SUB-SAHARA AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ADVANCED SCIENCE AND OPTIMIZATION RESEARCH (SJASOR)
VOL. 23 (9) MARCH, 2022 ISSN: 2418-9325
Sub-Sahara African Academic Research Publications,
Centre for African Development Studies, University of Ibadan,
P. O. Box 10108, U. I. Post Office. Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria, West-Africa.
BOUNDARY CHARACTERISTIC ORTHOGONAL POLYNOMIALS VIA GALERKIN WEIGHTED RESIDUAL AND RAYLEIGH-RITZ VARIATIONAL METHOD
*LIBERTY EBIWAREME; & *EDMOND OBIEM ODOK
*Department of Mathematics, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. **Department of Mathematics, Cross Rivers University of Technology, Calabar, Nigeria.
Several problems which feature prominently in mathematics and engineering are modelled in the form of Initial and boundary value problems. In this research article, we explore analytical solution of sample initial and boundary value problem using boundary characteristics orthogonal polynomials through Galerkin and Rayleigh methods. With the of the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization procedure, the proposed methods were formulated and applied successfully to solve few problems for analytical solution. The absolute errors resulting from both, and methods are compared, and the results presented in tables and figures. The result obtained agrees with the exact solution to certain degrees before diverging. The proposed methods are reliable, efficient, and accurate.
Keyword: Galerkin Weighted Residual Method (WRM), Rayleigh-Ritz Method, Orthogonal Polynomials, Variational Methods, Orthonormal sets, Orthogonality condition
SOCIO-ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF UNMET NEED FOR FAMILY PLANNING IN CRISIS-AFFECTED STATES OF NORTHERN NIGERIA
*ADEGOKE ADEMOLA ADEBAYO; & **ADEGOKE OLASUPO MODUPE
*Department of Demography & Social Statistics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State. **Department of Computer Science, Joseph Ayo Babalola University
This study was carried out to determine the socio-economic determinants of unmet need for family planning in crisis-affected states of Yobe, Benue, Kaduna, Zamfara, Borno, Plateau, all in Northern Nigeria. These states had been affected heavily by insurgency and banditry and is still a major challenge to the country. The target population is 15-49 years from the Nigeria Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) data of 2018. The weights provided by NDHS 2018 were used with a weighted total of 41, 821 women covered and 8, 846 women sampled. The socio-economic variables of education, state of residence, place of residence, occupation, religion, employment status, wealth quintile, partners’ education, women autonomy and access to media were the variables of target. Thus, the study concluded that while some socio-economic factors have influence on unmet need in these crisis-affected states of Northern Nigeria. This work concludes that employment status and education played a much more significant influence to the high rate of unmet need in these states.
Keywords: Unmet Need for Family Planning, Family Planning, Banditry, Insurgency, Socio-Economic factors.
SCIENTIFIC LITERACY SKILLS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SCIENCE STUDENTS IN IGNATIUS AJURU UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA
NWALA, LONGINUS Ph.D
Department of Integrated Science, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
The citizen vision of every community is the development of scientific literacy skills of its learners to proffer solutions to compelling scientific demands that is confronted in our everyday engagements. Acquisition of scientific literacy skills is a yardstick for societal, growth and development. Therefore, the study investigated students’ level of scientific literacy skills and academic performance of science students in Ignatius Ajuru University of Education. The study adopted descriptive research design. Instruments for data collection were “Questionnaire on Scientific Literacy Skills Assessment Template”, (SLSAT) with reliability coefficient index of 0.849 and the data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square at 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed that relationship between level of scientific literacy skills and students’ academic performance of science students were statistically significant. Furthermore, the scientific literacy skill level of science students were low because most students were found to have their scientific literacy skills level at the nominal scale. The study recommended that science lecturers should adopt practical instructional strategies that will be devoid of rote memorization as to encourage active engagement of students in order to enhance scientific literacy skills.
