SUB-SAHARA AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT (SJECM)
VOL 22 (4) DECEMBER, 2021 ISSN: 2292-7733
Sub-Sahara African Academic Research Publications,
Centre for African Development Studies, University of Ibadan,
P. O. Box 10108, U. I. Post Office. Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria, West-Africa.
ANALYSIS OF SEVERITY AND MAGNITUDE OF GULLIES ON ARABLE LANDUSE IN LAFIA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA
ILIYASU M. ANZAKU1, ALIYU H. AWAISU2, SULAIMAN U.K3
1Department of Science, School of Continuing Education, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria. 2Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa. 3Department of Geography, Faculty of Social Sciences, Federal University, Lafia, Nasarawa State
The study investigates and examines the effects of gully erosion on arable land use in Lafia LGA, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. It is aimed at understanding the extent to which gully erosion affected agricultural land use in the study area. Data for the study were sourced from both primary and secondary sources. The primary data were through collection of soilsamples and field observation, while the secondary data were collected from consulting official documents, journals, past student projects, textbooks, dictionary, newspapers, encyclopedia, seminar papers and books which are most relevant to the study. Soil sample of each identified gully in the area were collected from a depth of 50 to 100m for particle size analysis. Measurement of Base with, total top width, depth, receded top width, length, slope and the volume of soil eroded in each of the identified gully in the study area were determined. The statistical techniques adopted for this work were descriptive statistics to test farmers perception on gully erosion and inferential statistics were adopted for particle-size analysis while spearman rank correlation coefficient were employed to get the inter relationship between the characteristics of the gullies in the area. The dominant grain-size is sand and clay in the area. The grain-size range also implies a high index of detachability. A total volume of 7032.92m soil were eroded from all the gullies in the study area. It appears that in order to retard or completely stop the process of gullies in the study area (and in similar environment), the cyclical process chain must be broken. The most appropriate point to intervene is the removal stage. Runoff reaching the gullies should be slowed down and reduced in volume through the creation of grass bands and other obstacles around the gullies. If this is not done, increased infiltration will do more harm than good in the type of structure in the area. Also, the gullies walls should be treated to produce gentler slope, especially in urban setting in the manner described in Olofin (1985). Man must also improve on his land management in the area.
Keywords: Severity, Magnitude, Gullies, Arables, Land use,
RESIDENTS’ PERCEPTION WITH COMPULSORY ACQUISITION EXERCISE IN BAUCHI METROPOLIS
SAADATU MUSA ALIYU; DR (MRS.) NNOEMA, IROAGANACHI VIOLET; & MOHAMMED ISHAQ MOHAMMED
Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, P.M.B 0248, Bauchi State, Nigeria
The aim of this study is to assess the residents’ perception with compulsory acquisition in Bauchi metropolis, Nigeria, with a view to proposing residents’ perception. The study adopted the use of quantitative approach and data were collected through questionnaire survey from 162 residents whose property were compulsorily acquired and purposively selected from target population in Bauchi metropolis. The data collected was subjected to descriptive with mean ranking. The study found out that the perception of the occupants or affected person with regard to actual valuation of the property prior to compensation, amount awarded as compensation, procedure/process adopted for compulsory land acquisition and compensation exercise, rate of compensation for economic trees, property/items to be compensations and revocation notices which were rank to be 1st to 6th with a mean of 3.78, 3.68, 3.65, 3.59, 3.01 and 2.68 respectively to be moderately adequate. Relocation notice was found to be least with a mean value of 2.65. The study concluded that actual valuation of the property prior to compensation, amount Awarded as compensation, procedure/process adopted for compulsory land acquisition and compensation exercise, rate of compensation for economic trees, property/items to be compensations, revocation notices and relocation notice to be moderately adequate. The government should also improve significantly in the transparency of standards involved in the process of land acquisition as this will ensure best practices that will enhance community’s satisfaction by proper enumeration of assets, assessment and determination of true value of economic trees.
Keys: Residents, perception, Compulsory acquisition, Compensation and Exercice
WASTE TO RESOUCE: A NEW PERSPECTIVE FOR ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILTY IN JIMETA, ADAMAWA STATE.
HAYATU, BELLO1; ISHAKU, H. T. (READER)2; & ABUBAKAR HAMMANTUKUR.3
1University of Maiduguri, Faculty of Environmental Studies. Department of Urban and Regional Planning. 2,3Modibbo Adama University Yola, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Department of Urban and Regional Planning.
