CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH & EARTH SCIENCE (CJERES)
VOL. 24 NO. 4 – MARCH, 2022 EDITION
Cambridge Research and Publications International,
Africa (Nigeria): Centre for African Humanity and Development Circle
(CAHDC), University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
Copyright © 2022 Cambridge Research and Publications International.
GEOSPASTIAL ASSESSMENT OF THE LAND USE/LAND COVER DYNAMICS OF LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA BETWEEN 2000 AND 2020
OGUNLADE, SIMEON OLUWOLE (PHD) AND OGUNTADE, OPEYEMI JOSHUA
Remote Sensing and GIS Section, Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, School of Environmental Technology, The Federal University of Technology Akure, Ondo State Nigeria
The study assessed the effect of Land Use/Land Cover dynamics on the hydrological system of Lagos state, Nigeria. Landsat Operational Land Imager (OLI)/Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), Enhanced thematic mapper (ETM) and Thematic Mapper (TM) for the years 2000, 2013 and 2020 were respectively acquired for the study. These were processed and maximum likelihood method of supervised image classification algorithm was used for classify the the study area into LULC types. Precipitation (Rainfall), Potential evapo-transpiration, and runoff were the selected hydrological components adopted for the study years. The hydrological variation in relation to the LULC dynamics in the study area were determined and analysed using trend analysis to know how the changes in LULC have been affecting the hydrological system in the study area over the years. The analysis of the land use/land cover types, shows that built environment experienced a continuous development and urban expansion. Also, of the three hydrological components examined, rainfall and surface runoff have increased in direct proportion over the study years, while potential evapo-transpiration decreased. It was concluded that the increase in built environment, the decline in the natural land cover classes and the increase in rainfall in the study area led to increase in surface runoff which led to water overflow (flood), while the increase in potential evapo-transpiration was due to increase in water body and forest land cover, and a decrease in built environment. The adoption of the findings to improve water drainage system in the study area were recommended.
Keywords: Analysis, Classification, Dynamics, Hydrological System, Landuse/Landcover
EFFECTS OF QUARRY ON THE AIR QUALITY IN MPAPE, BWARI AREA COUNCIL, FCT ABUJA, NIGERIA
L.M OMEIZA1, D.U SANGARI2, A.T. OGAH3
1,2,&3Department of Geography, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Nasarawa State University, Keffi,
Man might survive weeks without food and days without water, but he can only last a few seconds without clean air, It has become clear that air quality in the study area need to be examined, since air pollution in the study area has affected the health of human beings and animals, damaged vegetation, soils and deteriorates materials and generally affects not only the large metropolitan areas but also the medium sized urban areas. This study assessed the effects of Quarry on Air Quality in Mpape, Bwari Area Council, FCT Abuja, Nigeria. A total of 218 Air samples were collected from six points around the quarries sites and recorded insitu for analysis. The samples were collected three times in a day (Morning, Afternoon and Evening) for three days. Absolute Instrument System (AIS) model Aerocet 5315 was used to collect the parameters according to WHO, USEPA and NESREA guideline. The following parameters were investigated; Particulate Matter (PM), Carbon monoxide (Co), Sulphur dioxide (S02), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Ammonia (NH3), Chlorine (CL2) and Hydrogen Cyanide. 2 active and 2 dormant quarries were considered by the study, land was measured to determine the impact of quarry in the study area. The statistical test employed was Analysis of Variance and student t-test. Based on the data collected and the analysis made, it was observed that the mean values of the parameters varied from points to points and at different time of the day. Also, the mean values of the parameters were compared with the NESREA recommended limits, and it was observed that Julius Berger have used about 50% of the area granted to her by Nigerian Mining Cadastre Office, while Galaxy quarry have used 33.33% of the area granted, it was observed that Sulphur dioxide has a concentration of 0.45ppm, NO2, 0.17ppm and NH3 0.38ppm, were above the NESREA recommended limit. While C0, 6.11ppm, HCN, 0.16ppm, SPM mg/m3 and Cl2, 0.03ppm are still below the standard limit. Air quality Index shows that Sulphur dioxide, and Nitrogen dioxide has a very poor quality index. The study therefore recommends that, all activities that lead to the release of air pollutants should be liable to environmental tax law; the quarries companies should upgrade their plants to more efficient technologies and by switching to lower carbon content fuels which will reduce emission of pollutants in the study area.
Keywords: Effect, air, quarry, quality, minerals
EFFECTS OF CARBOFURAN-3% PESTICIDE APPLICATIONS TO TWO SOIL TYPES MICRO-FLORA ORGANISMS IN NEW BUSSA, NIGER STATE, NORTH CENTRAL, NIGERIA
1ADIGUN J.O*2 OLANIRAN, O.A AND 2ADELASOYE, K.A
2Department of Crop and Environmental Protection, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. 1Agricultural Research Council of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria.