Keywords: Scientific Literacy, skills, Science students, Academic Performance, Rivers State
EVALUATION OF CONCENTRATION OF GASES AT DIFFERENT DISTANCES IN MPAPE QUARRY SITES, FCT-ABUJA, NIGERIA
L.M OMEIZA1, D.U SANGARI2, A.T. OGAH3
1,2&3Department of Geography, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Nasarawa State University, Keffi,
Man might survive weeks without food and days without water, but he can only last a few seconds without clean air, It has become clear that air quality in the study area need to be examined, since air pollution in the study area has affected the health of human beings and animals, damaged vegetation, soils and deteriorates materials and generally affects not only the large metropolitan areas but also the medium sized urban areas. This study assessed the effects of Quarry on Air Quality in Mpape, Bwari Area Council, FCT Abuja, Nigeria. A total of 218 Air samples were collected from six points around the quarries sites and recorded insitu for analysis. The samples were collected three times in a day (Morning, Afternoon and Evening) for three days. Absolute Instrument System (AIS) model Aerocet 5315 was used to collect the parameters according to WHO, USEPA and NESREA guideline. The following parameters were investigated; Particulate Matter (PM), Carbon monoxide (Co), Sulphur dioxide (S02), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Ammonia (NH3), Chlorine (CL2) and Hydrogen Cyanide. 2 active and 2 dormant quarries were considered by the study, land was measured to determine the impact of quarry in the study area. The statistical test employed was Analysis of Variance and student t-test. Based on the data collected and the analysis made, it was observed that the mean values of the parameters varied from points to points and at different time of the day. Also, the mean values of the parameters were compared with the NESREA recommended limits, and it was observed that Julius Berger have used about 50% of the area granted to her by Nigerian Mining Cadastre Office, while Galaxy quarry have used 33.33% of the area granted, it was observed that Sulphur dioxide has a concentration of 0.45ppm, NO2, 0.17ppm and NH3 0.38ppm, were above the NESREA recommended limit. While C0, 6.11ppm, HCN, 0.16ppm, SPM mg/m3 and Cl2, 0.03ppm are still below the standard limit. Air quality Index shows that Sulphur dioxide, and Nitrogen dioxide has a very poor quality index. The study therefore recommends that, all activities that lead to the release of air pollutants should be liable to environmental tax law; the quarries companies should upgrade their plants to more efficient technologies and by switching to lower carbon content fuels which will reduce emission of pollutants in the study area.
Keywords: gases, distances, sites, quarry, exploration, concentration
DETERMINATION OF THE BIOLOGICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD) AND CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (COD) OF LIQUID WASTE GENERATED FROM LANDMARK UNIVERSITY STUDENT’S CAFETERIA
*GANA A.J; **OKUNOLA A.A; & *AYOMIDE S.O
*Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria. **Agricultural & Biosystem, Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria
Wastewater effluents are major contributors to a variety of water pollution problems. Most cities of developing countries generate on the average 30–70 mm3 of wastewater per person per year. Owing to lack of or improper wastewater treatment facilities, wastewater and its effluents are often discharged into surface water sources, which are receptacles for domestic and industrial wastes, resulting to pollution. The release of raw and improperly treated wastewater onto water courses has both short‐ and long‐term effects on the environment and human health. For this project work it entails the determination of the biological and chemical oxygen demand, physiochemical parameters and also heavy metals from liquid waste generated from the landmark university cafeteria
Keywords: Determination, Biological Oxygen demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen demand (COD) Liquid waste, Landmark University, Student’s Cafeteria.
QUALITATIVE BEHAVIOUR OF BETTLE INSECT SPECIES WITH AN INITIAL CONDITION (IC=0.5) OVER A LONGER DURATION OF TIME
1R.E. AKPODEE; & 2J.I GALADIMA
1Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University. 2Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Ibrahim Badamasi University Lapai-Niger State Nigeria.
