SSAA Journal of Human, Social & Political Science Research (SJHSPR) Vol. 23 (6)


SUB-SAHARA AFRICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN, SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SCIENCE RESEARCH (SJHSPR)

VOL. 23 (6) MARCH, 2022 ISSN: 2416-7999

 

Published by:

Sub-Sahara African Academic Research Publications,

Centre for African Development Studies, University of Ibadan,

P. O. Box 10108, U. I. Post Office. Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria, West-Africa.

Email: ssaapublications@gmail.com


  PAPERS:  


 

HARMFUL TRADITIONAL PRACTICES AGAINST WOMEN

 

 

DIBIE, GODFREY ATUNU (Ph.D)

Department of General Studies, Federal University, Wukari, Taraba State.

 

ABSTRACT

This paper looks at Harmful Traditional Practices Against women like Child Marriage which involves children ranging from the ages of 10 – 17 years and the implications of such harmful acts, female genital mutilations maltreatment of widows and denying them of inheritances. It also looks at the reasons for such dangerous traditional practices and recommends very strict measures to government at both Federal, state and Local Government levels to strengthen existing laws so that those involved in these acts be made to suffer very harsh penalties for their wrong acts. It draws its facts basically from the internet, prints, libraries and relevant texs, publications and discussions.

Key words: Harmful, traditional practices, genital mutilations, maltreatment, widows, child marriage.

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A SURVEY OF THE EFFECT OF INTER-AGENCY COLLABORATION ON INTERNAL SECURITY OPERATION IN NIGERIA

 

 

*AKOJI, RICHARD OKLAGBA PhD; **ADI, ISAAC PhD; ***ODUNTAN, JOSEPH PhD; & ****OLUBENGA, A. AGBOOLA

*Department of Political Science, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State. **Department of Criminology, Security, Peace and Conflict Studies, Caleb University, Lagos. ***Department of Political Science and International Relations, Lagos. ****Department of Political Science and International Relations, Caleb University, Lagos

 

Abstract

The paper examines the impact of the inter-agency collaboration on internal security in Nigeria. The recent nature of the wrangling and the attendant colossal loss of lives and materials have given the nation and the leadership of the security agencies a lot of concern in recent times. To provide a good theoretical foundation for this paper, insights are drawn from Margret Archor’s culture and Agency theory and Vold’s Group conflict theory. Relying on both primary and secondary sources of information, the paper finds that poverty, neglect, corruption and lawlessness are responsible for inter-agency wrangling in Nigeria.. The paper also finds that the failure of the operatives to address some of the lack of synergy between these security agencies accounts for alienation that often results to violent clashes. The paper recommended that the synergy among the inter-agency operatives should be strengthened.

Keywords: Inter-agency Collaboration, Internal operation, Nigeria, Security Operative.

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DE L’ANTICOLONIALISME À LA CRÉOLISATION: LES ÉCRIVAINS POSTCOLONIAUX DES ANTILLES FRANÇAISES

 

 

IJAH GIDEON AKASE (PhD)

Department of French, Nasarawa State University, Keffi

 

Résumé

Abstract

Luttes anticolonialistes et catégories analytiques traditionnelles ayant échoué, au fil du XXème siècle, à transformer la réalité antillaise, voire à en rendre compte, les auteurs antillais ont conçu une utopie non systématique, un « imaginaire » plutôt qu’une idéologie. Édouard Glissant et Patrick Chamoiseau ont élaboré, pour prendre le relais des luttes anticolonialistes et indépendantistes, une poétique, un imaginaire du « tout-monde », des formes de langage qui sont politiques mais ne relèvent pas de la rhétorique et des logiques traditionnellement, institutionnellement, politiques. Cette poétique de l’ambivalence qui embrasse les contradictions de la créolisation est baroque et postcoloniale. Au sein de la situation néocoloniale des départements d’outre-mer et dans le contexte d’un impérialisme global, elle tente de penser les voies d’une autre mondialité, d’une mise en relation ouverte et vivante, capable de préserver les diversités.