Millions of people worldwide make a living collecting, sorting, recycling and selling materials that someone else has thrown away, there is a growing recognition that waste collection has contributed to the local economy and to environmental sustainability. There is evidence in the literature that suggests these activities have both economic and environmental benefits thereby contributing towards job creation and environmental sustainability. This research aimed to access the contributions of waste scavenging activities to economic development and to the environment in jimeta, which was achieved from analysis of the data collected on the field and from existing reports. Both primary and secondary data required in this research were collected through administration of questionnaire. The result revealed that waste pickers with their activities contribute greatly to environmental sustainability, minimize and divert waste that might end up in the bin. Despite their contributions, they are however affected by transportation problems, harassment and theft, general lack of physical infrastructure, injuries and exploitation by some middle men. To achieve the sustainable environment and economy where many unemployed will have something doing and be integrated into the economic system, this study identifies barriers that hinder the integration of the informal sector into an inclusive waste management system, as lack of supportive evidence, lack of cooperation between waste pickers and waste buyers and lots of middle men. The study therefore proposed the adoption of formal integration approach after evaluating the three integration approaches (case studies) through identifying and registration of waste pickers, conduct a need analysis workshop, procurement of proper protective clothing, identification of training need etc and recommended that There should be a shift toward recycling of recoverable materials to empower individuals economically, waste pickers and green entrepreneurial initiatives, Government needs to acknowledge and integrate the informal sector in its current format, rather than replacing them.
Keywords: Scavengers, Occupational, Challenges, Resources, Environmental, Sustainability,
CHANGE DETECTION ANALYSIS OF LAND-USE LAND COVER IN JALINGO LGA TARABA STATE, NIGERIA USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNIQUES
IBRAHIM MUHAMMAD MAGAJI; ABUBAKAR JAMAL; AHMED ABDULKADIR; AND YAKUBU ISA LERE1
Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi Nigeria
Regular monitoring of land use land cover changes is essential for proper land use planning. However, the land use land cover changes in Jalingo LGA have not been estimated in the area. This study analyzed Land use/Land cover (LULC) changes of Jalingo LGA for a period of 28 years (1991 to 2019). Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper multispectral images of the area for 1991, 2001, 2011, and 2019 were used. The supervised classification technique was used to determine the magnitude, rate and dynamics of change in land use within the study period with the help of ArcGIS 10.2. The results revealed the conversion of 7968.33Ha of bare land to built-up areas, a 34.997% reduction of the area covered by bare land and an increase of 23.095% for the built-up areas. The built-up areas increased by 23.095 %. The bare land was converted to residential and infrastructure use. Water bodies were also increased by 0.48% which translates to 110.16 Ha. Vegetation also increased by 11.417% which translates to 2599.65Ha. The research revealed that the land use conversion was accelerated by increase in population which ultimately increased the demand for housing and farming to support the population. This research recommends; there should be properly monitoring Agency to monitor urban planning and Higher resolution images should be used for future land use land cover mapping and analyzing changes, the employment of different software in the classification process in order to compare results and the accuracy of the classification and regularly Monitoring land use land cover changes for the purpose of planning for sustainable land development and use.
Keywords: Landsat, Thematic, Remote sensing, Satellite, Classifications, Dynamics, change, accuracy, vegetation and land use
AN INTEGRATED APPROACH OF GIS AND REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES TO GROUNDWATER EXPLORATION IN ZAMFARA STATE, NORTHWESTERN NIGERIA
1SHUAIBU A.M; 2GARBA M.L; AND 2ABUBAKAR I.Y
1Geology Department, Federal University Gusau, Zamfara State Nigeria. 2Geology Department, Ahmadu Bello University, Kaduna State Nigeria
This study is concerned with the delineation of aquiferous zones for groundwater development across Zamfara State Northwestern, Nigeria. The study employed the integration of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), remote sensing (RS) and geographical information system (GIS) techniques to delineate groundwater potential zones in crystalline basement terrain and sedimentary terrain of the study area and validation of the result with existing borehole/well yield data. The study approach involved integration of nine different thematic layers (geology, rainfall geomorphology, soil, drainage density, lineament density, land use, slope and drainage proximity) based on weights assignment and normalization with respect to the relative contribution of the different themes to groundwater occurrence using Saaty’s analytic hierarchy approach. Following the weigh normalization and ranking, the thematic maps were integrated using ArcGIS 10.0 software to generate the overall groundwater potential map for the study area. The result revealed that the study area can be categorized into four different groundwater potential zones: very high, high, moderate and low. Greater portion of the study area representing about 40 % of the total area, fall within the medium groundwater potential zone which are generally underlain by medium-porphyritic granite, biotite-hornblende granite and granite gneiss bedrock settings. About 15 % fall under moderate to high groundwater potential zone which are characterized by weathered/fractured quartzite, quartz-schist, amphibolite schist and phyllite bedrock settings. However, areas of low to moderate groundwater potentials constitute only 25% of the total study area and are mostly underlain by migmatite, banded and augen gneiss bedrock settings. Though where there is significant weathered/fractured density including favorable slope shows high to very high within basement rock units which only occur in few localities of the study area. The entire sedimentary terrain of Gundumi formation constitute about 20%, shows high to very high groundwater potentials. Nonetheless, area where it revealed low to moderate potential are zone of high slope and contact with the basement rock units. Subsequent validation with boreholes/well yield data revealed a good correlation with respect to the observed groundwater potential zonation. The validation clearly highlights the efficacy of the integrated MCDA, RS and GIS methods employed in this study as useful modern approach for proper groundwater resources evaluation; providing quick prospective guides for groundwater exploration and exploitation in both crystalline basement and sedimentary settings.
