CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LAW, POLITICS & HUMANITIES RESEARCH (CJLPHR)
VOL. 24 NO. 6 – MARCH, 2022 EDITION
Cambridge Research and Publications International,
Africa (Nigeria): Centre for African Humanity and Development Circle
(CAHDC), University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
Copyright © 2022 Cambridge Research and Publications International.
THE CHALLENGES OF CONDUCTING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT IN NIGERIA: FOCUS ON NATURAL GAS FLARING
CHUKWUWINKE SMART MOKUYE
Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Administration, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
This article examines the concept of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) vis-à-vis the inherent challenges of conducting it and the effect of a major human activity of gas flaring in Nigeria. The idea of EIA presupposes that project developers should be conscious of the impacts which such activities could have on the environment and consider them before embarking on such activities. The conduct of EIA therefore would be to ensure that decision-makers on the environment considered the environmental impacts when deciding whether or not to proceed with a project. It is thus expected that such move which appear and presents as check mechanism and control measure would be challenged. The objectives of the study therefore are to: consider the broad EIA process; observe the effects of gas flaring on the environment; and the steps that should be taken to mitigate the negative effects of gas flaring on the environment. The result of finding in the study reveal that Major Oil Companies, MOC, hardly considered the negative effects which gas flaring have on the environment before, during and after embarking on the activity. Consequently, the study concludes that indiscriminate gas venting and flaring had continued because of weak application of regulations and extant laws on environmental impact assessment.
Keywords: Environmental Impact Assessment, Natural Gas, Gas Flaring, Sustainable Development.
L’INSECURITE DANS BRANLE-BAS EN NOIR ET BLANC DE MONGO BETI
IJAH GIDEON AKASE, PhD
Department of French, Nasarawa State University, Keffi
L’analyse de cette œuvre Branle-bas en noir et blanc, de Mongo Beti nous permet de montrer comment l’auteur traite la question du pouvoir comme un lieu dominant d’une écriture, et comment, dans le même élan, elle voile un «testament» idéologique et esthétique d’un auteur au soir de sa vie.
Dans un de ses entretiens dans Peuples noirs peuples africains, Mongo Béti declare qu’il faut dire les choses massivement avec clarté pour que le lecteur ne soit pas abusé, qu’il sache exactement ce que veut dire auteur. L’atmosphère du roman est typique du roman biyidien des indépendances: insécurité ambiante ou entretenue, traffic influence et corruption, décompositionsocial et administrative, bref, les métastases du régime dictatorial forment le décor romanesque. Dans Branle-bas en noir et blanc, la marche vers le totalitarisme d’un régime à peine installé agrémente le récit, par réactivation des canaux habituels: les appareils répressifs se remettent rapidement en place: l’incipit du roman en constitue même, à ce titre, une mise en abyme métaphorique. Le début du puzzle montre donc les forces en présence: les nouveaux maîtres, dans toute leur puissance, mais aussi les éternels opposants potentiels dans la scène politique africaine: le peuple miséreux oul’équation tribale. Pour inspirer la crainte, le régime déroule rapidement une stratégie d’intimidation, des assasinations et même des fois la disparition des opposants. Cette stratégie quant à lui c’est pour mettre les opposants sur son controle et cela peut le permettre de rester au pouvoir éternellement.
CROP FARMERS-HERDERS CONFLICT AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR SECURITY IN NIGERIA
OKEREKE, EMMANUEL UGOCHUKWU; & AGBAI EKE AGBAI
Department of Political Science, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nasarawa State.
Crop farmers-herders conflict has occurred in many parts of Nigeria, especially in Ogun, Oyo, Benue, Kaduna, Enugu, Ebonyi, and Plateau States, resulting in wanton destruction of lives and properties, hence affecting the economic wellbeing or security of the people in farming communities in Nigeria. The paper was underpinned by the ethnic competition theory which is vital in the understanding of the role scarcity of land resources play in driving the crop farmers-herders conflict in Nigeria. The aim of this paper is to examine crop farmers-herders conflict in Nigeria with a view to determining its implications for the security of Nigerians. Data for the paper was collected from secondary source and analysed using content analysis. Findings from the paper revealed that crop farmers-herders conflict in the country has resulted into destruction of lives and properties of both parties to the conflict, which ultimately have negative implications for economic development, wellbeing, and social capital in Nigeria. The conflict has been poorly managed by both the federal and state governments in Nigeria, hence the difficulty in combating it. Among other things, making a national policy on ranching of livestock in Nigeria was recommended.