Mots clés: Anticolonialiste, Creolisation, Imperialisme, Postcolonial, Antillaise

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REGIONAL INTEGRATION IN CONTEMPORARY AFRICA

 

 

’BIMBO OGUNBANJO

[Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria]. Department of Politics and International Relations, ISM – Adonai University, Cotonou, Republic of Benin.

 

Abstract

It is often said that regional integration would bring greater strength and bargaining power to African countries. But as this paper shows, progress in this area has been relatively limited, and Africa is still one of the most expensive places in the world to do business. The objective of this paper is to discuss the social, economic and political factors that explain the gap between regional integration as an institutional project (regionalism) and regional integration as an everyday reality (regionalization). After a short discussion on the scales and nature of integration, the second part of the paper reviews the literature and discusses the historical roots and contemporary activities of the institutions created to promote regional integration on the continent. The third part discusses the policy implications of the limited achievements of regional integration institutions, while the conclusion stresses the need for an African model of integration.

Keywords: Africa, Integration, Regional Institutions, Regionalism, Regionalization, Regional Integration

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CERVICAL CANCER INCIDENCE, KNOWLEDGE AND ADOPTION OF MEDIA PREVENTION MESSAGES: A LITERATURE REVIEW 

 

 

BOLANLE OLUBUSAYO FASAANU & HELEN ODUNOLA ADEKOYA, Ph.D

Department of Mass Communication, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State.

 

ABSTRACT

This paper is a review on existing studies in area of incidence, knowledge and adoption of cervical cancer prevention messages. In the course of critical review, studies show that cancer in most cases lead to death and the second most frequent malignancy is cervical cancer which is associated with women of child bearing age. The developed countries are treating cervical cancer via technology, medical and clinical care and getting concrete result but not the case with developing country like Nigeria. Media sensitization is key as a solution to address lack of awareness and effective prevention methods, late detection and paucity of treatment programmes which are notable problems encountered in the developing world. This study adopts library research method with the aid of secondary data sourced from relevant Journal, Conference proceedings, Textbooks, and National dailies to mention few. The paper concluded that health communication is desirable; because understanding of cervical cancer risk factors, infection as well as the possible result of late discovery and treatment is generally low among Nigerian women. Suggestively, mass media should be properly harnessed persuasively; for health campaign and promotion to create positive behavioral change among women. This will thereby curb the death threatening cervical cancer at its alarming rate.

Keywords: Adoption, Cervical cancer, Knowledge, Mass media, Prevention

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ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF CORRUPTION AND ELECTRICITY ACCESS ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA

 

 

*SAMAILA ADAMU; & **RILWANU MOHAMMED

*Department of Economics and Development Studies, Federal University of Kashere, Gombe State, Nigeria. **School of General Studies, Economics Program, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract:

The study is on the analysis of the effects of corruption and electricity access on economic growth in Nigeria covering 2002Q1 to 2018Q4 time series data. The unit root properties of the series were tested using Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF), Philips Perron (PP) and Zivot-Andrews breakpoint unit root test. Chow test revealed presence of structural break in 2015 which was taken care of by the introduction of dummy variables and interaction terms. The results from Autoregressive Distributed lag (ARDL) and Dynamic Ordinary Least Square (DOLS) cointegrating regression revealed that control of corruption and access to electricity have positive and statistically significant long run effects on economic growth in Nigeria, but the short run ARDL results indicated that electricity access and corruption control harm economic growth in Nigeria over the study period, with slow speed of adjustment to long run equilibrium of 2.63% quarterly. This study concludes that corruption is sand in the wheels of Nigeria’s economic prosperity and therefore recommends continued effort in control of corruption and increase in electricity supply for more economic growth among others.

Keywords: Economic Growth, Corruption, Electricity, Time series, Chow test.