Keywords: Groundwater exploration, Remote sensing, geographical information system, Multi-criteria decision analysis, Zamfara State.
ASSESSMENT OF MARKET FACILITIES IN SOME SELCETED MARKETS IN BAUCHI METROPOLIS
AMINU SARATU GARBA, HARUNA AUWAL AND BOGORO AUDU GANI
Department of Urban and Regionalplanning, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi Nigeria.
This study is carried out to assess the adequacy and effectiveness of market facilities in some selected urban markets in Bauchi metropolis as a basis for tor making recommendation to improve the market condition. The study area comprises of Central Market, Muda Lawan Market and Wunti Market, population of the study consist of stakeholders from the three selected markets which are central (2,300), Muda Lawal (14,113) and Wunti market (1,780) with a total of 18,193. A sample size of 387 respondents was selected using systematic random sampling and purposive sampling techniques. Instruments used for data collection includes structured questionnaire, interview, observation and review of relevant documents and the data collected were analysed and presented using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The srudy found that majority of the respondent were males (87%) and 13% females between the ages of 18 – 49(79%) with minimum educational qualification of primary school and 72% have been in the market for over 10 years., the study also discovered that all the facilities required for an ideal market development base on standard and policy guidelines for markets and slaughter houses by Federal ministry of environment were provided in all the markets with the exception of firefighting/mitigation measures, health facilities/first aid and designated waste collection point. The study concluded by recommending that adequate market facilities should be provided and distributed strictly in line with the standard and policy guidelines for markets and slaughter houses by Federal ministry of environment
Keywords; Facilities, Market, Management, Availability, Effectiveness, Bauchi.
ANALYSIS OF WATER QUALITY ON SELECTED BOREHOLE IN RELATION TO DISTANCE BETWEEN SOAKAWAY AND BOREHOLE IN KARU L.G.A, NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA
A.O. SULEIMAN1, D. U. SANGARI2, A. T. OGAH3
Department of Geography, Faculty of Environmental Science, Nasarawa State University, Keffi
This work assess the Effect of Distances between soakaway and Borehole on Groundwater Quality in Karu LGA, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. The study used both primary and secondary data. Water is vital to the existence of all living organisms, but this valued resource is increasing being threatened as human populations grow and demand for more water of high quality for drinking purposes and economic activities increases. Water plays a significant role in maintaining the human health and welfare. Clean drinking water is now recognised as a fundamental right of human beings. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of distances between soakaway and borehole on groundwater quality in Mararaba, Karu Local Government Area of Nasarawa State. The specific objectives are: to investigate the bacteriological quality of the ground water sample obtained from boreholes within the study area, to investigate the physio-chemical l quality of the ground water sample obtained from boreholes within the study area. Environmental problems in Nigeria are varied and extremely serious. The case of Karu is no exception. The city suffers badly from a range of environmental threats, particularly waste and pollution, which are rapidly getting worse, as Karu is one of the fastest growing urban areas in Nasarawa State. The results obtained from this research work show that the degree of nearness of any groundwater source, to pollution source determines, to a large extent, the degree of pollution of that groundwater source. Based on the findings the following recommendations were made by the researcher: partners dealing with environmental management issues in Karu should work together each time projects that involve groundwater development and onsite wastewater treatment are to be implemented, the Ministry of water Resources and Nasarawa State Urban development board should consider provision of piped water and sewerage services to Karu in order to protect the community against waterborne diseases, officials of Karu LGA should work with the Geological agencies in identifying areas that are suitable to for boreholes on the same piece of land to avoid groundwater pollution. The ministry of water and Nasarawa state Urban development board should considered provision of piped water and sewerage services to Karu in order to protect the community against waterborne diseases.
Keywords: Analysis, Soakaway, water, Quality, Contamination.
HOUSING QUALITY IN GOVERNMENT, PPP AND PRIVATE PROPERTY DEVELOPERS IN FCT ABUJA
AISHA IBRAHIM BIKO; BALA ISHIYAKU; AND KALU JOSEPH UFERE
Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi
However, study on the three housing providers which is the public (government), private and public private partnership is lacking, hence this study. The aim of this study is to compare residential properties provided by government, private and public private partnership in FCT Abuja with a view to proffer ways to improve the housing quality and residents’ satisfaction and preferences in FCT Abuja. The study adopted a quantitative approach, where data was collected using questionnaires from 300 occupants of the three estates whom were randomly selected from the study area. The data collected was subjected to descriptive statistics with mean ranking to examine the degree of agreement of the various variables. The findings revealed that housing quality in Government, revealed that privacy, conditions of windows, floor quality and ceiling ranked highest while ventilation, drainage system, sewage disposal and waste management were the least ranked. The findings revealed that residents’ satisfaction in private housing developers, revealed that privacy, floor quality, conditions of windows and walls ranked highest while ventilation, toilets facilities, drainage system and sewage disposal where the least ranked. The findings revealed that residents’ preference in PPP, revealed that privacy, floor quality, conditions of windows and walls ranked highest while sewage disposal, ventilation, drainage system and waste management where the least ranked. ANOVA results further revealed that there exists no significance different between housing quality and resident’s preference in the study area, but there is significance difference in residence satisfaction between public and private housing estates at 0.06 and private and PPP at 0.011 which is below significance level of 0.05. It was recommended that there is an urgent need for the developers in both public and private sector to substantially improve the drainage system and waste management because its virtually the least must prefer service in all the three sampled estates.
