance. The informants (15.71%) revealed that Terminalia Avicennioides is most popular, followed by Calotropis procera cited by 7 informants (10%).  Carica papaya, Eucalyptus camadulensis and Azadirachta indica cited by 6 informants (8.57%) came in third position. And Mangifera indica were reported by 5 informants (7.14%). The survey also revealed that the leaves were the major parts used for herbal preparation. The major ways of plants preparation are decoction and infusion. There is need to carry out phytochemical screening for these plants for more comprehension and future use.

Keywords: Typhoid fever, metabolites, traditional medicine, Carica papaya, Magifera indica

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CARROT (DAUCUS CAROTA) ROOTS EFFECTS ON BONE MINERAL CONTENT IN OVARIECTOMIZED RATS

 

ABDULLAHI A.*1, NDIFE J.2, BAMALLI Z.1

Department of Food Science and Technology, Kano University of Science and Technology Wudil, Kano State Nigeria; 2Department of Food Science and Technology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

The integrity of bone mineral density (BMD) is maintained through balance bone remodeling process which is mediated by coordinated activities of osteoblasts (bone formation cells) and osteoclasts (bone resorption cells), imbalance of this process where the activities of osteoclast out weight that of osteoblast bring about disease called osteoporosis and if this disease is as a result of estrogen deficiency is termed as postmenopausal osteoporosis often seen in aged women and ovariectomized (OVX) rats. This disease is regarded as public health problem with high morbidity and mortality among elderly women. The first effort to treat this disease was estrogen therapy however, its comes with several adverse effects. Phytonutrient has long been used to manage and treat chronic and aged related disease as they have less or no side effect, carrot roots (CRT) was used to evaluate its effect on bone mineral content in OVX rats. Twenty-four (24) female Wistar rats were OVX and six (6) were sham operated, the rats were divided into five groups (n=6): 1. sham rats, 2. OVX, 3. OVX + 200 mg/kg CRT, 4. OVX + 100 mg/kg CRT and 5. OVX + 5 mg/kg ALE and treated daily (orally) with CRT for six weeks. Some mineral composition of CRT was analyzed. The result obtained indicated that oral administration of 400 mg/kg CRT for 6 weeks significantly (P<0.05) elevated the content of femoral ash weight, calcium and phosphorus level and this may indicate the effect of CRT on bone minerals.

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PREVALANCE OF GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES OF RED-BILLED QUELEA (QUELEA QUELEA) IN GYAWANA ECOSYSTEM, ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

 

*EMMANUEL H., BUBA, Z.M., ELIHU, A., JOHN, M.

*Department of Zoology, Adamawa State University, Mubi. Department of Community Health, Adamawa State College of Health, Mubi

 

ABSTRACT

A research on the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of Red-billed quelea (Quelea quelea) was carried out to identify the species of gastrointestinal parasites and their prevalence in Q. quelea in Gyawana ecosystem. And also compare the prevalence of species of gastrointestinal parasites by gender in study area. The study was conducted for a period of three (3) months (February to April 2022). A total of sixty (60) adult male and female Quelea bird (Q. quelea), thirty (30) for each sexe were trapped using black nylon mist nets. Direct smear method for fecal examination was performed and stool specimen was processed following a formal-ether standing operation procedure. The gastrointestinal parasites were identified on the basis of morphological characteristics. The data obtained in this study was statistically analyzed using the chi-square to test for the differences by gender at P>0.05. The result reveals five different species of gastrointestinal parasites were observed. Ascaris species has the highest prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of 29 frequencies, followed by Girdia species with 14 frequencies and the least is Entamoeba species with 7 frequencies, the prevalence of the parasites are in this order Ascaris species>Girdia species>Coccidia species>Strongyloides species> Entamoeba species. There was significant difference between the species of gastrointestinal parasite based on their prevalence at (P< 0.05). The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of Q. quelea by gender is 20(66.67%) and 21(70.00%), male and female respectively. However, there was no significant difference between gender and gastrointestinal infection (P> 0.05). Base on the findings of this study, the researchers therefore recommend that, consumption of Red-billed quelea (Q. quelea) as bush meat should be minimized and well screened for possible parasites before consumption to avoid further transmission of these parasites to human.