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TOUR OPERATORS AND TRAVEL AGENT BEST PRACTICE

 

 

OKUNOLA ADAFIN .A. OLAIYA

Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Faculty of Envirionment Design and Management, Lead City University Ibadan, Oyo State

 

ABSTRACT

Best practice is now widely accepted and promoted in manufacturing industry as a means of achieving quality management. When linked to environmental performance, the broader concept of best practice environmental management is of direct relevance to tourism. There is growing evidence that the tourism industry is prepared to foster environmental excellence through the adoption of best practice environmental management, and the implementation of self-regulatory auditing procedures to monitor compliance with environmental standards. This trend, which is strongest at the international corporate level of the tourism industry, is being reflected in the ‘greening’ of major elements of Australian tourism. The challenge is to raise concern for the environment among the many smaller, disparate tourism operations, and to promote best practice environmental management at all levels of the tourism industry.

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THE IMPACT OF USING TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE AS A MEANS OF TRANSFORMING THE TEACHING OF THE LANGUAGE

 

 

ABUBAKAR SADIQ MUSA; ESTHER IOWAR ASHIEMAR; & AISHA MOHAMMED YERO

Department of Languages, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna.

 

Abstract

This paper aims to highlight the role of using modern technology in teaching English as a second language. It discusses different approaches and techniques which can assist English language students to improve their learning skills by using technology. Among these techniques are online English language learning web sites, computer assisted language learning programs, presentation software, electronic dictionaries, chatting and email messaging programs, listening CD-players, and learning video-clips. A case study has been done to appreciate the response of typical English language classroom students for using technology in the learning process. Upon this practical study, the paper diagnoses the drawbacks and limitations of the current conventional English language learning tools, and concludes with certain suggestions and recommendations.

Keywords: English Language Learning (ELL), educational technology, computer aided education, modern language teaching tools.

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CORPORATE IMAGE MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS IN THE ORGANIZATION IN NIGERIA

 

 

*IMOSUN MOJISOLA ADENIKE; **MAIMUNA MUSA ADAJI; & ***OKE UZOCHUKWU ROMANUS

*Productivity Capacity Building Department, National Productivity Centre (Headquarters). **Corporate Affairs and Information (CAI) Department, National Productivity Centre (Headquarters). ***Productivity Capacity Building (PCB) Department, National Productivity Centre, Lagos State Office

 

Abstract

Despite the increase in corporate image, management studies, no effort seems to be made to investigate its effect on organizational performance in the organizations in the African tourism context. It is in the quest to close this apparent gap that, this study used a data set of 120 workers to investigate how customer relations and workplace environment influences profitability and employee satisfaction in travel agencies in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. The four posited hypotheses were supported. The results indicate that customer relations significantly affected profitability and employee satisfaction. On the other hand, workplace environment significantly affected profitability and employee satisfaction positively. Academic and managerial implications of the results and future research directions are suggested.

Keywords: Customer relations, Workplace environment, Profitability, Employee Satisfaction, Performance, Organization and Agencies.

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ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF DRUG ABUSE ON HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT IN SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN BAUCHI STATE

 

 

1MUSA LUMI; & 2SADEEQ LAUNI (Ph.D)

Public Administration Department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria

Sponsored by Tertiary Education Trust Fund, Nigeria

 

Abstract

In recent time drug/substance abuse has received global attention among intellectual discourse. According to Drug Use in Nigeria 2018 Reports.  Bauchi state is estimated that over 530,000 people have prevalence of drug use. The prevalence of drug/substance abuse among the youths and children is increasing which calls for attention. To assess the impact of drug abuse on human capital of some selected secondary schools in Bauchi State, and to ascertain the causes of drug abuse of some selected secondary schools in Bauchi State. The research adopted mixed method of research. Data were collected through questionnaires and interview. Data were presented though descriptive statistics using SPSS software. The study revealed that, there are great impact of drug/substance abuse on human capital in areas such as school dropout brain disorder among others. The cause of drug/substance abuse are multidimensional base on the studies revelation. The studies recommended a multidimensional and collective approach to drug/substance from family, school, religion centers, communities’ approach to government approach. The studies recommend drug/substance campaign awareness in schools.