Keywords: Housing quality, Property developers
ARCHITECTURE AND PANDEMICS; WHERE LIES THE NEXUS
BILKISU ABDULLAHI ABUBAKAR; & ABDULLAHI USMAN MUHAMMAD
Department of Architecture, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
The negative consequences of the global pandemic COVID-19 were recognized as the occasion for the initiative in the form od the online student workshop. Throughout history, the global society faced various crises, which had negative consequences for society, politics, and the economy. Some of these negative consequences are still to be felt even today. Global crises such as economic, climate change and global warming, poverty, terrorism, have a continuous and longer course of negative impacts, and their consequences are timely perceived. There are already globally established strategies for overcoming or mitigating them. However, the specificity of the current COVID-19 crisis is manifested in a much shorter time frame, which makes the consequences immediately visible. Therefore a rapid response regarding professional action is needed to reduce the risk of spreading the virus. On the other hand, such specific crises, which can often be unpredictable, show the lack of an adequate spatial-programming framework for the prevention and suppression of the pandemic spread, or mitigation of its consequences. In this sense, the practical and theoretical research of the appropriate responses during the emergency is one of the leading challenges in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. Creating new spatial and programming scenarios that will enable the daily activities to be carried out safely and effectively is a fundamental task of professionals in the field of architecture. This study imagines what the post pandemic-built environment looks like based on the lessons learned and the importance of designing a healthy and sustainable built environment. The architecture of post-pandemic housing will be an interdisciplinary collaboration between architect and specialists such as medical doctor, biologist, psychologist, engineers. Value: The paper highlights the importance of the need for an interdisciplinary approach in the design of housing, a new aspect catalysed by the pandemic with COVID-19.
Keywords: Design, Architecture, Pandemics, Housing, Nexus
SURVEY AND IDENTIFICATION OF MATERIALS, EQUIPMENT, PRODUCTION PROCESS, MOTIFS AND CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE OF AKWA-OCHA TRADITIONAL HAND-WOVEN FABRIC AMONG THE ANIOMA IGBO OF DELTA STATE, NIGERIA
*CALISTA ODUCHUKWU NWOSU; **DR PIUS A. NTAGU; & ***PROF. CLIFFORD E. NWANNA
*Department of Fine and Applied Arts, Federal Polytechnic, Oko **Department of Fine and Applied Arts, Imo state University, Owerri. ***Department of Fine and Applied Arts, Faculty of Environmental sciences, Nnamdi Azukaiwe University, Awka
The art of weaving among the Igbo of south-eastern Nigeria, is an age-long tradition and its origin dates back to pre-colonial times. Akwa-ocha, which is the type of traditional fabric produced by the Anioma Delta Igbo of Nigeria has been an ancient traditional weaving culture passed on from one generation to another. Traditional Akwa-ocha textiles have a central function concerning usability and the mentality of the Anioma people. The importance of this textile tradition to the lives of Anioma people cannot be overemphasized. Modern scientific and technological innovations remain constant threat to this age long tradition. This paper seeks to identify and document the weaving materials, techniques, motifs production process and cultural significance of this weaving tradition before its total extinction. Appropriate literature of empirical and conceptual nature were reviewed in line with the objective of this paper. Relevant primary data for the study were solicited from selected weavers from Anioma using interviews, photography and observation tools while secondary data were obtained from text books, journal and internet sources. The analysis of data were done qualitatively. Findings show that textile industry among the Anioma people had maintained its doggedness in preservation and practice of traditional weaving technique. It is hoped that the result of this study has unreserved capacity to promote and preserve the traditional weaving. The study recommends innovation of the weaving technique.
Keywords: Traditional weaving, Akwa-ocha, Motifs, textile, Anioma
EFFECT OF STANDBY LETTERS OF CREDIT AND PERFORMANCE BOND IN FACILITATING PAYMENT AND PROTECTING PAYMENT RISK IN INTERNATIONAL TRANSACTION AND CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS
MOHAMMED IDRIS; ZAINAB DAUDA YUSUF; & KHADIJAT NASIR
Department of Legal Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State
Bank’s stock in trade consequent upon which the adage ‘Banks Word is its Sword’ seems threatened by the unscrupulous beneficiaries of on demand bond in international transaction and or construction contract. This paper expounded the numerous effects of bond generally and or standby letters of credit and its threatening effects in international commercial transaction and construction contract due to an unfair/abusive call of an on demand bonds by the beneficiaries. The paper also expounded the United Kingdom’s and Germany’s modern trend in averting the anomalies usually encountered in bonds, guaranty and or standby letters of credit. The paper conclude by proffering solutions in protecting the contractor against the unscrupulous beneficiary’s unfair and abusive calls of an on demand bonds in order to enhance the efficacy and sanctity of bonds in commercial transaction generally.