Keywords: Prevalence, Gastrointestinal, Parasites, Red-billed Quelea, Gyawana- Ecosystem

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IMPACT OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL ON WATER QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF CLARIAS GARIEPINUS FINGERLINGS FED COMMERCIAL FISH FEED

 

OLUSOLA A. BABALOLA

Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture Management, Lagos State University of Science and Technology, Ikorodu, Lagos

 

ABSTRACT

Effect of powdered activated charcoal on water quality and performance characteristics of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings was investigated. 225 numbers of C. gariepinus fingerlings with average weight of 8.15± 0.5g were cultured in fifteen (15) plastic cisterns of 45 liters capacity each. Powdered activated charcoal in Pouch were submerged in 45Litres of water in each treatment at 0g (T1), 25g (T2), 50g (T3), 75g (T4) and 100g (T5) respectively. Branded fish feed was used to feed C. gariepinus fingerlings for 12 weeks. Growth performance and water quality parameters taken during the experiment are subjected to One-way ANOVA for the statistical analyses. The results obtained showed that there are significant differences (p< 0.05) in water quality parameters and performance characteristics of C. gariepinus fingerlings. It is therefore recommended that powdered activated charcoal can be used to improve water quality at 1.25g/L of water for optimum performance of C. gariepinus fingerlings.

Keywords: activated charcoal, water quality, C. gariepinus, Growth.

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DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS IN SELECTED FISH SAMPLES OBTAINED FROM KAINJI LAKE NEW BUSSA NIGER STATE

 

AA ADEKOLA, A.I. TSAFE, I.M. MAGAMI, U.Z. SA’ID

Chemistry unit Central service laboratory, National Institute for Fresh Water Fisheries Research, PMB 6006, New Bussa, Niger state, Nigeria. Department of pure and applied chemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University PMB 2346, Sokoto, Nigeria. National research institute for chemical technology, PMB 1052, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT

Two species of fishes namely Oreochromis niloticus and Synodontis schall obtained at a distance of 50m, 100m and 150m from Kanji dam were investigated for heavy metals and organic pollutants. The control sample was obtained from Yangba river along Wawa road in New Bussa, Niger State. Concentration of six (6) heavy metals namely; Copper, Manganese, Chromium, Zinc, Lead and Cadmium was determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The result showed that the concentration of these metals are higher at 50m and 100m away from the dam site respectively. The maximum concentration of these heavy metal in Oreochromis niloticus and Synodontis schall were observed at sampling point closer to the dam and decreases as the distance away from the dam increases. From the result analysed, the mean concentration of manganese ranges from 2.153-7.820mg/Kg and 2.822-3.569mg/Kg, copper ranges from 3.240-5.330mg/Kg and 4.279-7.057mg/Kg, and chromium ranges from 1.557-3.010mg/Kg and 0.698-4.650mg/Kg, zinc ranges from 1.650-5.188mg/Kg and 4.385-5.097mg/Kg, lead ranges from 0.738-1.365mg/Kg and 1.689-2.354mg/Kg while cadmium ranges from 0.481-1.440mg/Kg and 1.132-2.013mg/Kg respectively. None of the heavy metals investigated was above the maximum permissible level set by the world health organization (WHO)

Keywords: Water, Kainji dam, Fish, bioaccumulation, Heavy Metals.

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INFLUENCING FACTORS AFFECTING THE USE OF MODERN CONTRACEPTIVES AMONG WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE: EVIDENCE FROM THE NIGERIA DEMOGRAPHIC HEALTH SURVEY

 

*ADENIJI ABDULGAFAR A.; **EGWU DAVID; **ABBARETT .F. MICCAH; & ***JOE BAKO GALADIMA;

*Department of Economics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. **Department of Social Sciences And Humanities Federal Polytechnic Offa, Kwara State. ***Department of Business Administration, Federal Polytechnic Offa, Kwara State.

 

ABSTRACT

Contraceptives has been shown to promote maternal health and well-being, as well as child survival. The goal of this study is to look into the socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors that influence women of reproductive age in Nigeria’s use of modern contraceptives. The study used data from the 2018 Nigeria Demographic Health Survey and multivariate regression analysis to examine it. Results from the study shows that religion, residence and exposure to need for contraceptive have a negative but significant influence on the use of modern contraceptives. While education, wealth, marital status and desire for more children positively influence the use of contraceptives. The study therefore concludes that these factors play a key role in the usage of contraceptive by women of reproductive age in Nigeria.