Soil contamination from pesticide is now a global issue that needs immediate attention. Cases of pesticide spillage and drift have been reported by many researchers to contaminate the soil thus causing effect and shift in the diversity of microbial community. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of Carbofuran 3% pesticide on soil microorganism of two soil types, clay and sandy soil. Serial dilution technique was employed up to 103 using nutrient agar, potato dextrose agar and sabourand agar plates. The isolation of both bacterial and fungal organism was made before and after treating the soil types with the pesticide. The experiment was carried out at the Government Day Secondary School Farm and Government Technical College Farm in New Bussa, Niger State for sand and clay soil respectively. The experimental design used was Complete Randomized Design fitted into factorial experiment, using carbofuran and two types of soil. Soil sample were taken according to the treatment designed? analyzed for bacteria and fungi isolation, identification and determination of population present in the clay and sand soil after exposure to the pesticide. Data collected were subjected to analysis of Variance (ANOVA), means were later separated using DMRT at 5% probability level.) The result showed that, the fungal species isolated were Aspergillus , Syncophatastrum , Penicillum and Mucor . The population of both bacteria and fungi were higher in clay (98.27 x 106 and 83.37 x 104 respectively at 3 weeks after spraying (WAS)) than sand (79.13 x 10 6 and 65.03 x 104 respectively) soil. The populations of both bacteria and fungi were not significantly different in the treated and untreated soil. The population of fungi in the sampled soil was lower than that of the bacteria before and after exposure. It can be concluded from this research work that, the population of bacteria and fungi decrease with increased exposure to carbofuran. Thus, care must be exercised, so that the microbial population will not be affected by the addition of this pesticide.
Keywords: Soil, Contamination, Carbofuran, Drift, Microflora, pesticide, Spillage
ASSESSMENT OF CERAMIC SANITARY WARE PATRONAGE IN ABEOKUTA SOUTH, OGUN STATE, NIGERIA
FADAIRO, OLUROTIMI OLAKUNLE,
Department of Industrial Design, School of Environment Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure. Ondo State, Nigeria.
It is an established fact that environmental and social order can be disrupts with inordinate disposal of human waste. This necessitated the need for improve environmental sanitation. Ceramic sanitary ware (CSW) is one of the products designed to manage human excrement. The demand for this products is so alarming that the market is flooded with different brands of imported CSW yet Nigeria is still considered as one of the countries that has not measured up with the Millennium Development Goal targeted of the World Health Organization to improved sanitation. This research assessed the consumer patronage of ceramic sanitary ware products in the study area. Survey method of analysis was adopted, data was collected through questionnaire and processed using statistical tools. Response from respondents revealed that majority of CSW products availability in the market were imported, while consumers’ choice of the products were determined by factors related to the socio-economic status of the people and their taste. Factors found paramount include ease of cleaning, comfort, durability, and availability products in market.
Keywords: Ceramics, Sanitation, Marketers, End-users, Industries.
ASSESSMENT OF WORKERS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS SAFETY AND HEALTH MEASURES ON BUILDING CONSTRUCTION SITES IN ABUJA
* TIRMISIYU, S. A.1, MOHAMMED, Y. D.2 AND SHITTU, A. A.3
1, 2, 3(Department of Quantity Surveying, School of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria)
Studies have shown that safer behaviour is reflected by a good attitude. In view of this, the study assessed workers’ attitudes towards safety and health measures on building construction sites in Abuja with a view to improving construction workers’ attitudes towards safety and health on construction sites. The study adopted a quantitative research approach with the use of structured questionnaire administered to 102 respondents with a response rate of 93%. The analysis of the data was carried out with the use of percentage, Mean Item Score (MIS) and Spearman rank correlations. The study identified 11 accidents peculiar to building construction sites in Abuja which often occurred (MIS = 3.88 – 4.35). Eleven (11) significant health and safety (H&S) measures required to improve construction workers’ attitude on site were identified of which the most significant ones range between safety policies (MIS = 4.20) and site responsibility for H&S (MIS = 3.50). The result of the Spearman’s rank correlation analysis shows a positive, fairly strong and significant relationship between workers’ knowledge and H&S standards on building construction sites (p = 0.03; r = 0.453). All the identified H&S standards are averagely or partially complied with at the various building construction sites. These range from “Lifting operations and lifting equipment regulations” (MIS = 2.70) to “First aid regulations” (MIS = 4.00). The average MIS is 3.52. It was, however, concluded that workers’ positive attitude on building construction sites towards H&S measures can help reduce the frequency of accidents on construction sites in Abuja. The major recommendation from the study was that construction workers should be well trained on accident preventive measures. Finally, site workers should develop a positive attitude towards H&S measures for improved compliance to H&S standards.
Keywords: Building, Construction Sites, Safety and Health Measures, Workers’ Attitude.
THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING RESIDENTIAL BUILDING OBSOLESCENCE IN ABUJA, NIGERIA
ABUBAKAR, N. & JONATHAN, U. A.
Department of Estate Management, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger state.
The significance of residential real estate property to the economy of Nigeria and various stakeholders cannot be overemphasized. This class of asset contributes to the gross domestic product of the country, also various stakeholders feel more comfortable in storing their wealth through this medium making the value of real estate properties of great importance. Meanwhile obsolescence is a serious threat for built property. Given its immobile, long lasting and capital intensive. Minimizing obsolescence is indispensable for the up keeping of the physical, economical and societal investment involved in it.This paper examines the comparative analysis of factors affecting residential building obsolescence in Abuja. The paper used self administered questionnaire to 116 respondents out of 171 registered estate surveyors and valuers firms in Abuja according to Niesv directory of 2021. Out of the 116 questionnaire given out 93 was dully filled and returned. The data obtained were analysed using relative importance index (RII) and linear regression analysis. This study shows that the causes of building obsolescence in Abuja are poor standard maintenance, natural detoriation, construction faults, age of building, poor accessibility and environmental pollution. It is then recommended that special attention should be paid to standard of building maintenance because it contributes predominantly to the longevity of buildings.
Keywords: Comparative, Analysis, Affecting, Residential, building, obsolescence
COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE FACTORS INFLUENCING ACCESS TO URBAN LAND FOR COMMERCIAL AND RESIDENTIAL USES IN MINNA, NIGERIA
UMAR NAGYA AND NAMNSO BASSEY UDOEKANEM
Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
Land is a major factor of production and a vital element in the socio-economic development of any country or society. Due to continuous urbanisation, resulting in the increase in urban population, access to Urban land has become a problem in North central Nigeria. The aim of this study is to examine the factors that influence access to urban land for residential and commercial uses in Minna, Nigeria. Data were both primarily and secondarily sourced. Primary data collection was by the aid of structured questionnaires whereby, a total of 400 questionnaires were administered to respondents in Minna. Factor analysis was adopted for the analysis of data. Result of the study however shows that cost of land, income level, and accessibility are the major factor that influence access to urban land for both commercial and residential use in Minna. It is therefore recommended that Government should seek ways of making access to urban land affordable to the residents.
Keywords: Access to Land, Commercial Land, Residential Land, Urban Land.
EVALUATING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF GREEN CONSTRUCTION (GC) WITHIN KADUNA METROPOLIS IN NIGERIA
ISA SANI MOHAMMED1; ANAS MUHAMMAD2; SAMINU A3; & SANI YUSUF4
1&3Department of Civil Engineering, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna State, Nigeria. 2Department of Quantity Surveying, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
The increasing urbanization is coupled with some problems such as; loss of arable land, material and water crisis, and serious environmental problems like air pollution, noise pollution and waste generated from buildings. Perhaps, this could be as a result of some activities of the construction industry. Despite all these glaring challenges and drastic measures, Green Construction developments and sustainable practices are embraced very slowly and practiced at slow pace in developed and developing cities. This development is worrisome and may be as a result of some factors and barriers affecting the sustainable practices within the built environment. GC reduces or eliminates negative impacts of construction activities on the environment, and can create positive impacts on our climate and natural environment. This study evaluates the implementation of GC in Kaduna metropolis based on the following objectives: the identification of concepts and principles of GC; determination of the barriers hindering the implementation of GC in Kaduna metropolis; and determination of the drivers enhancing the implementation of GC. A total of 1,067 questionnaires were administered to consultants, contractors, clients/end-users and staff of development agencies out of which 486 questionnaires were returned representing 45.55% valid response rate. Subsequently, they were analysed using descriptive statistics. It was established that the barriers of GC can be overcome by changing the thinking of stakeholders of the CI from cost to value, and from short-term to long-term. A way forward to an effective implementation of GC requires a multifaced collaboration among the key stakeholders of the CI by focusing on drivers that will drive its utilisation.
Keywords: Green Construction (GC), Drivers of GC, Barriers of GC, Implementation of GC, Construction Industry.