Keywords: Standby Letters, Credit, Performance, Facilitating Payment, Construction Projects.
EXAMINING THE RELATIONSIHP BETWEEN HOUSING ACQUISITION AND SOCIO – ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF ACADEMIC STAFF OF FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC, BIDA, NIGER STATE, NIGERIA
*BEN CHINEDUM NWOKENKWO **FELIX IKE *** ETHEL ASINYA MENDIE
*Department of Estate Management, Federal Polytechnic, PMB 55 BIDA, Niger State. **Department of Geography and Planning, Abia State University, Uturu. ***Department of Estate Management, Cross-River University of Technology. Calabar.
Housing is a basic human right, enshrined by the United Nations. In Nigeria, housing acquisition is faced with lots of problems especially for civil servants. In view of its enormous cost, housing is considered an item with the highest level of expenditure of every household, which is hardly financed from one’s salary. Access to housing finance, therefore, becomes essential in the acquisition or development of housing and unfortunately, this has always been a major problem of academic staff. This paper investigates the relationship between socio-economic characteristics and acquisition of housing by academic staff of Federal Polytechnic, Bida. The Socio-economic data of the target population were collected and analyzed using chronbach’s Alpha and multi-nominal regression model. The result of this analysis revealed inherent consistency (Reliability Coefficient = 0.733) in the data collected.. The multi-nominal logistic model further revealed that the age of staff (P=0.992-low income, P=0.576-High Income) and other sources of income (P=0.878–low income, .0914–High Income) contributed to affordability of housing acquisition for both high and low incomes earners. The study recommends that management of the institution should encourage academic staff to invest their loans in housing acquisition.
Keywords: Academic staff, Housing, Socio-economic Characteristics, Income
EVALUATION OF HOUSING QUALITY IN DOWN QUARTERS, KADUNA METROPOLIS, KADUNA, NIGERIA
1BABA, EZEKIEL BAHAGO; & 2SULEIMAN NASIRU
1Urban and Regional Planning Department, Federal Capital Development Authority, Area 11 Garki, Abuja, Nigeria 2Department of Resettlement and Planning, Federal Capital Development Authority, Area 11 Garki, Abuja, Nigeria
The condition and type of building material used in housing is a direct determinants of housing quality which is the thrust of this study. The study aims at evaluating the housing condition and the building material used in the construction of the housing in Down Quarter as one of the determinants of housing quality in the area with the view of making recommendations for improvement. The study uses Likert scale with the significant levels of association of 0.05 to measure the coded attributes while Weighted value of the coded attributes was obtained by dividing Summation of Mean Weighted Value (∑MWV) by total number of material (y) surveyed in the study area which gave the overall conditions that represent the Housing Quality Index (HQI). At the end of the whole study, it was discovered that the overall infrastructure quality of housing in the study area was poor. This was revealed when the overall Housing Quality Index was discovered to be 1.87 of the summation of the Mean Weighted Value of 5.0 as revealed in the study indicating that most of the housing units in the area is made up of asbestos and zinc roof with broken and roasted signs, the wall is made of concrete wall with no plastering neither painted or a mud house plastered only, the floor of the house is made up of mud house floored with broken tied, a house with iron pad/steel windows or zinc/wooden framed windows, the doors is made up of ordinary iron and the ceiling is made up of Brazilian Ceiling. While the performance of the housing index of each of the housing elements indicates that only roofing and ceiling that have a fair quality with a house index of 2.23 and 2.40 of the overall 5.0 mean weighted coded value of the study. However, housing walls, floors, windows, doors, and ceilings have poor quality value of 1.65, 1.85, 1.54, and 1.53 respectively. This indicates that the buildings are made up of Asbestos and zinc roof with no broken and roasted signs, asbestos ceilings, the wall is made up of concrete wall with no plastering neither painted and mud house plastered only, the floor of the housing is muddy floored with broken tied, the window of the housing is made up of iron pad/steel and zinc/wooden framed windows and the doors is made up of ordinary iron doors. For these reasons, it was recommended that there should be urban renewal in the area to improve the living condition of the people, those affected by the urban renewal should be compensated either by provision of alternative and develop or monetary compensation for those that love to leave. There should also be employment of the idle employable population of the area, there should be scholarship for the qualified youth that want to go to school and there should be increase in the salaries of those working to improve their purchasing power in the market.
Keywords: Building Condition, Housing Quality
URBANIZATION AND URBAN GROUTH; PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS.
ANYANWU IGNATIUS; ALLWELL ANABA; DIOKA MARVIS; AND CHINWEKELE LILIAN U.
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Building, and Estate Management, Abia state Polytechnic, Aba.