In this study, we have used analytically method to predict and observe the behaviour of hybrid selections (how characteristics D is passed on through generations) in beetle insects for some instance generations using the initial an conditions,. Furthermore, a numerical scheme ODE45 computational approach was used to study the qualitative behaviour of the bettle population proportion over a period of 40 generation with an initial condition IC=0.5 and we observe that the population proportion ranging from the base year; t=40th generation increases monotonically from the initial value of 0.5 We notice a drastic increase in the population proportion from the base year;up to the and then we notice a slower rate of increase in the population proportion from the up to the time of convergence with a saturated value of 1.0000(million) which is from the to the . The detail work and full results are presented and discussed in this study.
Keywords: dynamical system, deterministic, convergence, hybrid.
EFFECTS OF SCAFFOLDING AND JIGSAW I INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES ON SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN ECOLOGY IN NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA
AKU PHILIP EGGON; HUSSAINI PWATIYE SIMON; & GABI SAMSON SULEIMAN
Department of Science, Technology and Mathematics Education Faculty of Education Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nigeria.
The study investigated the effect of Scaffolding and Jigsaw I instructional strategies on SS I students’ achievement in Ecology in Nasarawa state, Nigeria. 13,526 (7,147 male and 6,379 female) were used as the population of the study. The sample comprised three intact classes with 150 SS I Students using multistage random sampling technique. The design used was a quasi- experimental pretest, posttest post posttest non-equivalent control design. Three research questions with correspondent hypotheses were used. The instruments used were: Ecology Achievement Test (EAT). Description statistics of mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions, while inferential statistics of ANCOVA was used to test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significant. The findings among others revealed that students who were taught Ecology using Scaffolding and Jigsaw I instructional strategies performed better than those taught using conventional method. The study therefore concludes that teaching students of Biology using Scaffolding and Jigsaw I instructional strategies improved students’ academic achievement. Based on this finding, it is recommended among others that Biology teachers should be encouraged to develop and adopt the use of Scaffolding and Jigsaw I instructional strategies in teaching Biology. Government should endeavor to organize regular workshops to train Biology teachers on development and use of these strategies at SS I level.
Keywords: Scaffolding, Jigsaw I, Strategy, Achievement, Ecology, Biology.
VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS EMISSION FROM CRUDE OIL SPILLS IN NIGER DELTA OIL AND GAS FACILITIES
1U.N. EKPEBEGH; 2A.E GOBO; 3P.N EDE
1,2,3Institute of Geosciences and Environmental Management Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, Port -Harcourt Nigeria.
Being a major hub for oil and gas activities in Nigeria, the Niger Delta region is exposed to numerous crude oil spill incidents with inventory from both upstream and downstream activities. The research work is primarily aimed at quantifying the crude oil spill incidents from the oil and gas facilities within the Niger Delta region between years 2000 – 2020 and calculating the volatile organic compound (VOC) resulting from these spills. Gas chromatography was used to carry out detailed hydrocarbon analysis on a typical Niger Delta crude oil sample from which the volatile fraction was estimated. With that, the VOC from the recorded spills were calculated. The study revealed that a total of 7975 spill incidents occurred between 2000 and 2929 resulting to the release of 863950 barrels of crude oil out of which 132924 barrels (15%) was recovered. Approximately 232194 Metric tonnes CO2e of VOC were released into the atmosphere as a result of the spill incidents. There is urgent need to greatly reduce/control oil spill incidents within the Niger Delta region considering the its significant impact on atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions.
Keywords: Niger Delta crude oil spills, Greenhouse gas emissions, Environmental impact, Volatile Organic Compound
UTILIZATION OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TOOLS FOR MONITORING COMPLIANCE TO SAFETY PRACTICES ON CONSTRUCTION SITES IN ABUJA
ADAMU, I. I., OKE, A. A., SHITTU, A. A. AND MOHAMMED, Y. D
Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal University of Technology, Minna.
