Int’l Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences (CJPAS) Vol. 23 (9)


CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCES (CJPAS)

VOL. 23 NO. 9 – DECEMBER, 2021 EDITION

Published by:

Cambridge Research and Publications International,

Africa (Nigeria): Centre for African Humanity and Development Circle

(CAHDC), University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

Email: cambridgenigeriapublications@gmail.com

Copyright © 2021 Cambridge Research and Publications International.


Papers:


COMPARISON BETWEEN MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION AND FEED FORWARD BACK PROPAGATION NEURAL NETWORK MODELS FOR PREDICTING EFFLUENT WATER QUALITY IN A TREATMENT PLANT SYSTEM

 

1*HOWARD, C.C., 2 ETUK, E. H. AND 3HOWARD, I. C.

1Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, University of Africa Toru-orua, Sagbama. Bayelsa State, Nigeria.  2Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University Port Harcourt, Nigeria. 3 Department of Chemistry/Biochemistry Federal Polytechnic, Nekede, Owerri. Imo State, Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT

In this study effluent water quality in a treatment plant system located at the Gulf of Guinea, Nigeria is presented. The time series data used were generated by a standard laboratory that actually carried out the field and laboratory analysis which involves weekly water quality data obtained directly from a flow station for the period of five years. Two major effluent water quality parameters; biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) are considered in this study. The result from multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis using stepwise forward selection method for BOD5 and COD showed that two parameters for BOD5 (COD and dissolved oxygen (DO) and one parameter for COD (BOD5) have significant impact. The main objective of this study is to compare the accuracy of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and  MLR models for prediction of effluent water quality. We have compared MLR with ANN of three layer feed- forward network with sigmoid function in the second and third layer using a resilient back propagation algorithm. The performance of MLR was found to be better than the ANN model for both BOD5 and COD predictions with least values of the statistical error measures viz. root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) used for the comparisons of the models prediction abilities.

Keywords: Prediction, ANN, MLR, effluent water quality

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DISCRIMINATION BETWEEN 2K AND 3K FACTORIAL DESIGNS USING OPTIMALITY BASED CRITERION

 

MURTALA MUHAMMAD SALIHU AND CHIGOZIE SYLVESTER NWAOSU

Department of Mathematics/Statistics/Computer Science, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

This research aimed at identifying the point k in  and  designs wherefor which optimality obtained using design optimality criteria. The codes used for factorial designs while  and  provided the elements of the design matrix for  factorial designs was used to obtain the design matrix. While, A- and D- optimality criteria for each of the  Designs model were utilized in the analysis with the aid of MATLAB version 7.5.0.345 (R2007) to determine  the optimal values and the efficiency of each model. From our results, it observed that the designs produced efficient estimates of the model parameters when A- and D- Optimality criteria are considered. Therefore, the  factorial designs are more efficient than designs for all values of  under consideration using design efficiency criteria. It recommended that for studies in factorial designs,  design is suitable in both A- and D- optimality criteria.

Keywords:  optimality criteria, efficiency criteria,

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NUMERICAL TREATMENT OF THE MODEL VALIDATION INDEX: COMPARISON OF NUMERICAL METHODS AND SELECTION OF BEST-FIT DATA 

 

J I GALADIMA1, E. N. EKAKA-A1, B. O. NWALA2

1Department of Mathematics, IBB University, Lapai, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. 1Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, Nkpolu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. 2Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rumuolumeni, Port Harcourt, Nigeria 

 

Abstract

In the scenario of the competition between two biological species, we have applied the method of a simulation analysis to study the impact of the initial condition variation on the concept of the model validation index which has not been previously studied. In this study, one has found the numerical method of the ODE 23 to have the value of 2.3547 when the initial condition boundary values are 0.45 and 0.55. In each group of the initial condition variation and its corresponding numerical method implementation, we have observed that the numerical method of the ODE 15s irrespective of the choice of the initial condition is a poor predictor of the model validation index. However, when the initial condition is (0.45, 0.55), the ODE 15s can be considered to be a relatively better predictor of the model validation index when compared with the scenarios of the initial condition data of (0.5, 0.6) and (0.55, 0.65). We would expect these contributions to provide a further insight in the prediction of some elements of biodiversity (loss or gain in the yields of yeast species). The full novel results that we have obtained which we have not seen elsewhere are presented and discussed. 