The achievements of humanity in the modern age have provided unprecedented opportunities for human welfare and fulfillment, but they have also placed in the hands of humanity, instrument of universal destruction. When one takes a cursory look at Nigeria today, the sheer rapidity of urban growth remains one of the most astonishing and awesome aspects of the whole process of social change. This is evident in the increase and influx of populations in most of the cities of Nigeria. More important is the fact that the urban share of the total has increased greatly everywhere as urbanization has spread to all parts of the country. Although there are variations in the amount of urban growth occurring in Nigeria, nearly all cities have two things in common. First, the proportion of people living in cities is rising and second, the cities themselves are large and growing. The consequence of this is that most of the Nigeria people will soon be city dwellers. Nonetheless, urban population is increasing more rapidly in developing countries like Nigeria. The paper concludes that despite their obvious problems, cities continue to provide more opportunities for national development and therefore recommends that government should take responsibilities to address the challenges by showing serious commitment to overcome them and take advantage of the prospects inherent in urbanization and urban growth.
Keywords: Urbanization, Urban growth, challenges, prospects, population, national development.
ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY OF SANCRETE BLOCKS PRODUCED IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY ILORIN EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KWARA STATE
OLORUNFEMI K.O; YUSUF S.O.; AND SANNI ABUBAKAR
Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Technology, Kwara State Polytechnic, P.M.B 1375, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria
Over 90% of physical infrastructures in Nigeria are constructed using non load bearing sandcrete block due to its moderate compressive strength which makes it to withstand any tragedy such as seismic or vibrating activities, if produced based on the standard requirements. The quality of sandcrete blocks produced by block making industries in Ilorin East Local Government in which block samples were collected from 5 different block industries. Five samples each of size 450mm x 225mm x 225mm per factory were tested .laboratory tests such as Dimension tolerance test, Density test, Water Absorption rate test and Compressive strength test were conducted. Based on the result of the findings, majority of the block industry have their dimension tolerance test for the external and internal value not accurate, the density of the blocks varies which may be due to the level of compaction or vibration time during production; water absorption were found to be above the specified standard of 12% and the compressive strength does not comply with the required standard of 2.5 – 3.5 N/m3. It was recommended that quality control on the construction materials should be carried out before production and that regulatory body such as Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON) and Nigerian Industrial Standard (NIS) should deem it fit to make sure that every block industries comply strictly with the lay down regulations.
Keywords: Sandcrete block, Compressive strength, Water absorption, Cement.
EFFECTS OF HOUSING DYNAMICS ON MENTAL HEALTH OF URBAN DWELLRS IN MINNA, NIGER STATE
DANIYAN FATIMAH; AND DR MOHAMMED BALA BANKI
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, School of Environmental Technology, Minna
This study focused on the effects of housing dynamics on mental health of urban dwellers in Minna with a view to suggesting ways of enhancing harmonious relationship between housing and mental health of urban dwellers. The objective is to examine the effect of housing dynamics on mental health of urban dwellers in Minna The study employed quantitative approach using structured questionnaires. A total number of 243 questionnaires were administered, multi-stage sampling procedure was used to regroup Minna 36 main residential areas into 10 main residential wards, purposive sampling was used to select of three (3) main wards, one from each density group (High, medium and low density).Multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyse the effect of housing dynamics on mental health of the residents. The study found out that six housing attributes that contributes significantly to mental health and stress level of the residents include types of housing (0.030), house ownership status (0.012), number of rooms (0.040), access to water (0.021), toilet (0.039), and environmental quality (0.040). In conclusion, changes in the dynamics of housing type occupied, home ownership, number of rooms occupied by household, access to water, access to toilet facilities and types, and environmental quality of the residents affect the mental health status of the residents. The study recommends that stakeholders in the construction industry should devise ways of providing quality and affordable housing for the medium and lower class of the society, this will help reduce the mental stress suffered by residents.
Keywords: Housing type, Housing quality, Housing ownership, Housing environment and Living Space.
IMPACT OF ABUBAKAR TATARI ALI POLYTECHNIC ON RENTAL VALUE OF PROPERTIES LOCATED IN WUNTIN -DADA, BAUCHI
ILEKOIN OLUTOBA AYODELE1; HAMISU ABDULKADIRI NOMA2; & SALISU MAGAJI3
Estate Management Department, Federal Polytechnic,Bauchi 1,2,3
The siting of higher institution of learning in any community has some impacts on the locality where it is sited, the effects could be both positive and negative. The study examined the impact of the location of Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic on rental values of properties in Wuntin Dada , Bauchi .The data for the study was obtained from both the student affairs’s division of the Polytechnic Bauchi and the tenants that are living in Wunti Dada . 89 Questionnaires on rental value and accommodation types were administered to the tenants of the sampled residential properties in the study area. Out of the eighty nine (89) questionnaires distributed to the tenants, eighty (80) were dully filled and returned .Descriptive statistics such as frequency tables were used to analysis the features of the respondents while inferential statics such as correlation and linear regression analysis were used to analysis the relationship between the students population and Wunti – Dada property rental values. The result gives the p value of 0.07, this shows that there is strong significant between Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic student population and the rental value of Wunti Dada, Bauchi.