IMPACT OF INNOVATION ON PERFORMANCE OF SPECIALIST CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTORS IN KADUNA STATE
AYUBA , B.K .1, TSADO A.J.2
1, 2, (Department of Quantity Surveying, School of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria)
This study assessed the impact of innovation on the performance of specialist construction contractors (SCC) in Kaduna State. The study adopted a quantitative research approach. Data was thus collected with the use of a questionnaire survey. The population for the study comprises 28 specialist construction firms registered with the Federation of Construction Industry (FOCI) operating within Kaduna metropolis. Analysis of the data was undertaken with the use of frequency counts, percentages, and mean item score (MIS). The study revealed that intensified market competition and survival were the most significant drivers of innovation among specialist construction contractors in Kaduna state, with an MIS of 4.73 and 4.55, respectively. On average, all the drivers of innovation among specialist construction contractors are important (average MIS = 4.39). The most significant barriers to innovation among specialist construction contractors are the high cost of innovation (4.53) and a lack of understanding of the benefits of innovation (4.50): All the identified innovation among specialist construction contractors is moderate (average MIS = 3.87). Improvement of services (MIS = 4.69); and improvement of product quality (MIS = 4.62) are the most important benefits of innovation among specialist construction contractors. On average, all the identified benefits of innovation among specialist construction contractors are important (average MIS = 4.31). It was concluded that innovation, when adopted, has a positive impact on the performance of specialist construction contractors in Kaduna state. It was therefore recommended that Specialist contractors should make every effort to attend workshops and seminars that will educate them on new ideas, cutting-edge technologies, and how to apply them. The Nigerian government should also provide favorable policies that will enable specialist contractors’ firms to innovate.
Keywords: Impact, Innovation, Performance, Specialist Construction Contractors
COMPULSORY ACQUISITION AND COMPENSATION PRACTICE IN NIGER STATE: A CASE STUDY OF LANDS ACQUIRED FOR MAITUMBI NEW ROAD NETWORK PROJECT
AMINAT LADI SHEHU; & MUHAMMAD BASHIR NUHU
Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
Land and landed property are compulsorily acquired in Nigeria and other nations around the world for various developmental public interests. However, it usually comes with some sort of discomforts, as it often results in either displacing people economically or physically. In either way, compensation of affected persons is required. It is against this backdrop that this study seeks to examine the compulsory land acquisition for public interest by Niger State Government and the payment of compensation in respect of Maitumbi New Road Area of Minna, Niger State with a view to establishing comprehensive guidelines that will improve the whole process. The study sampled 400 land owners in the study area, by issuing close ended questionnaires and adopted both descriptive and inferential method of analysis in collecting data for this study. Result of analysis reveals wide gap between compensation paid and the worth of the acquired property resulting to a widespread dissatisfaction with compensation paid to the claimants. The study recommends that compulsory land acquisition should clearly involve all stakeholders from the beginning of the process to the end while upholding the principles of good governance such as community participation; transparency and clear information to claimants and accountability to responsible professionals.
Keywords: Compulsory Land Acquisition, Compensation, Claimants, Stakeholders.
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECT OF SAND MINING ON LIVEHOODS IN CALABAR AND ENVIRONS, CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA
F.A. DAMACHI1, A.T. OGAH2, ALKALI MOH’D3
1&2Department of Geography, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Nasarawa State University, Keffi. 3Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environment Sciences, Nasarawa State University, Keffi
This study examine the effects of sand mining in Calabar, Cross River State. Both the primary and secondary sources of data were used for this study. As ample of 324 respondents were used in the study, while data used were obtained via survey questionnaires and interviews. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics. The findings of the study revealed that, people in the study communities became part of the sand mining business for various reasons. In the first place, some farmers joined the sand mining activities because of some vulnerabilities associated with farming such as adverse weather conditions, pests and disease attacks on crops and the seasonality of agricultural activities. These situations coupled with the lack of employable skills amongst the youth, low productivity and poor pricing of agricultural produce compels them to become sand miners. These were the category of people who were pressured by difficult circumstances to become sand miners. Another group of people also became sand miners because of some opportunities they found in the work, including higher and quicker income. The positive effects of sand mining on livelihoods were found to be many. Sand mining activities create jobs for several people in the sand mining fringe communities. A lot of people are employed as diggers of sand, loaders of sand, drivers of tipper trucks, operators of excavators, food vendors and tally clerks. Sand miners also enjoy higher and regular income than most farmers. Sand miners engage in the construction and repairing of roads for their work. Most of these roads are the major means of transportation for the people in the sand mining fringe communities. Sand mining activities were also found to boost trading activities in the study communities. Based on these findings the study recommended that the drivers that influence people into sand mining can be minimised when members of the sand mining-fringe communities are introduced to other livelihood activities. More so, All efforts must therefore be put in place by the district assemblies, in collaborations with the Environmental Protection Agency and the Ministry of Food and Agriculture; to restore the lands that are destroyed in the wake of sand mining activities. In like manner, livelihood challenges that arise from the activities of sand mining, adequate compensation must be paid by the sand miners to the land owners and land users who have lost their assets.
Keywords: Sand, Live hoods, degradation, mining, Environmental
CHALLENGES OF THE APPLICATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FACED BY STAFF IN THE TRAINING OF ARCHITECTURAL STUDENTS IN POLYTECHNICS IN NIGERIA
Department of Architectural Technology, College of Environmental Studies, Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, Kazaure, Jigawa State.