Keywords: Drug/Substance Abuse, Human Capital, Impact, Cause, Bauchi State

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ASSESSMENT OF FACTORS AFFECTING LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICE DELIVERY IN MAIDUGURI METROPOLITAN COUNCIL, BORNO STATE

 

 

ABUBAKAR MOHAMMED

 

Abstract

This study focuses on the assessment of factors affecting local government service delivery in Maiduguri Metropolitan Council (MMC), Borno State. The data collection and analysis for this study, and some findings were made and summarized. Therefore, the findings of the study revealed that MMC as a local government lacks the financial strength to provide effective and efficient service delivery to the people of the area as shown in the study.

Keywords: Factors, Affecting, Local Government Service Delivery, Maiduguri Metropolitan Council, Borno State.

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AN ASSESSMENT OF STAFF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ON ORGANIZATIONAL GROWTH: CONCEPTUAL VIEW

 

 

*SOKOMBA, JOSHUA; **TSADO, WINIFRED KASHI; & **DUWA, JOB

*Registry Department, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria. **Department of Social Sciences, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria

 

Abstract

The study investigated the conceptual relationship between the staff training and development on organizational growth.  The need for improved organizational growth has become universally accepted and that it depends on efficient and effective training and development. It has further become necessary in view of advancement in modern world to invest in training and development of personnel.  Thus the role played by staff training and development can no longer be over-emphasized.  Staff training and development are based on the premise that staff skills need to be improved for organizations to grow. Training is a systematic development of knowledge, skills and attitudes required by employees to perform adequately on a given task or job.  The findings helped the management to concentrate towards the training and development to improve the required skills of the staff which are important for the organizational growth.   To this end, the paper recommended among others that organisations must ensure and encourage training and development on a continuous basis to secure indigent and well-articulated employees for a better tomorrow.  This can be ensured through proper observation of training programmes in order to achieve desired results on organizational growth.

Keywords: Training, Development, Staff and Organizational growth

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STRATEGIC INFORMATION SYSTEM CAPABILITIES AS PANACEA TO ORGANIZATIONAL COMPETETIVENESS: A LITERATURE REVIEW

 

 

NNORUKA, IFEOMA RITA.

OTM Department, Federal Polytechnic Oko.

 

ABSTRACT

The Information era has imposed so many revolutions. This study aims to investigate the direct and indirect effects of strategic Information Systems (IS) capability on organization’s competitiveness through its contribution on the effectiveness and efficiency of strategic design process. Mixed triangulation approach has been used by combining both qualitative and quantitative analysis to explore and empirical examine the research model. The literature review indicate that: (1) the strategic Information System (IS) capability positively affect the effectiveness and efficiency of strategic design process; (2) the strategic IS capability positively impact organization’s competitiveness through affecting strategic design positively.

Keywords: Strategic Information System, Information System Capability, Strategic Design, Strategic/ Information System Alignment, Organization Competitiveness.

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CONCEPT OF CLASSICAL AND MODERN BUSINESS NATURE; AN ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE

 

 

*MUHAMMAD MUJTABA ABDULKADIR PHD; *AUWAL GAMBO PALI; *HALIMA IBRAHIM BATURE; & **DR. ASMA’U BELLO ABUBAKAR

*Department of Islamic Studies, A.D Rufa’i College of Education, Legal and Social Sciences Misau, Bauchi State, Nigeria. **Department of Business Administration, Fucult of Management Sciences, Usman Danfodiyo University, Sokoto

 

Abstract

In Islam the dilemma whether an act is ethical or otherwise may be resolved by referring to the principles that are enunciated in the sources of the Shari’ah (Islamic law). Islamic business ethics, therefore, is based on these sources and provides an essential foundation in the making of ethical business decisions. Islamic ethics is known as Akhlaq and together with its core principles which include Ikhlas, trustworthiness, blief in destiny, Amanah, Sidq and ‘Adl guide an individual to always do good and eschew evil since the aim of business is not merely to accumulate wealth but to bring about a just socio-economic order and to ultimately please Allah. Furthermore, purposely, Akhlaq and its core principles guide how business disputes are to be resolved and at the same time restore harmony between the disputing parties. This research aimed at demonstrating the application of such core principles within the context of an Islamic organisation trough some objectives which include; highlighting on some of the Islamic theories to affirm the necessity of applying such theories during business or contract in form of modern business or otherwise, mainly to avoid forbidden types of transaction in buying and selling. This can be achieved by reading and analysis method through relevant sources and some collected materials.