Keywords: modern contraceptives, contraceptive use, reproductive age women, socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors

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BIOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF LIVER AND KIDNEY PARAMETERS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PETROLEUM EXPOSED AND PETROLEUM UN-EXPOSED ADULTS IN BAUCHI METROPOLIS

 

*ABDULRASHID MOHAMMED; *DANIEL HASSAN MHYA; **AMINA MOHAMMED; *SALAMATU YAU IBRAHIM; & ***MUKTARI BALA

*Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. **Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi Bauchi State, Nigeria. ***Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, Kano State, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

Hydrocarbons which are the main chemical components of petroleum are constantly inhaled by petroleum hawkers which may result in derangement of kidney and liver functions. This study aimed to compare the liver and kidney parameters in petroleum exposed compared to un-exposed individuals. This was a comparative cross-sectional study carried out among all consenting adults in Bauchi metropolis. Blood samples were collected from the subjects and analyzed using spectrophotometric technique while other data was collected using structured interviewer-administered questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS software. Analysis employed descriptive and inferential statistics. Level of significance was set at 5%. The result showed a statistically significant increase (p<0.001) in liver parameters like alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin and direct bilirubin. Also, total protein showed a statistically significant increase (p=0.002) in exposed group as compared to unexposed group, while albumin showed no statistical significant difference (p=0.572). There was a statistically significant increase in kidney parameters such as urea, sodium and chloride with a P-value <0.001 in all parameters and (p<0.010) for creatinine. In addition, there was no statistically significant difference in while bicarbonate and potassium levels in both comparison groups with p-values (0.207) and (0.807) respectively. The results of this study showed that petroleum hawkers are at risk of diseases of liver and kidney due to constant exposure and inhalation of these hydrocarbons.

Keywords: Hydrocarbons, Kidney parameters, Liver parameters, Petroleum hawkers

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ANALYSIS OF PHYSIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS TO EVALUATE THE EFFECT OF POLLUTANTS ACCUMULATED IN A RIVER BED SEDIMENT

 

1BILYAMINU WUDINI BARAU AND 2NASIRU YAHAYA AHMED

1Department of Biological Science, Taraba State University, Jalingo, Nigeria. 2Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering Technology. Federal Polytechnic Bali, Taraba State, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

The potential sources of water contamination are geological conditions, industrial and agricultural activities, and water treatment plants. Poor water quality affects not only aquatic life but the surrounding ecosystem as well. From the result the mean value of the Physiochemical parameters are; temperature is 28.16 oC, pH is 8.18, conductivity is 38.55, DO is 7.11 and TDS is 3.05. The values of water quality parameters collected from different point of the river were found to be within the recommended limits of WHO and NDWQS. The concentrations of the heavy metals were also measured and found to be well below the standard maximum concentrations. Similarly, the mean value of heavy metal concentration in the sediment were as follows; Cr = BLD, Cd = 0.059 mg/kg, Cu = 17.52 mg/kg, Zn = 1.753 mg/kg, and Pb = 0.025 mg/kg. Hence the result revealed that heavy metals concentration in the sediment were within Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)/WHO limit. Concentrations of heavy metals in the sediment and the water were within the recommended limit for fishing, irrigation and other domestic activities. Therefore, these metals have no immediate health threat on the surrounding ecosystem that are benefiting from River Taraba at Bali, but periodic monitoring of heavy metals in the River is recommended since the river serves as a source of fish, irrigational farming and other domestic activities for all-year-round.

Keywords: Physiochemical parameters, River bed sediment, Heavy Metals, pollution.

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ASSESSMENT OF HALIDES (FLUORIDE AND CHLORIDE) AND SOME SELECTED METALS CONCENTRATIONS IN THE SELECTED TOOTHPASTES MARKETED IN SAKI, OYO STATE, NIGERIA

 

*IMRAN, M.O.; *LAWAL, I.A.; *AZEEZ, G.O.; & **BOLANLE, EZRA OYEWUMI

*Science Laboratory Technology Department, the Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki, Oyo State, **Science Laboratory Technology Department, Adeseun Ogundoyin Polytechnic, Eruwa, Oyo State.