Keywords: Numerical, Treatment, Model Validation Index, Comparison, Numerical Methods.

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IMPLEMENTATION OF AN INTEGRATED VEHICLE SECURITY AND TRACKING SYSTEM: A REVIEW OF TECHNICAL LITERATURE 

 

C J GARBA, H. A. ABDULKAREEM, U. F. ABDU-AGUYE AND M.D. ALMUSTAPHA

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria

 

ABSTRACT             

One of the major problems confronted by our present society, particularly for security intervention, is the security of our vehicles. It is a great concern, especially in metropolitan cities where the issues of car theft or car snatching become very rampant. This research work, intends to modify the work of (Naji et al., 2020) and implement a universal vehicle security and tracking system in which vehicles are tracked and controlled using cellular networks. The system will be equipped with exceptional vehicle Passive Infra-Red (PIR) motion detector which detects and keep special account of the vehicle movement. In addition to this, a surveillance camera module that will keep track of the video clip or image of the theft is to be installed. A thumb print device is attached to the steering, which has a high degree of complexity of biometric modalities that has high accuracy during authentication.  The microcontroller is an aTmega328p mounted on an Arduino Uno module and programmed with AT interface commands to effectively communicate between the software and the hardware. The system enables the easy tracking of car by adopting wireless technology. To achieve this, development of a cost effective microcontroller vehicle security and tracking system and demobilize system will be modified and implemented.  The result of the research will be validated with the work of (Naji et al., 2020) using robustness and reliability as performance metrics. 

Keywords: Vehicle surveillance system; tracking system; fingerprint system; microcontroller; messaging; GSM.

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DETERMINATION OF SOME PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF SOIL SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM SOME LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS OF JIGAWA AND KANO STATES NIGERIA

 

NURA MUHAMMAD BELLO; KABIRU BASHIR AHMAD; & AMEH OHIGA EBUNE

Department of Chemistry, Federal University Lokoja, P.M.B. 1154, Kogi State, Niger

 

ABSTRACT

Soil fertility is the most important factor to be considered in determining the type of crop to be planted in a particular soil. Most important fertility determinants are soil minerals content (ammonium ions, total nitrogen content, total phosphorus and exchangeable bases), acidity and alkalinity of soil (soil PH), soil texture and soil type. Physicochemical parameters of soil samples were determined by volumetric method of analysis. The samples were collected from some local government areas of Jigawa and kano states of Nigeria.

Keywords: Soil fertility, mineral content, soil PH, physicochemical.

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COMPUTATION OF RAIN ATTENUATION FOR  NON-SPHERICAL RAINDROPS

 

T Y KOLADE-OJE, G. M ANTHONY

Department of Physics and electronics Adekunle Ajasin University Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

Falling raindrops undergo changes in shapes as they grow in sizes, raindrops with radius less than 0.25 mm are considered to be non- spherical. This non –spherical shapes has a significant effects on attenuation in the microwave band. This paper investigate this effects using the theoretical approach.  The properties of the raindrops were obtained using the aerodynamics equilibrium model. The extinction cross section of spherical and non-spherical were calculated using the Mie theory and T-matrix receptivity. The specific rain attenuation for spherical and non-spherical raindrops were computed at various frequencies in the microwave band and compared with the ITU-R838 model. It was observed that the non-spherical drops gives higher values and thus is best suitable for predicting rain attenuation

Keywords: Specific rain attenuation, non – spherical raindrops, Mie Theory, T-matrix , Extinction cross section

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EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER LEVELS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF EXTRA-EARLY MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) IN MUBI, NORTHERN GUINEA SAVANNA.