Training architectural students by applying information technology is very important medium of imparting knowledge, valuable hand-on skills and technical know-how in the 21st century. To a large extend, survival depend completely on how one has mastered and is able to manipulate the world of technology to pave a way for himself/herself in an ever growing competitive struggle for success. Just like other forms of training in Nigeria, applying information technology in instructing architectural students has had its share of the challenges. What are these challenges? This is what this research plans to study. To do this, questionnaires were administered to all the staff that teach Higher National Diploma (HND) students of Architectural Technology Department, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Zaria. Because of the need for comprehensive study of the problem, the total population of staff (seven lecturers) was used for the research. The data collected was analysed using the mathematical formula Part/whole X 100% to find percent proportion. The analysed data suggested that the staff face challenges in the application of information technology in training HND students in the polytechnic. However, the study discovered that 100% of the staff were found qualified to apply information technology in training students. This paper discovered only few of the challenges. Challenges like safety, security, ethics, practicality, et cetera on the application of information technology in teaching HND architectural students in Nigeria polytechnics in particular and other institutions in general need to be studied.
Keyword: Application; Challenges; Higher National Diploma; Information Technology; Training.
GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION OF SOILS: A CASE STUDY OF A PROPOSED RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT AT NO. 7, SAMBO CLOSE, KADUNA, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
IBRAHIM SHUAIBU, RINTONG BABATUNDE
1 Department of Civil Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna , Nigeria.
This Sub-soil geotechnical report, presents detailed information and results of a soil survey which covered five (5) No. Trial pits, manually excavated to a maximum of 2.00M depth maximum for a Proposed Residential Development at No. 7, Sambo Close, behind British Council, Kaduna. Undisturbed soil samples were obtained with core cutters for shear strength determination and bulk samples were also collected identified, labeled, bagged in polythene to prevent moisture loss and transported to the laboratory, Results of the geotechnical investigation show a safe bearing capacity range of 107.28 KN/m2 in TP 1 – 124.44 KN/m2 in TP 5, at 1.00m respectively. At 2.00m depths the bearing capacity increased from 145.72 KN/m2 at TP 2 – 156.72 KN/m2 in TP1, using a factor of safety of 2.50. Total settlement (Oedometer) values ranged between 0.0006m – 0.0017m. It follows therefore that the proposed structure could be supported on, Isolated Wide Pad Foundation which may be designed at 2.00m depth
Keywords: Geotechnical, settlement, Sub-soil, foundation, Shear strength
REPRODUCTION OF SOME DIGITALLY PRINTED FABRICS WITH ADIRE DESIGNS USING STUDIO METHOD
OLAOYE O. OYINMIEEBI AND ADIJI E. BOLAJOKO
Industrial Design Department, Federal University of Technology, Akure
The purpose of the study is to investigate the difference between digital textile printing method of the Yoruba traditional designs and the Yoruba traditional method of producing these designs with the view to looking at the limitations involved in reproducing some selected designs and the uniqueness in each method of production. The objective is to: reproduce digitally printed Yoruba textile designs using the traditional dyeing method.the research employed the use of experimental resaerch method to reproduce slected adire designs that are digitally printed using studio method of producing fabrics.The study showed some digitally printed fabrics with adire designs, these designs were observed to be available on different textures which includes cotton, silk, and chiffon. The results show how to reproduce digitally printed fabrics with adire designs using adire eleko and adire alabere method of producing fabrics, designs reproduced using this method were different from the digitally produced ones which implied that it is easier to digitally reproduce fabrics with adire designs that are produced traditionally.The study revealed that imitating digitally printed fabrics with adire designs traditionally will only change the designs or means losing out on most of the details, the study also revealed the limitations encountered in the process of reproduction.
Keywords: Digital textile printing, adire, adire alabere, adire eleko,digital printing technology
ASSESSMENT OF THE STATE OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN LAFIA TOWN, NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA
YAKUBU AHMED UBANGARI, AND POLYCARP BENSON,
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Isa Mustapha Agwai I Polytechnic, Lafia Nasarawa State
The improper management of solid waste is one of the challenging environmental problems facing urban centres worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Little attention is given to waste management practices. This is why it is common to see heaps of waste in littering the streets, dumped indiscriminately in drainages, vacant plots and open spaces especially in the urban areas of the developing world. Despite the establishment of Nasarawa Urban Development Board as a waste management agency, the problem of solid waste management in Lafia town remains intractable. The study examined the current state of waste management being employed by Nasarawa Urban Development Board in Lafia town, Nasarawa state. The study population was contacted through stratified systematic sampling technique. Data for this ‘study were generated through questionnaires, in depth interviews, direct and personal observation. The data generated from the questionnaires were subjected to descriptive analysis using frequencies and percentages. The study revealed that majority (58.5%) of the respondents were not provided with waste collection facilities by Nasarawa Urban Development Board and so disposed their wastes indiscriminately. Majority (65.5%) of the respondents knew nothing about procurement of dustbins, dumpsites and the agency of government that is responsible for refuse/ waste management in, the study area. The agency responsible for waste management in the study area (NUDB) were faced with numerous challenges militating against effective and efficient performance. These challenges were lack of political will, paucity of fund or poor funding, shortage of man power, shortage of functional vehicles (trucks) etc. The study recommended that public awareness or education should be carried out by Nasarawa Urban Development Board in collaboration with the National Orientation Agency and the mass media on waste management issues. It also recommended that Nasarawa state government should support the Board financially among other needs to enable the Board perform her functions effectively and efficiently.