This study aimed at assessing the utilization of AI tools for monitoring compliance to safety practices on construction sites in Abuja. The study employed the use of quantitative research approach with the aid of questionnaire survey to obtain data from the 255 construction firms registered with the Abuja Business Directory. Out of which a sample size of 156 was gotten. Analysis of data was undertaken using Relative Index (RII). Findings from the study show that Site Sensors, Construction Wearable, Drones (UAV), Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality are the most important AI tools required for monitoring the level of compliance to safety practices on construction sites. The most significant benefit of AI tools on the level of compliance to safety practices on construction sites is “Enable management to avoid accidents and eliminate safety hazards so as to reduce the difficulty of employees as well as minimising their loss”. It was therefore concluded that the application of AI tools would significantly improve compliance to safety practices on construction sites in Abuja. It was recommended that management of construction firms should invest in training their safety officers or anybody so assigned safety responsibility with the required skills, competence and confidence to implement the right technologies on the use and application of AI tools in order to be able to effectively plan and monitor site activities in a safety and health compliant manner.
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Construction Site, Monitoring, Safety Practices.
CURRENT APPROACHES IN THE TEACHING/LEARNING OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGYANDMATHEMATICS EDUCATION (STME) IN NIGERIA: THE ROLE OF INQUIRYAPPROACH IN TEACHING/ LEARNING OF STME
ERINFOLAMI LYDIA O. (MRS)
Integrated Science Department, Federal College of Education, Zaria
Science, Technology, Mathematics and Education (STME) is said to be a fundamental, comprehensive and foundation elements in preparation of our next generation. It was coined at the National Science Foundation (NSF) as a way to encompass a new ‘’meta- discipline’’ that combined STME subject areas. The quest for improving the uniqueness of STME promotes the need for this paper, which posed the education segment to call for creativity and innovation of STME in Nigeria. This paper focused on the roles of Inquiry-based approach in teaching/learning of STME. Inquiry approach is a learners –centered based whereby learners are allowed to discover and organized their discovery and question based. It highlights a number of roles of inquiry approach in teaching/learning. Also a number of recommendations were made, they include: stakeholders should devote adequate instructional time and resources to science at all levels, STME curricula should focused on the most important topics in each discipline, science teaching should be elevated to the same level of importance at national, state and local level.
Keywords: Inquiry, Science, Technology, Mathematics & Education, Approach.
REVIEW OF BIOGAS CLEANING TECHNIQUES: SOLUTION TO ENERGY CRISIS
*RACHEAL UGYE; *GEORGINA M. TERAN; & **TANIMU G. IBRAHIM
*Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna. **Department of Railway Technology, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna.
Energy is an essential ingredient of socio-environmental development and economic growth Biogas can contribute in environmental sustainability. It can play vital role for reduction of greenhouse gas emission, and forest conservation. It helps improve in health and sanitation through providing clean energy and smokeless kitchen that is directly associated with children and women’s health and environment. Health and environment along with friendly surroundings contribute for better enterprise integration. A promising alternative energy is the Biogas. Biogas originates from bacteria during the process of bio-degradation of organic materials under anaerobic (without air) conditions. The natural generation of biogas is an important part of the biogeochemical carbon cycle. Methanogens (methane-producing bacteria) are the last link in the chain of micro-organisms that degrade organic materials and return the decomposed products to the environment. This paper discuss the trends in the development of biogas energy from past literature as an alternative energy source and solution to energy crisis.
Keywords: Alternative, Biogas, Crisis, Development Energy, Environment,
IMPLICATIONS OF DICHLORVOS PESTICIDE ON MICRO-FLORA OF TWO SOIL TYPES IN NEW BUSSA, BORGU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, NIGER STATE, NORTH CENTRAL NIGERIA
1ADIGUN J.O*2 OLANIRAN, O.A AND 2ADELASOYE, K.A
2Department of Crop and Environmental Protection, LadokeAkintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. 1Agricultural Research Council of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria.