 

A U JARENGOL

Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi

 

Abstract

An experiment was conducted at the students’ Demonstration Farm of the Federal Polytechnic, Mubi during the 2021 cropping season to investigate the effect of different Nitrogen Fertilizer levels on the Performance of extra-early maize (Zea-mays L.). The experiment was laid out in a Randomize Complete Block Design (RCBD) and replicated three times, where 0,100,200 and 300 kg N/ha were used as the treatments. The source of Nitrogen fertilizer was Urea (46% N). The parameters observed during the plant growth and at harvest were; plant height, number of leaves, cob diameter, shoot dry matter, kernel depth and yield per plant. All the data collected were subjected to analysis of variance using SAS soft ware and means were separated using the least significant difference (LSD). The result showed that as the nitrogen fertilizer levels increases, the growth and yield parameters also increased. Application of 300 kg N/ha produced taller plants (118.912cm), highest number of leaves (11.372), larger cobs (4.951cm2) highest shoot dry matter (168.71g), larger seeds (0.701cm) and highest yield per plant (53.010g). Therefore, the research suggested for the use of 300 kg N/ha for production of high yield of extra-early maize in Mubi and its environs to the farmers and recommended for further research.

Keywords: Extra-early maize, Nitrogen Fertilizer, Mubi, levels, Guinea Savanna.

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EVALUATING AND COMPARING THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF COMPUTER SCIENCE GRADUATING STUDENTS BETWEEN 2016 – 2019

 

DR ADELEKE, I. A.

Computer Science Department, EACOED, Oyo

 

Abstract

This study aimed at evaluating and comparing the academic performance of computer science students in tertiary institutions in Nigeria using Ekiti State University, Oyo Campus as case study. The researcher adopted examination results as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive research survey design was used for the study with Chi square (X2) analysis. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using grade points, frequencies and bar chart. Findings revealed that Chi square Cal. value (54.74) is greater than the chi tab (21.03). The null hypothesis which states that there is no significant decrease in the academic performance of computer science 400level students between 2016 and 2019 is hereby rejected. Therefore, the alternative hypothesis which states that there is a significant decrease in the academic performance of computer science students in 2016 – 2019 is accepted. The result obtained revealed that students in 2016 academic session performed better than other years in terms of distinction attainment and decrease in low grades.The study showed that, poor and inadequate physical facilities, obsolete teaching style,moral decadence of the students such as cybercrime has greatly contributed to the students’ poor academic performance. It is therefore recommended that professional computer lecturers with many years working experiences should be employed to lecture, lecturers should be encouraged and motivated by paying their due promptly,  lecturers should be mandated to use internet and information communication technology (ICT) facilities and supervision of lecturers through Internal Quality Assurance (IQA) body to ensure effective discharge of duty.

Keywords: academic performance, computer science, students, lecturers, ICT and IQA

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THE IMPLICATION OF INCLUSIVE GROWTH IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ANGOLA AND NIGERIA

 

ANYANWU IGNATIUS UZOMA

Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Abia State Polytechnic Aba, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

Over the years, African economies have undergone considerable transformation, with consistent and robust growth, in sharp contrast to decades of slow or even negative growth, which characterized the 1970s into the 1990s. While the region’s economies slowed down from an average of 5.6% during the period 2002-2008 to  2.2% in  2009, in  the wake of  the global  financial crisis;  Africa promptly  recovered, with  an average growth rate of 4.6% in 2010 and 6.2% in 2012, as well as 4.0 and 4.3% for 2013 and 2014, respectively. In Sub-Saharan Africa, economic growth is even more robust, averaging about 6% over the past decade. This development has made the region to be acknowledged with the second highest economic growth in the world in recent times. However, contemporary economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa is largely unaccompanied by employment generation or increased livelihood opportunities. Consequently, poverty levels across the region remain relatively high, at 48% of  the  population.  The challenges posed by  lack  of  inclusive  growth  are particularly evident in Angola and Nigeria, countries that feature economies driven by the petroleum industry. Therefore, the major objective of this paper is to shed light on the challenges associated with lack of inclusive growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. The paper employs empirical data to analyze Angola and Nigeria case studies, which reveal both countries as resource-rich economies featuring relatively high economic profiles, devoid of widespread employment opportunities, with grave consequences for endemic poverty. Consequently, the paper presents a policy framework,  grounded in  poverty reduction  strategies, enterprise  development and  capacity building aimed at promoting broad-based economic growth as the cornerstone of African economies.