 

ABSTRACT

Bad breath can be a major problem, which is caused by odour producing bacteria that grown in the mouth. Bad breath can often be prevented by the use of oral care product. Toothpaste has multifunctional configuration as oral care product that can however constitute a possible source, among others, of toxic metals exposure in public health. Although toothpastes are considered as topical cosmetics that are not normally ingested, it is evident that they may contribute to the introduction of heavy metals and zenobiotics through buccal and gastrointestinal absorption. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of concentrations of minerals in different toothpaste brand, (Olive, Pepsodent, My my, Dabur herbal and Close-up) marketed in a student populated area in Saki area of Oyo states. Digestion of the sample was carried out using aqua regia. Results of the analysis showed that Zinc and Tin exhibit high values of concentrations, this is because the two nutrients wee incorporated as parts of the ingredient at the amounts which were not beyond the acceptable values recommended by standard organizations. Pb and Ni were obtained in meaningful amounts that do not beyond the limit set by EU and US standard. Cl and I values in the sample A-E (Table 4.1) showed that Cl is of highest concentration which ranges from 450 to 175ppm, of which sample C possess the highest value. All were present in the range that were not exceeded the permissible limit recommend by the approved body such as WHO and USEPA. It can be concluded that those toothpaste of this study as at the time of this research are safe to use.

Keywords: Toothpaste, Bacteria, Minerals, Digestion, Heavy metals.

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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SYRUPS PRODUCED FROM DATE FRUIT AND INVERT SUGAR

 

JIBRIL, MARYAM

Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 0231, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

This study the comparative analysis of syrups produced from Date Fruit and invert sugar. The raw materials obtained from market, reduced to exact nectar by wet milled and sieved in a muslin cloth. Results showed that Date syrup contain more mineral content than Inverted sugar syrup at a value of 85.62, 130.00 and 75.43 as compared to 20.45, 25.88 and 13.40 of Calcium, Potassium, and Magnesium respectively. Considering the high mineral content of Date palm syrup to Inverted sugar syrup, the consumption and utilization of Date syrup will provide more benefit to the human body thereby reducing risk of diseases and sickness such as diabetes that are associated with the consumption of Sugar.

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A SURVEY OF PERCEPTION (ON HEALTH EFFECTS OF) MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE (A TYPICAL FOOD ADDITIVE COMMONLY USED AS FLAVOURING AGENT) AND ATTITUDES AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS IN SOKOTO, NIGERIA

 

NAFISA ABDULRAHMAN ASHAFA

Department of Biology, Shehu Shagari College of Education Sokoto, Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT

In recent years, there is approval of thousands of additives to our food. But by the days many studies especially in animals have shown that food additives are associated with side/health effects. Particularly, the monosodium glutamate has been approved by many constituted authorities to be used in foods, despite the numerous health effects reported to be caused by MSG in animal studies and few studies in humans. In short, MSG is a revolving axis of controversy on whether it is safe or not. This study employed a survey was. Therein, 420 questionnaires were distributed and 375 were retrieved later, using a tripartite of random, purposive, and convenience sampling fashions. The data collected were managed and descriptive statistics were calculated using SPSS version 16. The respondent’s awareness on various names of MSG is diverse. Ajinomoto have the highest (80%) submission, then E261(40%), then Chinese salt (32%) and lastly Ginseng powder (20%). bread (40%), chicken (72%), mayonnaise (60%), restaurant food (93%), chocolate (32%), and rice (60%). Likewise, the knowledge on side (health) effects of MSG vouch by the respondents is something appreciable in most of the questions asked. Parable, obesity (52%), neuronal (72%), breathing problems (40%), liver inflammation (76%), nausea (88%), headache (88%), and endocrine dysfunction (76%). The respondents are mostly aware of the basic knowledge of MSG and they do believed that care should be taken when buying food products. There is need for advocacy, health education campaigns about the possible health effects of the MSG and related food chemicals.