Keywords: Crop Farmers, Herders, Conflict, Security, Ethnic Competition
HUMAN SECURITY IN A GLOBAL AGE
Department of Politics and International Relations, ISM – Adonai University, Cotonou, Republic of Benin. [Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria.]
Human Security has been part of academic and policy discourses since it was first promoted by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in its 1994 Human Development Report. It means protecting fundamental freedoms. It means protecting people from critical (severe) and pervasive (widespread) threats and situations. It means using processes that build on people’s strengths and aspirations. It means creating political, social, environmental, economic, military, and cultural systems that together give people the building blocks of survival. This paper examines the origins of the concept of human security, debates surrounding its definition and scope, some of the threats to human security in the world today, and international efforts to promote human security. It proceeds in five parts. The section, ‘What is human security?’, traces the origin and evolution of the concept, examines competing definitions offered by scholars and policy-makers, draws attention to the three distinct conceptions of human security that shape current debates, and takes a look at the usefulness of the concept of human security. The section that follows offers a brief overview of some contributions to the human security literature. The next section reviews debates and controversies about human security, especially over the analytic and policy relevance of the notion, and the broad and narrow meaning of the concept (‘freedom from fear’ versus ‘freedom from want’). The fourth section examines some of the threats to human security today. While the concept of human security encompasses a wide range of threats, due to lack of space, this section will focus on the trends in armed conflicts as well as the interrelationship between conflict and other violence threats to human security, such as poverty, disease, and environmental degradation. The final section analyzes the international community’s efforts to promote human security and concludes by identifying the major challenges to promoting the notion of human security today.
Keywords: Human, Freedom, Security, People, State, Development, Threat, Globalization
THE INFLUENCE OF WORK DISCIPLINE AND JOB SATISFACTION ON THE JOB PERFORMANCE OF MEDICAL RECORDS MANAGERS IN FEDERAL MEDICAL CENTRES IN NORTH-CENTRAL, NIGERIA
DAUDA, JIBRIL JIBRIL1 AND DR. KATAMBA ABUBAKAR SAKA2
Library and Information Technology Dept., Federal University of Technology, Minna
The paper highlighted the influence of work discipline, and job satisfaction on the job performance of medical records managers in federal medical centres in North-Central, Nigeria. The study was guided by five objectives, five corresponding research questions and three null hypotheses. Survey research design method was adopted for the study. The target population of the study was 376 medical record managers in five federal medical centres in North-Central, Nigeria. Total enumeration or census was used because the population size was manageable. Questionnaire was the only instrument used for data collection. Descriptive statistical tool involving frequency counts and percentages, mean and standard deviation were used to analyse the data. The study concluded that variables which improve the level of job satisfaction of medical record managers should be looked into such as remuneration, leadership style, working environment and policy, training and development of members of staff for effective output. The study recommended among others that comfortable working environment should be made available should be made available to medical records managers in order to be able provide effective service to Federal Medical Centres.
Keywords: Federal Medical Centres (FMCs), Job Performance, Job Satisfaction, Medical Records Managers, Work Discipline
ANTI-GRAFT WAR IN NIGERIA, REFERENCE TO INDEPENDENCE CORRUPT PRACTICES COMMISSION (ICPC) ABUJA
NWANERI CONSTANCE L.O.; DR. CHIJIOKE EGWU; & DUWARA DOGARA YOHANNA
Department of Sociology/ Criminology and Security Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Plateau – State.
The broad objective of this work is to examine anti-graft war in Nigeria, with reference to ICPC. Is quite obvious that corruption is a problem not only in the world’s major financial markets and offshore centres, but also for emerging markets. One of the greatest threats to economic and political development of any nation is corruption. Therefore, the challenges of corruption remain a major devastating issue facing Nigeria since the colonial period, although, this phenomena has become a cankerworm that has eaten deep into the fabrics of our system. Nevertheless, its solution rests in our hands and cannot be put off to another day. In Nigeria, corruption has been identified as the bane of urgently needed development in the country. Corruption impairs the development of these important financial institutions for two reasons first corruption erodes financial institutions themselves. Within these institutions, there is often a correlation between corruption and fraudulent activities undertaken by employees. At a higher volumes of corruption activity, entire financial institutions in developing countries are vulnerable to corruption by criminal elements seeking to gain further influence over their corruption channels. And in this work we suggested that federal government should make all the anti-corruption commission more effective as a result of empowering then and funding the agencies and as well as independent so as to enforce laws without interference.