Keywords: Comparative Analysis, Implication, Inclusive growth, Sub-saharan Africa, Angola and Nigeria

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AN ASSESSMENT OF EFFECTS OF PACKAGING MATERIALS ON THE SHELF-LIFE AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF STORED CASSAVA FLOUR

 

ADEYOLANU, A.S.

Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering Department, The Oke Ogun Polytechnic, Saki, Nigeria

 

Abstract

For a very long-time ancient people consumed what they could gather from their natural surroundings without giving a thought for storing the food. As the nomadic culture of people has gradually changed to staying in sheltered areas, the need for containers to store food has also emerged. And ever since people realised the importance to store food for their next day’s consumption, food packaging and storage technology evolved in its crude form. Packaging material plays a significant role in determining the shelf life of a food product. This study assessed the effects of transparent nylon bag, transparent plastic bucket and jute sack as packaging materials on the shelf life and quality of cassava flour. The study was carried out in the Processing Laboratory of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering Department of The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki (TOPS), Oyo State. The indicators for the stored cassava flour quality for samples in the selected packaging materials are changes in weight and colouration, pest and insect infestation and growth of mould. These indicators were assessed on a two week intervals. From Two weeks after storage (2WAS) to eight weeks after storage (8WAS), there was a slight reduction in the weight of packaged and stored cassava flour in the same trend with the peak value got for cassava flour stored in transparent nylon bags and the least value for the ones stored in jute sacks. This could be due to the possibility of a relatively better aeration in the sack storage. Generally, the quality of the cassava flour in terms of colouration was not affected with the three selected packaging materials. it is recommended that packaging materials that allow a relatively better aeration should be used for storing cassava flour and some other flour from agricultural produce.

Keywords: Packaging, storage, shelf-life, proximate analysis, cassava flour.

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EFFECT OF CHEMICAL COMPONENTS ON THE TENSILE STRESS OF EMBEDDED MILD STEEL IN FRESHWATER, SEAWATER AND SEA SAND  

 

1OLORUNFEMI K.O, 2YUSUF S.O.; 3TAIWO O. AND 4ADEDOYE E.A

1&2 Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Technology, Kwara State Polytechnic, P.M.B 1375, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria 4Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Technology, Kwara State Polytechnic, P.M.B 1375, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria

 

Abstract

The effect of the chemical components of Ibedu Lekki seawater on the tensile stress of embedded mild steel in three selected environments; fresh water, seawater and sea sand was investigated. Water analysis test was carried out on sample of seawater collected from Ibedu Lekki, Lagos State and fresh water collected from tap water from kwara state polytechnic, Ilorin. Samples of 12mm diameter (varied) mild steel were cut into 0.288m-0.352m lengths, surface cleansed with emery cloth and immersed in the various environments. The samples were taken to with the laboratory for corrosion rate test and tensile strength test. Corrosion rate test was carried out at 2 days interval for 10 days while tensile strength test was repeated subsequently for 42 days at 7 days interval. The results reveals that chemical properties of seawater such as Temperature oC ,pH, magnesium Mg2+, chloride, Total Alkalinity, mg/L, Total dissolved solids, TSA, mg/L have their results greater than the permitted level which keeps the level of corrosion rate higher and faster. The corrosion rate and tensile strength test results shows that the loss of weight over time is more apparent in sea sand than in seawater and fresh water respectively. More also, the ultimate tensile strength reduces sharply with time in sea sand environment than seawater environment and fresh water environment being 377N/mm2, 439N/mm2 and 458N/mm2, respectively due to the corrosion effect of the chemical components which could be the major cause of structural failures in buildings located in saline areas. A proper measure should be put in place if mild steel must be used in seawater and underground environment that might contains traces of ions that can easily react to produce acidic medium.