Keywords: rental value, students , polytechnic, Bauchi
COMPARISON ANALYSIS OF SPACE (AREA) OF SCHOOL LABORATORY BUILDING INFRASTRUCTURES IN BIRNIN KEBBI METROPOLIS USING GEOGRAPHY INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) APPROACH
EMENARI UDOCHUKWU S; UWAEZUOKE IFEANYI .C
Department of Surveying & Geoinformatics, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria
Space (Area) of School laboratory building infrastructure with standard equipment as well as allowable student population per laboratory/class is the back bone of any education system of any nation in term of science study. A standard was developed in Nigeria to checkmate the school laboratory building infrastructure to ensure optimal output and less accident in working environment. This standard is developed by Universal Basic Education Commission (UBEC) which provide the minimum specification that includes: maximum number of students (pupils) per laboratory/classroom as forty (40), Mandatory space (area) per pupil (student) including circulation as l.4m2 x 40 =56.0m, size of laboratory = 3.5m2x 40 = 140.0m2. The size of standard school laboratory building infrastructure is depended at number of students using the lab at a time. The aim of this research is Comparison analysis of spaces (areas) of school laboratory building infrastructure with regards to student’s population per laboratory/class as against the minimum standard of Universal Basic Education (UBEC) using GIS approach. Procedures adopted include physical visitation to school laboratories building infrastructure, obtaining their coordinates of the school concerned, measurement of length and width of school laboratory building infrastructure, determining the space (area) of laboratory building that meet up with UBEC standard, determining the population of students that meet up with UBEC standard and comparing of both the school laboratory building infrastructure space (area) with student population per laboratory that meet up with UBEC standard. The result obtained indicated that out of thirty eight schools visited; only eighteen passed the test on maximum student population per laboratory while only eight passed the minimum space (area) for laboratory building infrastructure according to UBEC standard. Again, schools that passed both criteria were compared and the result showed that only four (4) schools observed both UBEC minimum space (area) and maximum population of students per laboratory specification. Those schools include Kebbi Capital College Birnin Kebbi, Joda International School Birnin Kebbi, Basaura Institute of Comprehensive Education Birnin Kebbi and Brilliance College Birnin Kebbi. Recommendations were also given that schools should abide with UBEC specification, UBEC should have hammer to punish the schools which did not follow the specification as well as new schools should not be approved except checked by UBEC.
TRENDS IN RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY VALUES IN UYO REAL ESTATE MARKET, AKWA IBOM STATE. NIGERIA
*EKPO, MBOSOWO EBONG (PhD); & **BASSEY, NSE AKPAN
*Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot Osurua, Uyo. Akwa Ibom State. **Department of Estate Management, University of Uyo, Uyo. Akwa Ibom State.
The study aimed at examining the trends in the rental value, capital value and returns of residential properties from 2011 to 2020, in Uyo metropolis, Nigeria with a view to providing information for investment decision making. Questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data on rental and capital values from investments in residential properties in Uyo metropolis. The data were collected from Principal partners/branch managers of Estate Surveying and Valuation Firms in the study area. About 103 Estate Surveying and Valuation firms were sampled in Uyo with an average of 3,193 residential properties in their management portfolios (average of 31 residential properties in each management portfolio). A total enumeration of the 103 firms was conducted using structured questionnaire. However, only 89 questionnaires were completed and returned for analysis (representing about 86% response rate). Both descriptive statistics and appraisal techniques were used in analysis of the data obtained, hence the use of frequencies; percentages; income, capital and total returns formulae; weighted mean and trend analysis. The study found that there was a steady and continuous increase in both the rental and capital values of the selected property types throughout the period of the study. This was depicted by the trendline generated from data obtained from the field for 2-bedroom apartment rental values, 3-bedroom apartment rental values, capital values for 2-bedroom bungalows and capital values for 3-bedroom bungalows. The study also revealed that investment in 3-bedroom bungalows in Uyo is riskier (with a standard deviation value of 12%) than investment in 2-bedroom bungalows (with a standard deviation value of 2%). The income, capital and total returns values indicated positive returns values for both 2-bedroom and 3-bedroom residential properties throughout the study period. This study was necessary because of the dynamic nature of emerging property markets of developing nations such as Nigeria. Investors may wish to evaluate the trends of returns of commercial real estate investments in order to serve as a guide for investment decision making. This study is unique as it gathered historical data on commercial property investments and made future forecast or predictions of possible investment behaviour of returns values in an emerging property market, such as the case of Uyo, which could serve as a guide to property investors in making investment decisions.
Keywords: Emerging real estate market, investment, residential property values, returns, trends, Uyo.
ISSUES AND CHALLENGES OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE OF NASARAWA TOWN
ADAMU, EZEKIEL OGANA; & AJANI, USMAN YUSUF
Department of Estate Management, Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa
The management of the environment is now being considered an essential part of development, thus this research examined the issues and challenges of environmental management and sustainable development using Nasarawa as a case study. The sampled population for the study are the occupants of residential properties in Nasarawa town while data was collected through the administration of structured questionnaires and analysed using descriptive statistical tools and Weighted Mean Score. The study revealed research revealed that the major environmental issues include deforestation (4.7215); pollution (4.6076); mining Activities and mining Pits (4.3165); desertification (4.2785); illegal construction Activities (4.1899); hunting (4.1013) and proliferation of homelessness (4.0633) which were ranked 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th respectively. The study further revealed the challenges of environmental management and sustainable development in Nasarawa includes misappropriation of environmental management fund (4.3924); lack of commitment to enforcing environmental policies (4.3671); lack of Government interest /inadequacy (4.0759); lack of database (4.0127); economic considerations (3.9114); inadequate environmental management practices (3.8228) and lack of maintenance culture and facilities (3.6709) which were ranked 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th respectively. The research thus concludes that adequate mitigation measures, enforcement, and improved environmental management and sustainable development are considered necessary for achieving an environmental friendly atmosphere and sustainable development.