Soil contamination from pesticide is now a global issue that needs immediate attention. Cases of pesticide spillage and drift have been reported by many researchers to contaminate the soil thus causing impact on shift in the diversity of microbial community. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of Dichlorvos pesticide on the microflora of the two soil types (clay and sandy soil). Serial dilution technique was employed up to 103 using nutrient agar, potato dextrose agar and sabourand agar plates. The isolation of both bacterial and fungal organism was made before treating the soil types with the pesticide, Dichlorvos, and after treating the soil types with the pesticides. The experiment was carried out at the Government Day Secondary School Farm and Government Technical College Farm in New Bussa, Niger State for sand and clay soil respectively. The experimental design used was Complete Randomized Design fitted into factorial experiment, using three pesticides and two types of soil. Soil sample were taken according to the treatment designed, analyzed for bacteria and fungi isolation, identification and determination of population present in the clay and sand soil after exposure to the pesticide. Data collected were subjected to analysis of Variance (ANOVA), means was later separated using DMRT at 5% probability level. The result obtained from the research showed that, the fungal organism isolated were Aspergillus species, Syncophatastrum species, Penicillum species and Mucor species. The populations of both bacteria and fungi were higher in plot sprayed with chlorpyrifo than control plot where no pesticide was applied. The population of both bacteria and fungi were higher in clay (98.27 x 106 and 83.37 x 104 respectively at 3 weeks after spraying (WAS)) than sand (79.13 x 10 6 and 65.03 x 104 respectively) soil. The population of fungi in the sampled soil was lower than that of the bacteria before and after exposure. It can be concluded from this research work that, the population of bacteria and fungi decrease as the week increase after exposure to dichlorvos. Then care must be exercised, so that the microbial population will not be affected by the addition of this pesticide.
Keywords: Community, dichlorvos, diversity, microflora, microbial, pesticide, soil contamination, shift.
AN EFFECT OF SECURITY AND PRIVACY IN SOCIAL NETWORKING
EDINO KENNEDY O.; OKORODUDU JOSEPH
Computer Science Department, Delta State Polytechnic Otefe-Oghara
In the era of Internet technologies, social networking websites has witnessed thriving popularity. Computer mediated communication has changed the rules of social interaction and communication. Most social networking sites like Orkut, Facebook, Googlet, Twitter etc. facilitates users with the features like online interaction, sharing of information, knowledge and developing new relationships etc. Online interaction and sharing of personal information in social networking sites has raised new privacy concerns. So, it requires an exploratory insight into users behavioural intention to share information. The task resource manager is to identify better method to provide effective protection to improve security. This research paper analyses security and privacy issues in social networking sites. The main aim is to enhance the user security and privacy which is the most important for the social network services. This paper is a survey which is more specific to exposes the social networks service models and issues in network environment with respect to enhancement of security.
Keywords: Enhancement, Social Networking, Online Interaction, Exploratory, Users Behavioural
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: HUMAN INTELLIGENCE VERSES MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
FATIMA MAIKUDI ABUBAKAR; SHITU ABDULLAHI LAME; & AHAJI ADAMU ABDULLAHI
Computer Science Department, Sch. Of Communication and Information Sciences, AD Rufai College of Education, Legal and General studies Misau, Bauchi State.
Artificial Intelligence (AI), the science of making smarter and intelligent human-like machines, has sparked an inevitable debate of Artificial Intelligence Vs Human Intelligence. AI has also penetrated many organizational processes resulting in a growing fear that smart machine will soon replace humans in decision making. Machine Learning (ML) and Deep Learning (DL) algorithms are built to make machines learn on themselves and make decisions just like we humans do. This paper revolves around the various fields of AI, the differences between Human and Machine intelligence and also pointed out some major trends of Artificial intelligence.
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Deep Learning, Neural Network, computer Vision, Turing Test
EXTRACTION, GC-MS ANALYSIS AND PRODUCTION OF PERFUME FROM AROMATIC PLANT (LEMON GRASS)
DAWODU OG1*, KOLAPO AO1, ABIBU MA1, AREWA OJ1
1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Ede, Osun State, Nigeria.