Keyword:  Structural Steel, Seawater, Chemical Components, Corrosion, Environment.

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A REVIEW OF: THE ROLE OF POLYMER COMPOSITES IN THE FABRICATION OF ARTIFICIAL HUMAN ARMS.

 

*A.Y. ABDULAZEEZ, *B. HABIB **S.M. NASIR & ***M.M BUHARI

*Department of Textile Technology, College of Science and Technology, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna-Nigeria. **Department of Printing Technology Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna. ***Department of Polymer and Textile Engineering, ABU, Zaria.

 

ABSTRACT

Polymer composites have been found useful in the fabrication of artificial prostheses limb, most importantly in the field of medical science which cannot be over emphasize, especially in the manufacturing and production of artificial human arms such as amputed hand and legs. Polymer composite which are of various types of different degree of strength are being employed in the production of prosthesis limb which includes; polyethylene, polyester, vinyl ester, epoxy, poly imide, poly propylene, hydroxyapatite, and poly ethyl ether ketone, with their respective reinforce material[fibres] such as glass fibre, carbon fibre, and bone fibre. these provides devices that are strong and light weight than earlier limb made of iron and wood. The aim of this paper is to highlight the role of polymer composites in the fabrication of artificial human arm, with the use of Nano Composites as which would prevent the casino genic of some synthetic composite.

Keywords: Polymer Composites, Artificial human arms, Application and manufacturing.                                 

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BIOMASS RESOURCES AND BIOENERGY POTENTIALS IN NIGERIA: A REVIEW

 

ANYALEWECHI, CHINEDU LEWIS

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State, Nigeria].

 

Abstract

The need for clean and sustainable energy sources as alternatives to fossil fuels is a subject of research concern, with several studies in the literature. This is as a result of the dire environmental impacts posed by the use of fossil-based fuels, such as climate change due to greenhouse gases emissions, environmental degradation from oil spills, and air pollution from the release of particulates and toxic gases. Nigeria is a country with an abundance of biomass resources. These biomass resources can be converted into biofuels and bioenergy for the production of valuable chemicals and the generation of electricity. The latter will no doubt considerably help to improve the perennial electricity problems bedevilling the country. This paper highlights the various biomass resources in the country and their potential energy contributions.

Keywords: Biomass resources, bioenergy, biofuels, agricultural residues, Nigeria

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DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A PASSIVE SOLAR CROP DRYER

 

E.O. POPOOLA, C. AKENI

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe – Oghara, Delta State, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

A domestic passive solar crop dryer for agricultural applications and purposes has been successfully designed and constructed. The dryer is an integral or direct mode type made from locally available materials such as plywood, plane glass, aluminium sheets, hardwood, mild steel, paints, etc. the dimensions of the dryer is 0.7m × 0.5m × 0.7m / 0.5m (length × width × height). The maximum temperature of the dryer recorded was 820C and the corresponding ambient temperature was 300C. The dryer was used to dry agricultural products such as onions and okro. It took a maximum of six days to dry the onions and okro simultaneously. The average maintained moderate drying temperature was 65°C. The collector efficiency is 62% while the rate of heat flow into the drying chamber per unit area is 434.48 W/m2. The angle of tilt or slope β was 160. The designed and constructed solar crop dryer is appropriate for crops drying during the low temperature and high relative humidity periods of the year. This dryer has helped farmers to facilitate early harvest, permit planning of the harvest season, helped farmers to fetch better income by selling quality products, etc. The solar radiation passes through the glass covers to heat up the air flowing into the drying chamber via the vents provided on the base of the dryer. The area of the top glass cover was taken equal to that of the bottom of the dryer, and the heated flowing air passed through the crops placed in the two trays (upper and lower) in the drying chamber. The crops were heated so that their moisture contents removed through the chimney provided at the top of the dryer.