Keywords: Concept, Classical, Modern, Business, Islam and Perspective

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SOCIAL MEDIA AND INSECURITY CHALLENGES AMIDST COVID-19 PANDEMIC IN NIGERIA

 

 

1AHMED JELEEL ABIOYE, 2AJAYI JOHNSON K, 3POPOOLA EMMANUEL. K., 4OLAKUNLE M.K & 5EGBEDINA PETER .O

1-4Department of Public Administration, the Okeogun Polytechic, Saki, Oyo State, Nigeria. 5Department of Local Government Studies, the Okeogun Polytechic, Saki, Oyo State, Nigeria,

 

ABSTRACT

Insecurity challenges has threatening oneness of the nation Amidst Covid-19 Pandemic and it has negatively affected Economic, education and political system. Among the issues, the EndSARS agitation by some acrimonious and organized youths who seek a reform in the Nigeria epileptic political system that is in undated with prejudice, tribalism, venality, brutality, glutton and divide and rule system. Also, the mass destruction of life and properties by unknown gunmen in some state capitals, coupled with the herdsmen/farmer crisis in some part of Nigerian states over land ownership, Bokoharam unrelenting adoption of school student in the North-east, the activism for self-determination by the indigenous people of Biafra in the south-east, the Oduduwa Republic agitation in the south-west and jail brake in many part of the states. The insecurity challenges have increased concern of poverty, pain sickness, suffering and death of the people and underdevelopment to the Nigerian state. It is to the ugly situation that this paper therefore examine the role of social media in the documentation and dissemination of insecurity in Nigeria amidst Covid-19 Pandemic. This work is anchored on social media theory and employed documentary source of data collection. The work concluded that social media platforms have distinctively assisted towards capturing and disseminating crucial information. The paper recommended that social media houses should be empowered and protected as that will increase confidence in the discharge of duty.

Keywords: Social Media, Insecurity, COVID-19 Pandemic, Kidnapping, Government.

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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ANTI-LAUNDERING LAWS AND REPORTING SYSTEM BETWEEN NIGERIA UNITED KINGDOM

 

 

MOHAMMED IDRIS

Department of Legal Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State

 

ABSTRACT

This research examines the effectiveness of anti-laundering legislations between the United Kingdom and Nigeria by analyzing the strategies adopted by the two countries in fighting the scourge. Thus, one of the most effective mechanisms of International Anti-Money Laundering Laws is the requirement that, each country’s financial institution should file Suspicious Transaction Reports (STRs) to its Financial Intelligent Units (FIU). Even though a global standard of reporting system had been established by the Financial Action Task Force (FATF); most of the countries in the world has their peculiar methods of filing the STR. Therefore, the aim of this research is to assess not only the sufficiency of the anti-laundering laws in these countries, but to analyse their reporting methods in other to accentuate their efficacy and short comings therein and to proffer solution(s) accordingly with a view of making improvement by the relevant concern authorities. The research also tried to venture into the correct meaning of the term „suspicion‟ for the purposes of attaining the objectives of fighting the scourge through reporting. The research also highlighted some impacts of suspicious reporting and its attendant effect both from the sides of the customers of the financial institutions, the institutions and the two jurisdictions analised herein. In conclusion, suggestions and or recommendations based on the analysis carried out were made in other to make some improvement in both jurisdictions.    

Keywords: Money Laundering, Legal Framework, Reporting, Suspicious Transaction, Effectiveness.