Perfume is a substance, extract or preparation for diffusing or imparting an agreeable or attractive smell, especially a fluid containing fragrant natural oils extracted from flower, wood etc. Lemon grass was collected from the garden of Federal Polytechnic Ede Osun State and was extracted for its oil using Soxhlet extraction method which yielded 8.78%. The extracted oil was analysed by GC-MS and chemical constituents in the oil were identified. 25 components were found in the oil with four major peaks comprising of 9-octadecanoic acid, methyl ester (32.64%), pentadecanoic acid, 4 methyl ester (23.82)%, 9,12 octadecanoic acid methyl ester (7.57%) and dodecanoic acid methyl ester (4.69%). Antibacterial activities of the oil were tested, the tested microorganism were sensitive and no resistance was not observed, all growth inhibition zone occurred in the high activity level at different concentration (>5mm) at 10 concentration. The extracted oil was formulated into perfume using a fixative and methanol. The result obtained from the antimicrobial susceptibility test and compounds identified by the GC-MS revealed that the oil can be used in industrial applications in the pharmaceutical, perfumery and cosmetic industries.
Keywords: Anti-bacterial activity, GCM, Lemon grass, Percentage yield.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF VITAMINS, MINERAL, PHYTOCHEMICALS COMPOSITION OF LAGENARIA SPHAERICA LEAF
1ADEBAYO, O.R., 2 ADEGOKE, B.M., 3 AFOLABI, F., 4 EFUNWOLE, O.O. AND 5 AKINRO, E.B.
1,2,3, Department of Applied Sciences, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree. 4,5Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree.
Medicinal plants has been utilized since human race, this has been used as the foundation of modern day medicine. Desire for herbal plant by man has been scientist interest in research to determine the safety and therapeutic potential. The research focus is in examining the vitamins (vitamins B1, B2 and C) with values of (1.232±0.008), (0.482±0.005) and (82.876±0.089) respectively. The mineral composition analysis revealed calcium (249.750±0.024), magnesium (19.480±0.004), zinc (0.527±0.001), copper (0.051±0.001), nickel (0.047±0.002), manganese (0.043±0.002), iron (0.044±0.001) and phosphorus (12.800±0.021).The results of phytochemicals screening revealed the presence of total phenol (12.037 ±0.012), saponin (8.013±0.090), flavonoid (12.718±0.205) and tannins (1.065±0.005). Likewise, the proximate analysis indicates (%) ash content (13.261±0.038), moisture content (7.214±0.575), crude fat content (13.233±0.830), crude fibre content (18.438±0.099), protein content (10.787±0.760) and carbohydrate content (37.067±0.067). Therefore, Lagenaria sphaerica could be examined and used to combat degenerative diseases and also be in cooperate with the modern medicine.
Keywords: Lagenaria sphaerica, medicinal plants, therapeutic potential
ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN IMO STATE VIA MULTIPLE REGRESSION TECHNIQUE
ESEMOKUMO PEREWAREBO AKPOS; & BEKESUOYEIBO REBECCA
Department of Statistics, School of Applied Science, Federal Polytechnic Ekowe, PMB 110, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
This study was aimed at using multiple regression technique to analyze the relationship between weight, height and head circumference of primary school pupils in Imo State; a case study of Mbaitoli Local Government Area. The statistical technique discussed in this research was used to justify the hypotheses, and the SPSS statistical software was employed to ease the analysis. The analysis of data showed that there is no multicollinearity, autocorrelation which agrees with the assumptions of multiple linear regression. The analysis showed that heteroscedasticity exists in the data. The analysis revealed that there is a joint significant relationship between weight and height, head circumference of primary school pupils. Further analysis based on the individual test shows that height contributes positively to weight of primary school pupils, whereas head circumference does not contribute to weight of primary school pupils.