Keywords: dryer efficiency, relative humidity, rate of heat flow, dryer temperature, ambient temperature

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DENSITY CHARACTERIZATION OF ROCKS WITHIN HAWUL, BORNO STATE, NORTH-EAST NIGERIA.

 

SUNDAY DAVID NAJOJI1, MOHAMMED MOHAMMED YALWA2 AND ALIYU AHMED MALGWI2

1School of General & Remedial Studies, Department of Basic Science. Federal Polytechnic Damaturu. 2School of Science & Technology, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu.

 

Abstract

In this research work, the density of rocks within the Hawul area of Borno State was investigated. The high-density rock may be due to the presence of heavy metals and radioactive elements such as uranium which can affect the environment as well as plants and animals’ health. A total of twenty samples were collected from the hill (host rock) and from other locations in the vicinity of the host rock. The method employed for density measurement is the direct mass volume where ten samples from each site were investigated of different rock classification. The data obtained were processed using statistical data analysis and the result shows gabbro gabbro (mean ρ ̴ 2.320.72 g/cm3), basalt (mean ρ ̴ 2.410.29 g/cm3), sandstone (mean ρ ̴ 2.210.59 g/cm3), granite (mean ρ ̴ 2.270.61 g/cm3) and shale (mean ρ ̴ 2.500.36 g/cm3). These slightly vary as compared to the standard values for the types of rocks considered. Since the density of rocks vary significantly among different rock types because of differences in mineralogy and porosity, the knowledge of the distribution of underground rock density should be improved and encouraged to help in finding the subsurface geologic structure and rock type that would be essential for building and construction.

Keywords: rock, density, mass, volume, heterogeneity.

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DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSFORMER ISOLATION ON-LINE UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY

 

MOHAMMED ADAMU SULE1, DANIEL B. HALILU2, KABIRU ADAMU SAIDU3, ABUBAKAR ABDULKADIR4, ADAMU SHEHU5, SANUSI MOHAMMED6

1Department of Computer Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Kaltungo, Gombe State, Nigeria. 3Department of Electrical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Kaltungo, Gombe State, Nigeria. 4Department of Electrical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. 2,5,6Department of Electrical Engineering Technology, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria

 

Abstract

In this research, online uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system with high-frequency transformer isolation was designed and simulated using Matlab/Simulink with the aim of safety to customer and based on the specifications given taken into account based on the open loop operation. Results were obtained during the normal mode operation and energy stored mode operation. Analysis and discussion of the results shows the output voltage and output current with very low total harmonic distortion (THD) and zero distortion were significantly improved.

Index TermsUninterruptible power supplies, rectifiers, buck converters, Battery charger, inverters, rectifiers

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STUDY OF THE DEGREE OF TRANSPORT CONTROL PROTOCOL SELF-SIMILARITY ON A WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK

 

1ROMANUS I.O, 2MARIA DINGARI AND SUNDAY AYIGUN3

1 and 3 Department of Applied Physics, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State. 2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State.

 

Abstract

The magnitude of self-similarity on a wireless network determines the QoS available to the end users, it becomes very much necessary to have an insight into the network traffic self-similarity characteristics and its measurement. This research took a look at the degree of Transport Control Protocol (TCP) self-similarity on a wireless local area network and its measurement. A total of 1,204,215 TCP traffic volumes were captured, out of which 178,563, 176,127, 163,556, 225,594 231,728, and 228,647 traffic volumes were captured on 1th, 5th, 10th, 13th, 18th, and 21st of  February 2018 respectively. It was observed that the ACF takes longer range to decay in lag of (-200,000 to 200,000) on 13th, 18th and 21st February, 2018 with the rest having the lag of (-150,000 to 150,000). The research confirmed the presence of LRD traffic by applying autocorrelation test on the captured live traffic and it showed an autocorrelation function that decays hyperbolically. Four Hurst estimators were employed so as to complement each other’s shortfall. An average daily Hurst parameter of 0.748, depicting a persistent characteristics. The research recommends the use of neuro-fuzzy principles to x-ray the cause of self-similarity on a wireless network.