Keywords: Food, monosodium glutamate, humans, attitudes, students

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SURVIVAL ANALYSIS ON NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CHILDREN UNDER FIVE YEARS

 

ABDULKADIR KHADIJA & NENLAT RAPHEAL RINYEN

Department of Mathematics & Statistics, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi

 

ABSTRACT

Malnutrition in children is an important public health issue especially for developing countries like Nigeria. Weight-for-height (wasting), height-for-age (stunting) and weight-for-age (underweight) are three important parameters for assessing nutritional status in children. Malnutrition is estimated to contribute directly or indirectly to more than 33% of all child deaths globally. The aim of the study is to  identify the prevalence of malnutrition in under five children, To develop a model that predict the prevalence of malnutrition in children of under five years, and To test the suitability of the model. A well-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from mothers and their children at Miri primary health care Centre at Bauchi. The software packaged that has been used to process data is SPSS version 21. the test of independence between the dependent variable (nutrition) and independent variable (age, sex, occupation of the father, occupation of mother, education status of the father, education status of the mother, age of the mother, types of breast feeding, immunization status, size of the households and birth order) was performed to verify whether they are statistically significant or not at 5% level of significance to the nutrition status of under-five children. A modified cox proportional hazard model containing all the predictor variable was fitted it was found that 52(28.4%) are stunted, 65(35.5%) are wasted and 66(36.1%) are underweight The study shows that various socio-demographic and health service covariates are significant determinants of malnutrition. Accordingly, the finding of the study show that age, sex, source of drinking water, mothers age, education status of the parent, occupation of the parent, age of the mother, immunization status, breast feeding practice, family size and birth order of the child have statistically significant effect on the outcome of the nutritional status of children under-five years of age. Finally, it has been recommended that   access to education for both parent should be given due emphasis, and Children from mothers age range from 15-25 years are at the higher risk of malnutrition. Thus, educating women about the adverse effect of early marriage is of paramount importance.

Keyword: Malnutrition, Wasting, Stunting, Underweight and Children

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CYTOGENETIC EFFECTS OF ASH POTASH OF CORN STALK ON THE ROOT TIPS OF CAPSICUM SPECIES

 

*MASPALMA, WILSON STANLEY; **WAJA SAMUEL; & ***ALHERI JACOB REJOICE

*Department of Material Science Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi Adamawa State, Nigeria. **Department of Biological Sciences, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi Adamawa State, Nigeria. ***Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi Adamawa State, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

The use of ash potash as a food additive in north eastern Nigeria is a common phenomenon with no any information on the cytological and clastogenic effects of its long-term consumption. The seeds of Capsicum species (Capsicum frutencence) where pre-soaked in various concentrations of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25 of Ash Potash for 48 hours, while some seeds pre-soaked in tap water/Ethyl Methyl Sulphate (EMS) as control, then planted. Cytological analysis of the germinated root tips where carry out. The results of the Capsicum frutencence root test responded to different concentrations of Ash potash in comparison with the distilled water. The result showed dose-dependence. Reduction in C. frutencence mean root length that was significant at 10- 25 g/ I but not significant at 5 g/ l, suggesting cytotoxicity. Significant reduction in Mitotic index (MI) of the C frutencence meristematic cells with increasing concentration of Ash potash. Unlike EMS, which elicited chromosomal aberrations in meristematic cells of C. frutencence, no chromosomal aberrations were seen in C. frutencence placed in the distilled water control. However chromosomal aberrations, suggestive of clastogenicity and impaired tubulin biogenesis were observed in 17-51 of the 300 C. frutencences cells examined at each of the different concentrations of Ash potash. Highest and lowest number of aberrant cells was numbered. Chromosome damage has been observed to be caused by various physical, chemical and biological agents, including food additives, the research showed that ash potash can cause chromosomal damages in living cells at higher doses, hence the need for safe dosage during consumption.

Keywords: Ash Potash, Chromosomal Aberration, Cytogenetics, Mitotic Index (MI),  Capsicum frutescence, cytological analysis.