Keywords: Anthropometric Measurement, Regression Analysis, Heteroscedasticity, Autocorrelation, Multicolinearity
DEVELOPMENT OF A REINFORCEMENT LEARNING-BASED COOPERATIVE SPECTRUM SENSING SCHEME
1*FREDERICK OJIEMHENDE EHIAGWINA, 2OLUFEMI OLUSEYE KEHINDE, 3NURUDEEN AJIBOLA IROMINI, 4SUNDAY OMOKHOYA JOSEPH
1,2Electrical/Electronic Engineering Department, Federal Polytechnic Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria 3Department of Computer Engineering, the Federal Polytechnic Offa, Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria 4Mikano International Limited, Ogba, Ikeja, Lagos State.
The IEEE 802.22 standard’s main objective is to identify vacant GSM band frequencies and utilize them for both rural and urban broad band wireless connections. The purpose of CR is to create and develop techniques for measuring and comparing secondary users’ spectrum usage using linear sensing of cooperative spectrum technique. The primary beneficiaries of cognitive radio networks are secondary users (SU). For cognitive radio, spectrum sensing is necessary. A simulation approach for spectrum sensing technologies was proposed to verify compliance with IEEE 802.22 standards. Numerous simulated scenarios were used to investigate single units (local sensing) and multiple SU’s as spectrographic sensing systems in this research (Cooperatively). The simulation was utilized to mimic the detection performance properly. These findings provide the groundwork for developing a local sensing method based on energy detection and cooperative sensing through machine learning for the GSM 900/1800 Frequency Bands. The simulation results demonstrate how a strategic interaction among SUs can be achieved.
Keywords: Bands, Cooperative spectrum sensing, CRN, Decision, GSM, Reinforcement learning, Spectrum
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF MAIZE (Zea mays L) GROWTH AND YIELD PARAMETERS TO DIFFERENT SPACINGS IN BAUCHI STATE NIGERIA
GAMBO, M1.; HARUNA, Y1.; SHUGABA, Y.A1.; BUKAR, M.A2.; GAMBO, N1; AND A.A.MAHMUD1
1Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. 2Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu.
A research was conducted at the Federal polytechnic Bauchi research farm to evaluate the effect of spacing on the growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L). Three different spacings were used in the experiment (75x20cm, 90x30cm and 70x30cm) tagged T1,T2 and T3 respectively. The treatments were replicated four times in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Results revealed that there was a significant effect between the treatments at (P =5%) in plant height where T1 recorded the highest plant height(191.1cm) at 45 days after planting (DAP).Treatment one (T1) had an increased number of days to 50% tasseling, silking and maturity ( 78,82, and 82 days) respectively. Leaf area was also recorded low(5732cm2 ) for T1 due to higher plant density which led to accelerated leaf senescence and increased shading of leaves that reduced the net assimilation of individual plants. T2 having the widest spacing produced significantly the highest weight of 39.3g for hundred seeds compared to lower values of 36.5g,37.5g for T1 and T3 respectively. However,T1 had the highest total grain yield (2416kgha-1).Therefore,T1 spacing is hereby found to be superior to other spacing. Further research can be undertaken to reaffirm this conclusion.
Keywords: Response, spacing, growth, yield, parameters.
QUALITY EVALUATION OF SOME LOCAL BEVERAGES (ZOBO DRINK, KUNUN ZAKI, KUNUN AYA AND TAMARIND JUICE) SOLD IN SABON GARI MARKET KANO STATE
MUSTAPHA YUSUF DAUDA1; VICTOR N. ENUJUIGHA2; SAGIRU DAUDA AHMAD3; AHMAD GAMBO4; & TENE DOGO CLEMENT MAMAN 5,
1,5Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic Kaura Namoda, Zamfara, Nigeria. 2Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. 3Department of Primary Health Care Management Board, Ministry of Health, Kano, Nigeria. 4Department of Food Science and Technology, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria.