Keywords: Degree, Transport, Control Protocol, Self-Similarity, Wireless, Local Area Network

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EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES FOR UNLEASHING, MANAGING, PROTECTING AND PRESERVING SUB-SAHARA AFRICAN RESOURCES BY THE PHYSICALLY CHALLENGED WITH THE USE OF VIRTUAL BASED MONITORING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) DURING THE COVID-19 CHALLENGE

 

OJUOPE KEHINDE ISAAC; YUSUF HUSSAINI AMANA; & AMINA MUHAMMAD MUSA

Department of Computer Science, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic crisis of COVID-19 brought big challenge of enforcing lock – down to control the fast spread of the deadly disease. Several employees brought their job home with the use of virtual technology. Some sections of works such as managing, protecting and preserving of resources that cannot take home suffered much setback and great loss; this affects bringing sustainable development into reality most especially in Sub-Sahara African. This calls for the training of the resources explorers most especially the physically challenged on the use of Artificial Intelligence for managing, protecting and preserving these resources during COVID-19 corona pandemic challenges. As a result of this, this work focused on Effective Strategies for Effective Strategies for Unleashing, Managing, Protecting and Preserving Sub-Sahara African Resources by the Physically Challenged with the use of Virtual Based Monitoring Artificial Intelligence (AI) during the COVID-19 Challenge. From the report of World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank (2011), physically challenged persons carry a significant proportion of the world’s population, about 15%. As a result of differences in access to exploration of resources to the normal individuals, they are rarely seen as contributor to productive human capital development of the Society. Most of the physically Challenged persons have little or no access to the resources that drive the economy. Training these people on the use of AI to discover and explore resources in Sub – Sahara African will enhance their ability to contribute to the realisation of the sustainable development goals.

Keywords: Physically Challenged, Unleashing, Managing, Protecting, Preserving, Sub-Sahara African, Resources, Virtual Reality, Artificial Intelligence, COVID-19 Lock Down, Sustainable Development

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EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BUTTER FROM SHEA NUT

 

1MUDI K.Y, 2.MUDI A.T AND 3.JIBRIN W.

1,3. Department of Chemical Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic. Kaduna. 2. Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna.

 

Abstract

This paper is aimed at the extraction and characterization of shea butter from shea nut. The oil was extracted by solvent extraction method using hexane as the solvent. Statistical analysis using ANOVA was used to test the significance of the extraction process parameters such as temperature, time and particle size on the yield of the oil. The results showed that an optimum extraction temperature (74.3 oC), time (74.23 min) and particle size (0.29 mm) gave an optimum yield of 49.575%. The extracted oil was characterized by testing the physiochemical properties and the results revealed tha density (0.938 g/cm3), specific gravity (0.94), melting point (33 oC), refractive index (1.48), iodine value (43.5 mg/kg), saponificatioin value (191.4 mgKOH/g), peroxide value (8.88 meq/kg), acid value (4.91mgKOH/g), pH (6.61), viscosity (81.97 cst) and free fatty acid (2.45%). These results compared favourably well with the acceptable standards for commercial oil. Furthermore, the compositions of the produced oil were verified using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The percentage compositions of the major fatty acid from GC-MS were benzoic acid (0.25%), ethyl oleate (8.40%), oleic acid (13.54%), stearic acid (11.92%), palmitic acid (20.36%), octadecanoic acid (11.38%), hexadecanoic acid (6.90%), 1,3-decaprin (5.18%), α-amyrin (4.71%), and vitamin E (4.05%). The results of both the physiochemical properties and GC-MS analysis revealed that the oil produced can be utilized commercially.