Keywords: Environment, Sustainability, Sustainable Development, Management, Environmental Management
ALKALINE ACTIVATED LOCUST BEANS WASTE ASH ALKALINE ACTIVATED METAKAOLIN AND ALKALINE ACTIVATED RICE HUSK ASH AS PARTIAL REPLACEMENT FOR CEMENT IN CONCRETE
ADEJOH BENJAMIN OCHOLA1, SHAKIR-DEEN ADESHINA AKINLOYE2, IBRAHIM SHUAIBU3
Department of Civil Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic
This study Activated Locust beans waste ash alkaline activated metakaolin and alkaline activated rice husk ash as partial replacement for cement in concrete has been investigated. The Activated Locust beans waste ash, activated rice husk ash and metakaolin was partially replace as cement by percentage of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% respectively. 60 number of grade 20 concrete cubes and 60 numbers of grade 25 concrete cubes were cast in laboratory and cured for 7, 14, 21, and 28 days respectively in accordance to BS1881: part 116: 1983. The study uses water/cement ratio of 0.55; with the hope that its usage would reduce accumulation of locust beans waste ash, rice husk wastes and metakaolin which is harmful to human health. The locust beans and rice husk was carbonized, sieved after carbonization using sieve size 150m and was activated in the chemical laboratory using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as the alkaline medium. However despite the observed loss in strengths of the concrete, it can still be used for various application requiring medium and low strength in accordance to concrete grade 5, a strength which is achieved with these replacement of locust beans waste ash activated rice husk ash and activated metakaolin in concrete: such as non-load bearing concrete wall, sidewalks, road barrier, concrete block, kerbs. The amount of concrete produce worldwide for this application could ensure the viability of this study.
Keywords: Cementious material, Compressive strength, Locust beans waste ash, Rice husk ash, Metakaolin, Pozzolana, filler,
AN ASSESMENT OF IMPLEMETATION OF LAND USE ACT IN THE RURAL AREA OF NORTHEASTERN NIGERIA
ZAKARIYYAH BOLAJI OLATUNDE AND MARUPH ADEYEMI BUSARI
Department of Estate Management, the Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe State.
The objectives and content of Land Use Act appears to be more suitable for urban than rural areas where there are negative effects. This study assesses the implementation of land Use Act in rural areas of the North-Eastern part of Nigeria where it case studied Ngamdu and Ngelzerma rural areas. The 43 year Act is still a recent innovation to many rural residents in Nigeria. For example, the act conflicts so much with the traditional land proprietary structure in Southern Nigeria where land was predominantly owned by communities. It introduced controversies and fear from most Nigerians than any previous Act. This survey research employed questionnaire and random sampling to collect data from One hundred and seventy five (I75) respondents. The data were analyzed using relative importance index on 4 Iikert scale to assess the degree of awareness and the effect of the land use act on rural land development. The findings show that (51%) residents in the study areas are unaware of the existence and operation of the Act; 63% respondents are of the opinion that the Act is not implemented in their area, let alone its provisions and application to rural land development. Acquisition of land is mostly by inheritance and purchase with few allocations while land is still being administered by village and family heads. This high ignorance of the Act has retarded development in our rural areas as well as the socio-economic conditions of the people. Considering the inadequate implementation of the Act on rural lands, the paper recommends that appropriate professionals (Estate surveyors and Valuers) should be engaged in local governments to create awareness and for adequate implementation o f the act. The sections of the act such as 5, 15 and 29 among others, should be reviewed for efficient implementation of the Act in rural areas in Nigeria to achieve the overall objectives of the Act.
Keywords: Assessment, Implementation, Land Use Act, Rural Area, North Eastern Nigeria
POST OCCUPANCY EVALUATION OF THE NEW LECTURE THEATRE AT HUSSAINI ADAMU FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC, KAZAURE
Department of Architectural Technology, College of Environmental Studies, Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, Kazaure Jigawa State
Building must be evaluated to find out if they are meeting the purposes for which they were built. This post occupancy evaluation research is carried out on the New Lecture Theatre at Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, Kazaure Jigawa State. To gauge the level of the occupants’ satisfaction with the facility, questionnaires were designed and administered to 112 respondents systematically selected. Using statistical tools, the data collected were analysed. The result of the finding shows that buildings must be designed to meet the cultural and religion needs of the end-users for optimal satisfaction and usage of such edifices.
Keywords: Lecture Theatre, Post occupancy Evaluation, Probe, Satisfaction, Walk through.