Keywords: State, Solid, Waste, Management, Pollution
SAFETY RULES AND REGULATIONS IN SOME INDUSTRIES AND VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL INSTITUTIONS IN NIGERIA: PREVENTIVE MEASURES AGAINST ACCIDENTS OCCURRENCE.
NICODEMUS STEPHEN GAYA
Department of Technical Education, Adamawa State College of Education, Hong – Nigeria.
Providing accomplished safety and suitable work environment is the most important obligation/responsibility of employers when they organize their units and delegate workers with different responsibilities. Workers also anticipate harmless and healthy environment which is their fundamental right. Generally, safety is of utmost importance and it is the responsibility of everyone. Unsafe work conditions have negative impact on employees’ performance and may lead to reduction in productivity and growth of the organization. Globally, industrial or workplace related accidents and mortalities are on rapid increase. In this regard, some countries have formulated regulations and recommended legislations which authorized hazardous industries to comply with all safety rules and regulations, possess protective gears and equipment, have prompt rescue and rehabilitation systems and safety and health section with competent workers to oversee the above parameters. This paper tends to critically examined the meaning of accidents, classification of accidents, some common types of workplace injuries incurred as a result of accidents, some common causes of workshop accidents, consequences of accidents, meaning of safety and some safety rules and regulations which are preventive measures against accident occurrence.
Keywords. Safety, Rules, Regulations, Preventive, Accidents
DELAY IN LAND TITLE REGISTRATION AND COMMERCIAL REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT IN UYO
*MBOSOWO EBONG EKPO, PhD; NSE AKPAN BASSEY; & *UDUAK OKON JEREMIAH
*Department of Estate Management, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot Osurua, Uyo. Akwa Ibom State. **Department of Estate Management, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State.
Registration of title and real estate investment decision play a vital role in the physical and economic development of towns and cities all over the world. The aim of the study is to examine the impact of delay in land registration of title on commercial property investments among investors in Uyo, with a view to formulating the models for predicting the relationship between land registration and real estate investment decision. In order to achieve the stated aim, the following objectives were stated: to analyse the impacts of delay in the registration of land title on real estate investment decision in the study area, to determine the relationship between real estate investment decision and land title registration. Out of the 106 registered Estate Surveyors and Valuers practicing in Akwa Ibom State, eighty-seven (87) was reported to have carried out appraisal in the study area. Each of the 87 firms surveyed had about six (6) appraised investments in their portfolios, making the total number of appraised investments under study to be 522; thus, the sample size for this study was 522. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the commercial properties for the data collection. It was found that the delay in the process of land title registration in the study area caused a total of 16% increase in construction cost, thereby bringing about 27.74% reduction in the developers’ profit when the sensitivity analysis was conducted. It was also found out that the rental value decreased by11% thereby bringing about 76.29% sensitivity indicator towards the net present value. Factor analysis was also employed in the analysis and results from the rotated component matrix showed that Factor_8, which asserted that there is strong relationship between delay in title registration of real estate and investment decision had the greatest loading factor. This implies that this research work is valid, from the inference drawn using a scientific tool. The research concluded that efforts should be put in place by the Government and other stakeholders to curb the delay in land title registration in Uyo.
Keywords: Commercial real estate, Land title, Registration, Real Estate Investment, Uyo.
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HOUSING CONDITIONS AND RENTAL VALUES OF RESIDENTIAL PROPERTIES WITHIN UNGUWA JABA AND SABON GARI KANO METROPOLIS
ABDULFATAI SALAWU OYEBODE; DAVID AYOCK ISHAYA; GIMBA SHUAIBU DANLADI; & ZAIDU MUSA ZAIDU
Department of Estate Management, College of Environmental Studies, Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic.Kazaure.Jigawa State.
This study examined the housing condit ionin Unguwa Jaba & Sabon Gari in Kano, Nigeria and the impacts of urbanization on environmental degeneration of urban built environment. The study attempt to compare the quality of residential properties within Sabon Gari and Ungwa Jaba area of Kano Metropolis. Where Microsoft word and Microsoft excel are used to organized the data and the data was analyze using table, bar chart, pie chart. The secondary data involved available census data, official documents and other relevant secondary data were obtained from existing literature, on books and journals. The study concluded that it is imperative to check and prevent further decay in Unguwan jaba and Sabon gari for good living and working environment.