Keywords: Corruption, Anti-graft war, ICPC, Sustainable Development, Financial Institution.
THE STATE OF LAGOS STATE DOMESTIC VIOLENCE POLICY IN ADDRESSING SURGING ISSUES CONFRONTING ALL CATEGORIES OF VICTIMS: A POLICY REVIEW RECOMMENDATIONS
OLUWADELE, L. BOLUTIFE, PHD1, OKAIYETO, SIMON AYODELE2 OLAOGUN, MICHAEL SUNKANMI3
1Public Policy Analyst, Canada. 2Mass Communication Department, Salem University, Lokoja, Nigeria. 3Pan Africa Youth Democracy Fellow, Honorary Emissary, Internationalism (India)
Given consideration to the prevalence of domestic violence as a global phenomenon and the twin issue of inadequate legislation and policy to address it, we have scrutinized the Lagos State of Nigeria law and policy on domestic violence. From reviews both from primary and secondary sources, in addition to our earlier work in this regard, this qualitative study revealed the urgent need for a revisit into the current policy. Advocacy for an all-inclusive policy that caters to the need of all victims, but more importantly, the women that have been established to be one with more burdens of the ugly consequences of domestic violence is emphasized. There is a strong inclination that a women-centered approach may be more plausible in bringing better results in policy implementation and possibly tame the rising of domestic violence in Lagos, with concomitant effects on other parts of the federation who may wish to copy the working template envisaged from the policy reversal.
Keywords: Domestic Violence, Lagos state, Policy, Women-centered Approach
THE TRAINING AND USE OF LOCAL HUNTING DOGS FOR POLICE DUTIES
*GODWIN AGABA OCHUBE; *NDALAZHI FLORENCE; & **SAMINU AMINU
*Department of Sociology, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria. **Department of Sociology, Federal University, Dutse
The relevance of dogs for police duties cannot be overemphasized. It is a proven fact in many countries of the world. Hunting dogs have been proven to perform many duties. They are used for search and seizure, guard of honor, detection of explosives. Others are detention of narcotics and items, pursuit and arrest. With the assistance of the handlers, dogs have become a very important asset to fighting crime in the law enforcement agencies. Their works has become easier and simple. It is therefore recommended that the Nigerian Army and the Police Force should emulate other developed countries of the world by engaging the services of dogs in fighting crimes. It can help the military police and other agencies to get rid of crime from the society.
Keywords: Training, Hunting, Dogs, Army, Police and Duties
EFFECT OF COVID -19 PANDEINIC ON HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY IN THE PAST PANDEMIC ERA
OKUNOLA ADAFIN .A. OLAIYA; & IDOWU OLUFUNKE BOLA
Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Faculty of Envirionment Design and Management, Lead City University Ibadan, Oyo State
The tourism industry is one of the sectors that would be greatly affected by COVID-19 pandemic. Data for the review was generated from desk review of secondary materials, online blogs and interview through social media chat. Findings of the review reveal that the outbreak of pandemic disease led to rapid shutdowns in cities and states across the country, which greatly affected the hospitality industry. This pandemic showed the rapid negative impact on the country tourism and hotel industry. The findings of the review reveal that COVID-19 has increased cancellations of hotels and travel bookings resulted in revenue loss and unemployment situations, resulting loss of substantial revenue to the government and increasing incidence of poverty among others. The review recommends that provision of alternative service and diversification of service and product and compensation to business operators in the sector to return back to normal operations.