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EFFECTS OF EXTRUSION PROCESSING ON THE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRUDED SNACKS FROM COCOYAM AND BAMBARA GROUND NUT FLOURS

 

BULUS DANIEL SADIQ; & ZOKTI JAMES ALKALI

Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Kaura-Namoda

 

ABSTRACT

The effects of extrusion variables on the proximate properties of snack produced from blends of cocoyam and Bambara ground nut was determined using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The moisture content ranged between 2.6 to 4.02%, protein content ranged between 3.40 to 7.01%. The formulation with 23.18% feed composition (cocoyam), 1200C barrel temperature and 16% feed moisture composition has an optimum protein improvement. Lipid (fat content) ranged between 0.95 to 1.03%, fibre composition ranged between 0.18 to 1.94%.  Ash ranged from 1.33 to 2.33%. The high ash content is observed on run 2 with extrusion variables of 50% bambara ground nut, 1000C barrel temperature, and a moisture content of 8%. The constant for coefficient of determination for linear, quadratic and interaction are all positive. X1 has a synsgistic relationship with all the responses, X2 has an antagonistic relationship with all the responses. At quadratic level, (X12X22, X22) there was a positive relationship with all the variables with the exception of moisture. At interactive X1X2, X1X3, X2X3 all the responses tend to be antagonistic with all the extrusion variables. There was improvement on most of the responses at different formulation levels as stated above.

Keywords: Extrusion, Snacks, Proximate, Variables, Responses

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PREVALENCE AND SERO-GROUPING OF SHIGA TOXIN-PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI (STEC) IN CATTLE AND HUMANS IN MUBI ADAMAWA, NORTH-EASTERN NIGERIA

 

M S ADAMU

Department of Animal Health and Production Technology, The Federal Polytechnic, P. M. B. 35, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence and sero-group of Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in cattle and humans in Adamawa, North-Eastern Nigeria. A commercially prepared E. coli Non-O157 Identification Kit, Prolex™ was used to sero-group the isolates. Presumptive E. coli colonies on nutrient agar (CM3, Oxoid) slants were picked and streaked on to sorbitol McConkey agar cultures (SMAC) (CM813, Oxoid) and then incubated for 24 hrs at 370C. The Prevalence of STEC in Adamawa is found to be 9.3% and 1.2% among cattle and humans respectively with overall prevalence of 5.25%. The results of STEC sero-grouping in this study revealed that all the STEC isolates were within the six known STEC sero-groups reported in literature.  It is worth noting to have 56 STEC isolates from cattle of which all tested positive for at least one of the six STEC serotypes except serotype O45. Out of the overall 63 STEC isolates sero-grouped, 8 (12.69%) of the isolates were O157 and 55 (87.31%) were non – O157seroypes. The non – O157serogroups were O26, 25 (39.68%), O91, 18(28.57%), O103, 7(11.1%) and O111, 5 (7.9%). The presence of STEC sero-types in faeces of these animals coupled human detection of same strains indicate the level of poor hygiene and danger associated to food safety. It is therefore, recommended that, there should be improvement in slaughter house hygiene and meat handling to minimize the risk of human infections.

Keywords: Sero-Grouping, Escherichia Coli, Livestock, Humans, Nigeria.

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FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR PREVALENCE OF MALARIA IN IGABI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE

 

MARYAM IBRAHIM ABUBAKAR

Department of Nursing Tutor Programme, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna

 

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this research was to determine factors that contributed to the prevalence of malaria in Kaduna state’s igabi local government area. The research was guided by three objectives and research quoestions. A standardized 25-item questionnaire with a 4-point opinions rating scale was developed by the researcher and used to collect data. The questionnaire was content validated by experts and Cronbach alpha was utilized to determine the tool’s internal consistency, which was found to be 0.72. The research data was collected from a sample of 200 respondents who were all members of the population in the study area using Purposive sampling method. Percentage was used to analysed the obtained data. The study found that the population has malaria infections; the source information was median. Based on these findings it was concluded that residents of Igabi were aware of the factors responsible for malaria infection and these revel of awareness could be strengthened by erect drains to minimize water logging. It was recommended that the local government Primary Health Authority should organize malarial prevention/control seminar for the people.

Keywords: Malaria, environmental factors, prevalence, health care

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DETERMINATION OF RADIOACTIVITY LEVELS AND ITS POTENTIAL RISKS IN CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS USED IN NORTH-EASTERN NIGERIA

 

1BALA ABUBAKAR YUNUSA; 2KABIRU DAFUWA; AND 3SANI IDRIS

1&3Physics Department, School of Secondary Education (Science), Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare Bauchi State. 2School of Educational Services, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare Bauchi State.