Keywords: Housing Quality, Urbanization, Environmental degeneration, Residential Properties, Rental Values
TECHNIQUES OF IMPROVING COMMUNICATION IN URBAN PUBLIC PARTICIPATION THROUGH COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
1YAKUBU USMAN MOHAMMED; 2WAZIRI IBRAHIM HASSAN; & 1SIMON ELI
1Department of Urban and Regional Planning, School of Environmental Science Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State– Nigeria. 2Department of Environmental Science, School of Environmental Science Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State– Nigeria.
Communication especially interactive communication is a major goal of public involvement. This paper discusses the ways of Enhancing Urban Public Participation via Computer Technology. It specifically discusses such issues as the importance of the network in urban participatory planning, computer technologies used in urban public participation, interactive video displays and kiosks, computer presentations and simulations, mapping through geographic information systems (GIS), plan or text mark-up software and remote sensing applications. The study concludes that Public participation has been a central tenet of planning discourse for many years, with each generation trying to improve access and interactivity to hard-to-reach people. The study recommends among others that the use of social media cannot be over emphasized in facilitating public participation due to its ability to engender greater numbers of participants.
Keywords: Computer Technology, Urban public participation, ICT, interactive communication
CAUSES OF DELAYS IN NIGERIA ROAD CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS: A CASE STUDY OF LAGOS-IBADAN EXPRESSWAY
TORIOLA-COKER O L1*, OMOKUNGBE O1, AYODELE-OJA S2, YEKINI A1, ALAKIJA T3,
1School of Engineering, Yaba College of Technology, Yaba Lagos. 2. School of Environmental, Yaba College of Technology, Yaba Lagos.3. School of Science, Yaba College of Technology, Yaba Lagos.
One of the most important sectors in infrastructure development in Nigeria is road construction. However, several roads construction projects in Nigeria suffer from prolonged delays. This has a negative effect on the success of road construction projects and causes damage such as recurring problems in the road construction industry in terms of schedule, cost, quality, safety and the amenity of road users. To identify the causes of delays, a modified questionnaire was designed from the extant literature by looking at the causes of delays in road construction projects along Lagos-Ibadan Expressway in Nigeria and in consultation with engineering experts with more than 10 years of experience on road construction projects. The main objective of the study is to determine the main causes of these delays and to offer possible solutions. A total of 17 causes of delay were identified as important in Nigeria road construction project. Questionnaire respondents included 27 Contractors, 23 Consultants, 16 Quantity Surveyor, 8 Architects and 20 Others from the construction industry making it 94 in total. The survey results indicate that the five top factors causing road construction delays are: Clients’ Financial difficulties; Cash Flow during construction; Political Influence; Government regulations; and Inclement or Bad weather.
Keywords: Causes of Delay; Road Construction Projects; Experts; Lagos-Ibadan Expressway; Nigeria
ISSUES ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN IN NIGERIA AND ITS EFFECT
ANYANWU IGNATIUS; B. U OFOEGBU; K.O OPARAUGO; DIOKA MARVISE; ALLWELL ANABA; & UWAOMA BLESSING.
Department of Urban and Regional Planning Abia State Polytechnic Aba, Nigeria.
A ‘green’ building is a building that, in its design, construction or operation, reduces or eliminates negative impacts, and can create positive impacts, on our climate and natural environment. Green Building design is a concept developed to encourage sustainable development. A ‘green’ building is a building that, in its design, construction or operation, reduces or eliminates negative impacts, and can create positive impacts, on our climate and natural environment. Green buildings preserve precious natural resources and improve our quality of life. It brings transformation to design and construction in both developed and developing economy. The study is to bring to limelight green buildings and design, the Nigerian perspective, its benefit and the linkage of traditional architecture to green architecture. It also identify, examine and assess the effects of design and factors that are hindering green building developments in the Nigeria’s Built Environment. This analyses the nature of design and construction in Nigeria on the basis of green and sustainable practice through review of existing literature. The paper concludes that the concept of green building will affect the nature of architecture and design which depends on the choice of materials, the construction techniques, the calculated cost of construction and the climatic conditions in Nigeria. It posits that the developmental concept of green building in Nigeria will encourage sustainable development and environmental protection.
Keywords: Architecture, Building, Built Environment, Green buildings, Sustainable Building material, Traditional, sustainability.
THE MAN-ENVIRONMENT INTERFACE IN THE LAKE CHAD BASIN AND THE ISSUES FACING THE COUNTRIES
1JAMES JEFFERY WILLIAMS; 1KWADA TUMBA FREEMAN; AND 2IGNATIUS JOSEPH
1Department of Geography, Adamawa State College of Education Hong,2Department of Environmental Science, School of Environmental Science Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi Adamawa – Nigeria.