The objectives of the study were to evaluate the physicochemical properties, microbial load, anti-oxidant properties and anti-nutritional content of locally produced beverages (Zobo drinks, Kunun Zaki, Kunun Aya and Tamarind) sold within sabon Gari Market of Kano state Nigeria. The drinks were analysed for microbial load, Physico-chemical properties, anti-nutritional contents and anti-oxidant properties. Based on the pH results tamarind is high acid drink while Kunun zaki, Kunun aya and zobo are both low acid drinks. The titrable acidity of kunun zaki and tamarin drink is high compared to the other drinks.The microbial loads of all the drinks were high, which indicates possible recontamination or poor hygienic practices and or use of reused plastic bottles. The phytate content of zobo drinks was higher than that of Kunun zaki and kunun Aya and local Tamarind drinks having the lowest value. The oxalate and tannin content of the beverages ranged from 0.49 – 0.95mg/ml. and 0.22 – 1.07mg/ml respectively. The flavonoid and phenolic content was highest in zobo drink with a value of 0.44±0.00 mg/ml and 18.95±2.41 respectively. There was a significant difference (p ≥ 0.05) between the samples except the total phenol content of Kunun Zaki and Kunun Aya which shows no significant difference.
Keywords: Zobo, Kunun zaki, Kunun aya, Tamarind juice, Quality
DETERMINATION OF RETENTION TIME AND THE CUMULATIVE BIOGAS PRODUCTION IN A LABORATORY BATCH DIGESTER USING RUMEN CONTENT
EBU BRIDGET; HARUNA HAMZA SALIHU; IJEBOR FUNMILAYO DEVORAH; AHMED AISHA; AND YUSUF HALIMA.
Department of Science Lab. Tech. Schoolof Science Tech. Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.
This project work focused on generation of biogas using rumen contents as substrate and determining the retention time of the substrate. Construction of the biogas digester, and determination of proximate composition of the rumen content was carried out using standard procedures. A three drum digester set were designed and used in this research work. The substrate (rumen contents) was in the ratio 2:1 with the water. The digesters were stirred thrice daily to avoid scum formation in the digesters and to allow for easy escape of the gas produced. The retention time was determined to be 23days for the substrate during which the daily internal temperature reading was taken in order to determine temperature variation and also to determine the effect of sunlight on the production rate. Also microbial analysis, Biochemical Tests, Gram Staining and microscopy were carried out. Therefore, the average gas produce within an interval of 3days are; day1-3(39.6cm3), day4-6(37.3cm3), day 7-9(32.6cm3), day10-12(32.3cm3), day13-15(37cm3), day16-18(43.3cm3), day19-21(43cm3), The result obtained from this study indicates that Bacillus species were the most common bacteria isolated and identified during the research, suggesting that the species plays a vital role in the microbial activities for the production of biogas. The study also revealed that rumen content has great potential for the generation of Biogas and produced large quantity of Biogas during 15-21days retention time.
1ALIYU BUBA DAHIRU 2MOHAMMED KABIRU HALIDU 3ATEEQU MUSTAPHA SALIHI
1,2,3 Department of Computer Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria
This research looks at a laser security alarm system design model. Laser security systems appear to be difficult to install and only available to the ultra-wealthy. There are now hundreds of different laser-based security systems on the market that can guard everything from small apartments and companies to enormous tracts of land. A basic alarm unit and an infrared motion detector make up the majority of home laser security systems. A laser-based security system employs laser light and a light sensor to provide security and alert. What is the purpose of using lasers? It is well known that laser light travels vast distances without scattering (disturbing) and is only visible at the source and the destination. A sensor is required to analyze the source, and in this case, the usage of LDR is appropriate. Just analyzing isn’t enough; alerting should be done as well. In typically, alerting is a sound effect, thus in this case, the buzzer serves as an alert. A laser security system is created using this information. It is effective: A laser diode generates a laser beam that strikes the Light dependent resister sensors on a regular basis. When a human walks across the walkway, the laser is unable to reach the LDR, and the sensor generates a low, which is received by the controller, causing the buzzer to turn on.
Keywords: Security alarm; Laser light; Light sensor; Light dependent resistor; Buzzer