 

ABSTRACT

This work aims to determine radioactivity levels and its potential risks in chemical fertilizers used in North-eastern Nigeria. The specific activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K will be measured by using a gamma ray spectrometer based on a NaI(Tl) detector. The radium equivalent activity (Bq/kg) of different samples of NPK and urea fertilizers used in the study area will also be calculated. Both specific activities and radium equivalent activity af the fertilizer samples will be compared in order to determine the type of fertilizer with higher radioactivity. The specific activity and absorbed dose rate at 1m above the ground surface (nGy/h) after NPK fertilizers agricultural applications will be calculated and the maximum value of dose rate will be obtained and compared with the world average outdoor exposure due to terrestrial gamma radiation. All the aforementioned parameters will be calculated and analysed using the appropriate equations and data obtained will be presented in tables. Finally recommendation will be given.

Keywords: Radioactivity, chemical fertilizer, Risk, Radionuclide, Radiation

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PREVALENCE OF SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN ZAKI LOCAL GOGERNMENT AREA OF BAUCHI STATE

 

1 M. KABIR ISA, 2 U. ADAMU JAHUN, 3 ABDU ZAGI 4S. B. ADAMU, 5M. S. FATIMA

1,4,5 Department of Biology, School of Science, Aminu Saleh College of Education Azare, 2Department of Agriculture, Aminu Saleh College of Education Azare 3 Department of Integrated Science, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare

 

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, and it’s effects on the academic performance of primary School pupils in Zaki local government of Bauchi State. The research design was experimental and a complete randomized design was adopted in sampling, samples of urine was collected from three primary schools in Zaki Local Government area ,50 specimen bottles we’re distributed to each school, and 133 samples were successfully returned. The samples were transported to the laboratory and were experimented using a urine sediment preparation method. 19 Ova were detected in central primary School Zaki with (46.34%) prevalence, 20 ova detected in Galadima primary School with ( 40%) prevalence and 17 ova were detected in central primary School Sakwa with (40.48%) prevalence. It was concluded that Schistosomiasis is prevalent ( mild prevalence) in Zaki local government area of Bauchi State. Knowledge of personal hygiene and how to be safe when coming in contact with fresh water containing snails has to adopt and finally there should be safe source of water available.

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HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATION IN WATER, SOIL AND VEGETABLE IN EX-MINING PONDS, JOS SOUTH L.G.A PLATEAU STATE, NIGERIA

 

1HENRY, M. U., 2OBIDOLA, S. M., 1OGENYI, R. A., 2HENRY, U. I., 1DOGUN, O. AND 1BULUS, J. K.

1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau State. 2Department of Crop Production Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau State.

 

ABSTRACT

Metal mining contributes to environmental pollution through heavy metals exhumed to soil surface. Heavy metals are natural components of the lithosphere which cannot be degraded when they enter the ecosystem resulting in geo-accumulation and bioaccumulation. This study assessed the concentration of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Mn, Cd, and Fe) in ex-mining pond, soil and vegetables (cabbage and tomatoes) in Jos South L.G.A. of Plateau State. Water sample taken from the pond for irrigation of vegetables were analyzed for the presence of heavy metals using Atomic Absorbance Spectra (AAS) model No: AA320N. The result showed that all the selected metals were detected in the water sample except cadmium and were within WHO permissible limit. Selected heavy metals were detected in the soil within the range of 0.001-216.50 ppm. Chromium was within WHO limit while Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb and Fe were above WHO limit. Tomato sample concentration ranged from 0.131-3.299 ppm but chromium and cadmium were not detected while Mn, Pb and Fe were above WHO permissible limit. In Cabbage, all heavy metals were detected except chromium and the concentration of the heavy metals were within 0.006-1.900 ppm. Mn, Pb, Cd and Fe were above WHO limit except for Cu. The concentration of heavy metals in the soil was higher than in water sample. Continuous use of mining water for irrigating farmland can result in accumulation of the heavy metals in plants.

Keywords:  AAS, Heavy metals, Pond, Vegetables, Soil, Water.

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