Keywords: Nigeria; Covid-19; Hospitality; Tourism; Impact
NEXUS BETWEEN HERDSMEN BANDITRY AND FOOD SCARCITY: A CALL FOR GOOD GOVERNANCE IN NIGERIA
SHANKA, BUBA OTUEMHOBE
Department of Politics and International Relations, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Conflict and violence remain critical condition for human survival in terms of adequate feeding. In other words, there is a link between conflicts and quantity of food production for a nation. Therefore, this paper examines the nexus between herdsmen banditry and food scarcity in Nigeria with a view to providing good governance for Nigerians. The paper conceives herdsmen banditry as an organized crime perpetrated through incessant attacks on innocent people which may involve killing, maiming, kidnapping, rustling of livestock and destruction of properties. This heinous act is mostly triggered by economic, political and social gains; whereas one of its fallouts is food scarcity in Nigeria. However, it has been argued that banditry is a form of agitation against government impunity, preferential treatment and bad economy, which snowballs unemployment figures to alarming rates. To this end, it is believed that good governance is the only viable antidote to herdsmen banditry that disperses people from farming community. The paper concluded that effective utilization of elements of good governance would abate bandit attacks and other conflicts, thereby paving ways for reactivation of large farming across Nigerian society and ensuring food sufficiency in Nigeria. Among others, it was recommended that government should beef-up security apparatus at the local community for farmers; and provide support for farmers in the area of fertilizer, seedling and grants for large farming scale.
Keywords: Herdsmen banditry, food scarcity, good governance, government, bandit attacks.
NEED OF TEACHING ORAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN NIGERIAN POLYTECHNICS: A CRITICAL OUTLOOK
Department of languages and communication, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State
For the last few decades, the system of teaching English language course at the Diploma level, specifically in Polytechnics of Nigeria has been receiving rigorous criticism. Implementation of curriculum objectives, particularly oral communication skills part has become a highly challenging task for language teachers. Several attempts have been made to reform the system at this level, but achieved limited success in its execution. In this connection the present paper is aimed at the need of teaching oral communication skills at the Nigerian Polytechnics, factors involved in teaching/learning spoken skills, difficulties in its implementation and evaluation patterns. Further, it provides a good number of critical observations and possible suggestions for immediate action.
Keywords: Communication, Technical Colleges, Spoken skills, Implementation, Evaluation
SOCIAL MEDIA, NON- STATE ACTORS AND INTERNAL SECURITY IN NIGERIA: AN APPRAISAL
SULEIMAN SULEIMAN; AND HASSANAH IBRAHIM OZIOHU
Department of Social Sciences, College of Administrative Studies and Social Sciences, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna.
The New Social Media has provided a platform for citizens-state interaction in the public sphere. It provides higher levels of participation for younger people and an avenue for women who have not been very active and vocal with a voice to demand for accountability. Given this new platform for engagement with government and institutions, there is growing disillusionment with rulers and governments as corruption scandals have fuelled discontent with the conduct of governance in Africa. In African countries, journalists who dare to report on corruption and injustice are targeted with killings and beatings while traditional news outlets are censored; bloggers and social media activists have become the new independent media by providing the much-needed space in the demand for accountability and open governance. Recent studies suggests that Internet freedom has declined in most countries because more and more governments are targeting the social media and communication Apps that aid in the spread of information, most especially those dealing with antigovernment protests and the demand for accountability in governance.
Keywords: Social Media, Non- State Actors, Security, Internal Security, Nigeria.
PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF THE CAUSES, PREVALENCE AND EFFECTS OF KIDNAPPING ON THE RESIDENCE OF SABON-GARI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
*KOLO, JOHN NDASHIRU; **GODWIN AGABA OCHUBE; **NDALAZHI FLORENCE
*Department of Social Welfare Administration, Niger State, Polytechnic Zungeru. **Department of Sociology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
The study examined public perception towards the causes, prevalence and effects of kidnapping on residents of Sabon-Gari LGA of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study relies on both qualitative methods through the administration of questionnaires to residents of the Local government and also qualitative methods through in-depth interviews to generate data for the study. The study also adopted Conspiracy theory as a theoretical framework. Findings shows that youth unemployment and poverty are the major causes of kidnapping and the menace has led to increased poverty on residents, psychological trauma on victims and families of victims. The study recommend poverty eradication programs, creation of jobs and strengthening the security structure of the country as mitigating measures
Keywords: Crime, Causes, Effects, Prevalence, Kidnapping, Residence
TRADE OPENNESS AND POVERTY IN THE WEST AFRICAN SUB REGION
*OHIOMAH SIMEON SULEMAN; & **PROF. OFANSON EDEGHAWE JULIUS,
*Humanities And Social Sciences Department, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo State. **Banking And Finance Department, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma.