This study examines the Man-Environment Interface in the Lake Chad basin and the issues facing the countries concerned. The paper utilizes desk study to highlight human and environmental issues in the Chad Basin such as oil exploitation and climate change respectively, as well as their effects in the study area. In conclusion, the study opines that the countries of the Lake Chad Basin have been described as “weak States” characterised by weak political and economic stability, poor institutional capacity, limited information base and knowledge, incomplete development, narratives/strategies, limitation of national policy-making and implementation process etc, (Neiland et al 2005). The region will require international assistance to adapt to climate change and implement necessary mitigation measures. This, as it is suggested, should include assistance to undertake more detailed climate change research that would lead to a greater understanding of patterns of vulnerability in the system in order to develop and prioritise adaptation interventions in the Lake Chad Basin. Some of the recommendations made by the study are that Since there is high evapo-transpiration in the Lake Chad area which involves not only surface but ground water, methods such as injection of surface water from rivers, canals, lakes and reservoirs which will serve as a recovery for over-pumped aquifers should be introduced. Also since the local communities are the primary beneficiaries and victims of the unpredictable occurrences of Lake Chad, there is equally the need to integrate them in the management of the resources of the lake in terms of indulging in more conserving agricultural practices that causes other environmental problems.
Keywords: Lake Chad Basin, Oil Exploitation, Climate Change, Evapo-transpiration, Aquifers, Canals
ASSESSMENT OF COMMERCIAL CHARCOAL PRODUCTION RATE IN NASARAWA STATE
EKPO ABRAHAM SALAMATU; NASIRU UMAR; & ZAKARI ISMAIL ISMAIL
Faculty of Environmental Science, Nasarawa State University, Keffi.
Charcoal is one of the most utilized derivative of our natural woodlands, it has remained an important source of energy in both rural and urban communities globally. It is now an export commodity in Africa, with a large market in the Europe, USA and Asia. However, the rate of dependence on savannah woodlands for commercial charcoal production (CCP) has exposed the forests to degradation. This study assessed commercial charcoal production in Nasarawa State, Nigeria, with the specific aim of assessing the magnitude of the activity in other to establish its unsustainability. A descriptive-survey research design was used in the study based on the mixed approach of quantitative and qualitative data capturing and analysis. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were employed to select three Local Government Areas (LGAs) from which two main CCP communities were selected and sampled. A total of 450 commercial charcoal producers were sampled for the study. Ten key informants were also selected from relevant institutions and among community leaders. Data were acquired using questionnaire, interview, Focus Group Discussion, field observation and measurements. Descriptive s and geospatial techniques of data analysis were used. Results showed that Surrounding woodland is the main source of wood either directly or through a licenced operator. A large percentage of respondents are engaged in the charcoal business on daily basis, the other percentage are engaged weekly and monthly. This implies the rate and magnitude of commercial charcoal production. There is no policy specifically targeted at ensuring sustainable utilization of woodland for charcoal business and existing related policies were mostly end-users based. It was concluded that although commercial charcoal producers in the state were aware of the environmental consequences of their activities, they are motivated by the associated financial benefits. Thus it is recommended that emerging policies on commercial charcoal production should be geared towards improving alternative source of income, medical services and charcoal production efficiency to increase charcoal yield through introduction of new and innovative ways of producing charcoal more efficiently and cost effectively and the frequency of engagement should be regulated.
Keywords: Charcoal, Nasarawa, Sustainable, Magnitude, Production
ANALYSIS OF THE DRINKING WATER QUALITY AND ITS HEALTH IMPLICATION ON THE PEOPLE OF IDAH, KOGI STATE
DR JOY ANWULI JEGEDE
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, The Federal Polytechnic, Idah, Kogi State.
Water is very essential for man’s existence; it is the key to life hence ensuring a good water quality is a crucial issue. This study analyses the physicochemical components of drinking water in Idah and the attendant water-related diseases from its quality. The Principal Component Analysis and the Spearman’s Correlation were employed to determine the most vulnerable component in the type of drinking water consumed by the people and the correlation between sources of drinking water and the incidences of water-related diseases in Idah. The Ecological, Socio-demographic and Clinical data were required for this study. Water samples were collected from rivers, boreholes, wells, packaged water (table water) produced from the study area and used for analysis. These samples were collected twice for each of the seasons (rainy and dry). The result of the analysis showed a high correlation (r=0.91), (r=0.76) and (r=0.58) between the water-related diseases variables. Hence, there is a positive correlation between sources of drinking water in Idah and the incidences of water-related diseases. The component loading from the analysis revealed that dysentery and gastroenteritis are the two major diseases resulting from drinking water with a component loading of approximately one. The study recommends that adequate treatment should be given to the water before use by the people.
Keywords: Water Quality; Physicochemical Components; Water-related Diseases; Drinking Water