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THE ROLE OF TRADITIONAL ACTORS IN ENSURING SECURITY DURING CONFLICT IN NIGERIA

 

 

*IDREES ABDULLAHI UWAIS; **USMAN MUHAMMAD SULAIMAN; ***IBRAHIM ADAMU SHEHU; & ***ABDULLAHI ALHAJI SANI

*Department of Crime Management Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. **Department of General Studies Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. ***Department of Crime Management Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe

 

ABSTRACT

This paper identifies and analyses the patterns through which the traditional actors can get involved in granting the security during conflict in Nigeria. The objective of the research is to examine the public perception, factors, roles, strategies and challenges of traditional actors in ensuring security during conflict in Nigeria. Questionnaire and interview are used as the methods of collecting data while analysis was made using simple mathematical percentage. Literature was reviewed from relevant textbooks, journals, and newspapers. Conflict theory is suitable and satisfactory in analysis of this research. The findings indicated that the involvement of traditional actors emerges as a result of the ineffectiveness of the formal security to protect lives and properties of citizens in Nigeria. However, frustration, corruption, lack of man power in security and public agitation are among the major factors that lead to the involvement of traditional actors in security administration. The challenges of security in fighting conflict ranges from lack of logistics, manpower shortage, and lack of new strategies that can be used by the security in combating with conflict in Nigeria. The research recommended that by converting the hunters and traditional actors to be the fore-front fighters of conflict in Nigeria will aim a very good result. In conclusion, this research is contemporary social issue that needs urgent investigation by other researchers to be able to know and identify the role of traditional actors in fighting conflict in Nigeria.

Keywords: traditional actors, security, involvement, conflict,

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INFLUENCE OF EARLY MARRIAGE ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS OF WOMEN CENTRES IN BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA

 

 

*DAHIRU LAMARA BELLO; **SHEHU BABAYO; ***ABBAS USMAN JEGA; & ****YAKUBU ABDULKADIR MAI DAURA

*Curriculum and Instructions Department, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State. **Government Day Secondary School Jama’are, Bauchi State. ***Government Day Secondary School, Sambawa, Kebbi State. ****Foundations Department, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare

 

ABSTRACT

The study investigated early marriage and academic performance of students of Women Centres in Bauchi State. Three research questions, objectives and research hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. A sample of 256 students was drawn from the population of 802 with the aid of Krejcie and Morgan (1971) table for determining sample size. Research instrument titled Academic Performance Test (APT) was used for data collection which was adjudged to possess content validity by teachers in secondary schools that mark WAEC and NECO in Bauchi State with a reliability ‘r’ index of 0.68 for Mathematics and 0.76 for English language.  The null hypotheses were tested using t-test statistics. Findings revealed that: there is no significant difference between academic performance of widow and married students of Women Centre Jama’are, Azare, Misau and Ningi Bauchi State and also there is significant difference between academic performance of married and divorce students of Women Centre Jama’are, Azare, Misau and Ningi Bauchi State; there is no significant different between academic performance of married, widow and divorced students of Women Centre Jama’are, Azare, Misau and Ningi Bauchi State. It was recommended that parents and husbands should encourage their daughters and wives to go back to continuing education centre for their education.

Keywords: Early Marriage, Academic Performance, Widow, Married women, Divorcees.

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COMMERCIAL BANKS VS BITCOINS: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS FOR THE INDUSTRIALIZATION DRIVE AND PRODUCTIVITY IN NIGERIA

 

 

*JOY FIDELIS ZADVA; **AOYAMA ANDREW NNAMDI; & **ELE EYILAERE ANNASTESIA

*Corporate Affairs and Informotion (CAI) Department, National Productivity Centre, Lagos State Office **Consultancy and Business Development (CBD) Department, National Productivity Centre, Lagos State Office

 

ABSTRACT:

This paper examines the cost of transacting with commercial banks and the cost of a large scale adoption of Bitcoins in Nigeria to provide a comparative analysis as to which medium of transaction best promotes industrialization in Nigeria. The direct costs of transacting with both mediums were estimated and compared for the years 2015 and 2016 while the indirect costs were outlined. A counterfactual estimation was also conducted to calculate the total cost of using Bitcoins for all financial transactions in Nigeria for the study period. The findings suggest that Bitcoin transactions are relatively cheaper and as such should provide a better platform for promoting industrialization in Nigeria. However, the non-accounting costs of transacting with both mediums potentially provide alternative conclusions. We recommend further studies on the non-accounting costs of transacting with Bitcoins. 

Keywords: Bitcoin, Banks, Block-chain technology, Industrialization, MSME, Productivity and Commercial.

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