The problem of poverty which is the situation of not having adequate income to meet the daily basic needs such as food, shelter and clothing is a major socio economic problem in West African Sub-region. The study examined trade openness and poverty in the West African sub region and approach the problem in the macroeconomic perspective by examining it in the conceptual framework of the immiserising growth theory using data covering the period, 2010-2019. In the analysis, the per capita income, export, exchange rate and inflation data were used as fundamental variables. The Hausman test was conducted and the random effect regression model was appropriately used. According to the results obtained, our apriori expectation was confirmed and results were statistically significant. The paper recommends that standardized manufactured goods be given high priority and included in their export to make them competitive in the international market.
Keywords: Poverty, Exchange rate, Inflation, Immiserising Growth, Per capital income
ADOPTING EMPIRICAL RESEARCHES AS INSTRUMENTS FOR DIAGNOSIS FOR FINDING SOLUTIONS TO HUMAN CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS IN NIGERIA
*VEN EGESI JONATHAN C.; **NWARU CHRISTIANA CHINWE; & **UCHECHI DIKE
*Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo –Ohaji, P.M.B 1472, Owerri, Nigeria. **Imo State Polytechnic, Umugwo-Ohaji
Research as a topic or discourse has attracted various definitions and interpretations in our contemporary society. For our purpose here we take it as a systematic effort at gaining new knowledge and solutions to given human problems. Also research has been seen as a systematic and objective each for new knowledge to the solution of a novel problem .Regrettably, it has been discovered above other things that various scholars nowadays do not conduct diagnosis or researches to find out the workable solutions to various problems rather they simply adopt one strategy or the other in an attempt to solve the problem. This study is a clarion call for all and sundry to fall back to researching other than doing trial and error when it come to proffering answers to disturbing situations. Various data collection techniques were adopted in the course of this study which include but not limited to oral interviews, use of textbooks, questionnaire, periodicals and the internet. A theory was adopted as a theoretical foundation for the study .The study concluded with the scholars making case that empirical research is like conducting a test on a patient to know the appropriate medication to be administered on him or her and should not be relegated to the background.
Keywords: Adoption, Empirical research, Instrument, Diagnosis, solutions
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MASS MEDIA IN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AND DEVELOPMENT
*BELINDA ANYANWU; AND **GODWIN NATHANIEL UDOH
*Department of Mass Communication, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna. **Department Of Mass Communication. Kaduna State University, Kaduna
Mass media will always be considered as an important element needed to effectively transfer technologies which are intended to foster production of agricultural produce. In a bid for farmers to profit from these innovations, there must be accessibility and effective education on the utilization and application in different farming systems or practices. Mass media are critical in disseminating useful information to aid the farmers make knowledgeable decisions in respect to agricultural activities. This paper classifies mass media as encompassing print, broadcast and the digital media. For a successful implementation of an agricultural development programme, the level and extent of the usage of the mass media is paramount. The Broadcast media, that is, Radio and Television is known asthe most effective medium of mass communication in disseminating knowledge and information to farmers. The paper states that the utilization of printed materials in disseminating information about agriculture is not appropriate for instructing farmers whose education are limited; moreso, information arranged to be circulated to a general audience might fall short of usefulness to every farmer across different communities. The studyconcludes that with the burning need for agricultural extension information and edcation by farmers, the mass media becomes even more necessary.
Keywords: Communication, Media, Agriculture, Development, Extension
CHALLENGES OF TEACHING AND LEARNING LOCAL LANGUAGES IN THE ERA OF GLOBALIZATION: FULFULDE LANGUAGE IN FOCUS
USMAN BOBBO ILIYASU
Federal College of Education Yola
The important of language cannot be over emphasized. It is very vital part of human life. It is also a natural phenomenon which is used for the purpose of communicating meaning in the society. Therefore, this paper examines the concept of globalization, challenge of teaching and learning Fulfulde language. The paper prefers some teaching strategies that could be used to simplify teaching and learning of Fulfulde language so that more nonnatives speakers can learn the language and communicate favorably with the native speaker in this era of globalization.
Keywords: Teaching, Learning, Local Languages, Fulfulde, Globalization