Keywords: Process, Extraction, Characterization, Butter, Shea Nut,

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ANALYSES OF INTRUSION DETECTION AND PREVENTION SYSTEM TOWARD ENHANCING CYBERSPACE SECURITY

 

*SHITU ABDULLAHI LAME, *FATIMA ABUBAKAR MAIKUDI, * ALHAJI ADAMU ABDULLAHI AND **YAKUBU MOHAMMED.

*Department of Computer Science, AD Rufa’I College of Education, Legal & General Studies, Misau. Bauchi State. **Ministry of Social Welfare and Human Development, Bauchi. Bauchi State.

 

Abstract

In this study the analyses of intrusion detection and prevention system toward enhancing cyberspace security, public are now capable doing things which were not imaginable few years ago. Information security has become a legitimate concern for both organizations and computer users due to the growing confidence with computers and electronic transactions. The study identify some methodologies thus; Anomaly-based and Stateful Protocol Analysis which will be discussed.

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EFFECTS OF INDISCRIMINATE SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL IN LAFIA METROPOLIS, NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA

 

U A UBANGARI1, A. T. OGAH2, ALKALI MOH’D3

1,&2  Department of Geography, Faculty of Environmental Science, Nasarawa State University, Keffi  3Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Nasarawa  State University, Keffi

 

Abstract

The improper management of solid waste is one of the challenging environmental problems facing urban centres worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Little attention is given to waste management practices. This is why it is common to see heaps of waste in littering the streets, dumped indiscriminately in drainages, vacant plots and open spaces especially in the urban areas of the developing world. Despite the establishment of Nasarawa Urban Development Board as a waste management agency, the problem of solid waste management in Lafia town remains intractable. The study examined the current state of waste management being employed by Nasarawa Urban Development Board in Lafia town, Nasarawa state. The study population was contacted through stratified systematic sampling technique. Data for this ‘study were generated through questionnaires, in depth interviews, direct and personal observation. The data generated from the questionnaires were subjected to descriptive analysis using frequencies and percentages. The study revealed that majority (58.5%) of the respondents were not provided with waste collection facilities by Nasarawa Urban Development Board and so disposed their wastes indiscriminately. Majority (65.5%) of the respondents knew nothing about procurement of dustbins, dumpsites and the agency of government that is responsible for refuse/ waste management in, the study area. The agency responsible for waste management in the study area (NUDB) were faced with numerous challenges militating against effective and efficient performance. These challenges were lack of political will, paucity of fund or poor funding, shortage of man power, shortage of functional vehicles (trucks) etc. The study recommended that public awareness or education should be carried out by Nasarawa Urban Development Board in collaboration with the National Orientation Agency and the mass media on waste management issues. It also recommended that Nasarawa state government should support the Board financially among other needs to enable the Board perform her functions effectively and efficiently.

Keywords: Indiscriminate, Waste, management, Solid, Disposal, 

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CLOUD COMPUTING IN THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: ARCHITECTURE, CHALLENGES, SECURITY, BENEFITS AND PROSPECT.

 

AHMED M. ALIYU1; ADAMU GARBA MUBI2; & YAYIRUS GARBA ULEA3

1ICT Unit Federal Polytechnic Mubi. 2,3Computer Science Department Federal polytechnic mubi

 

Abstract

Cloud computing comes into focus only when you think about what it always needs: a way to increase capacity or add capabilities on the fly without investing in new infrastructure, training new personnel, or licensing new software. Cloud computing encompasses any subscription-based or pay-per-use service that is in real time over the internet which extends its existing capabilities. In this paper, the general benefits of cloud computing are discussed. Then the challenges in general perspective and the challenges in Nigeria. The way forward  to the challenges  of  cloud computing in Nigeria and the recomendations were finally discussed.

Keywords: Cloud computing, challenges, security, Infrastructure-as-a-Service, Platform-as-a-Service, Software-as-a-Service

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